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Professor Marjorie Perlman Lorch

Professor of Neurolinguistics
BA (Washington, St. Louis), PhD (Boston)

Departmental Ethics Officer; Departmental Research Officer; Chair of the ALC Exam Sub-Boards

Department of Applied Linguistics and Communication
Birkbeck, University of London
26 Russell Square,
London
WC1B 5DQ
email: m.lorch@bbk.ac.uk

Research and Teaching

Research Interests

  • Marjorie Lorch's main research interest is in understanding how language is organized in the brain through the investigation of neurogenic language and communication disorders, with a specific interest in cross-linguistic comparisons and bilingual speakers.
  • In addition, she carries out theoretical work in neurolinguistics from a historical perspective focusing on the 19th-century history of ideas about language and communication.

Postgraduate Supervision

  • Marjorie Lorch supervises PhD students on a range topics focussing on aphasia, specific language impairment and other communication disorders including multilingual and cross-linguistics perspectives, in addition to historical research into 19th-century ideas about language organization in the brain, language development and language learning.
  • Applications for PhD research are welcome in a broad range of neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic topics as well as the intellectual history of the field.
  • If you are considering applying for MPhil/PhD research in any of these areas, you are advised to contact Marjorie and/or the departmental research director about your research plan before making an application.
  • PhD awards
    • Isabelle Barrière-- The acquisition of verb argument structure and the French clitic SE. 2004.
    • Paula Hellal-- Acquired childhood aphasia in the 19th century: investigating the archived cases at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children. 2005.
    • Donia Fahim-- Predominant language impairment in Arabic-speaking children. 2005.
    • Alan Bradley-- Lexical acquisition in a bilingual setting. 2010.
    • Heather McDowell – L2 reading acquisition by learners with distinct L1 orthography. 2011.
    • Jui Hua Chen -- Taiwanese bilingual aphasia. 2011.
    • Keith Atkin-- Acquisition of language in children with severe sensory motor handicap. 2013.
    • Ariadni Loutrari—The role of the right temporal lobe in processing contours in music and speech. 2016.
  • Current Students
    • Emina Tuzovic-- Processing of Vowels in L1 Arabic Readers of L2 English. Current.
    • Krystle Jalalian— Bilingual Autistic children’s social use of language. Current.
    • Frank Breheny—Language learning and teaching in Victorian England. Current.
    • Julia Benson - Aspects of Social Communication in Teenagers with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Current.

Teaching

  • Teaching on Undergraduate courses include: Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics and Investigating Language.
  • Teaching on Postgraduate courses include: Research Methods and Design, Introduction to Applied Linguistics, Psycholinguistics and Neurolinguistics.

Honours and Awards

Recent invited lectures include

  • “Victorian Psycholinguistics: Thomas Prendergast’s (1807?-1886) Approach to Language Learning.” Sarah Cutts Frerichs Lectureship in Victorian Studies for 2014-15. Brown University, Providence, USA. February 25, 2015.
  • Laterality of Language Function: Reconsidering the Barlow Case of 1877. Emory University, Atlanta USA February 1, 2012.
  • John Hughlings Jackson on Aphasia. A century after John Hughlings Jackson: A historical symposium on the centennial of his death. Royal Society of Medicine. London October, 2011.
  • Becoming a speaker of more than one language in infancy. Supporting Multilingual and Multicultural Children. ESRC Festival of Social Sciences. London, October 31 2011.
  • "Commemorating the 3rd Epoch of Aphasia Research." Opening Keynote Address, Academy of Aphasia, Athens October 2010.
  • "Why study the history of aphasiology" Presidential Address, International Society for the History of the Neurosciences, Paris June 2010.
  • Podcasted international workshop organized by Prof. Sander Gilman: Rethinking Children / Childhood in the 21st Century - The New and Old Science of Childhood/Children, Birkbeck Institute of Humanties, London February 5, 2010
  • "Looking Back to Go Forward: Considering the History of Aphasia." Programme Committee Invited Workshop, American Speech Language and Hearing Association (ASHA) New Orleans, USA November 2009.
  • Plenary lecture "Darwin and the birth of child language acquisition research in Britain" (with Paula Hellal) at the Henry Sweet Society for the History of Linguistic Ideas, Oxford September 2009.
  • "Thomas Willis on music and the brain" The Mansell Bequest Symposium on the Neurology of Music. The Medical Society of London, May 2008.
  • "Contested Wills: the medico-legal aspects of acquired language disorders in Victorian England," University of California in Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA, February 2008.
  • The Keynote Address "Neurolinguistic issues regarding Second Language Acquisition" British Aphasiology Society Edinburgh, Scotland September 2007.
  • "Localizaton of Bilingual Language in the Brain: 19th and 20th Century Perspectives." Washington University, St. Louis, USA. April 2006.
  • "Wernicke and Geschwind: Association and disconnection" Wernicke and Alzheimer Memorial, Polish Society for Psychogeratrics, Wroclaw, Poland, December, 2005.

Research roles

Publications

  • Articles
  • Loutrari, Ariadni and Lorch, Marjorie (2017) Preserved appreciation of aesthetic elements of speech and music prosody in an amusic individual: A holistic approach. Brain and Cognition 115 , pp. 1-11. ISSN 0278-2626.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Whurr, R. (2016) Morell Mackenzie’s contribution to the description of spasmodic dysphonia. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology 125 (12), pp. 976-981. ISSN 0003-4894.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Whurr, R. (2016) Tracing Spasmodic Dysphonia: the source of Ludwig Traube’s priority. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 125 (8), pp. 672-676. ISSN 0003-4894.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2016) A late 19th-Century British perspective on modern foreign language learning, teaching, and reform: the legacy of Prendergast’s “Mastery System”. Historiographia Linguistica 43 (1-2), pp. 175-208. ISSN 0302-5160.
  • Whurr, R. and Lorch, Marjorie (2016) Review of differential diagnosis and management of spasmodic dysphonia. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery 24 (3), pp. 203-207. ISSN 1068-9508.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Hellal, Paula (2016) The Victorian question of the relation between language and thought. Publications of the English Goethe Society 85 (2-3), pp. 110-124. ISSN 0959-3683.
  • Atkin, K. and Lorch, Marjorie (2016) An ecological method for the sampling of nonverbal signalling behaviours of young children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD).Developmental Neurorehabilitation 19 (4), pp. 211-225. ISSN 1751-8423.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2016) The third man: Robert Dunn’s (1799-1877) contribution to aphasia research in mid 19th century England. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 25 (2), pp. 188-203. ISSN 0964-704X.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2013) Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment. Brain 136 (8), pp. 2629-2637. ISSN 0006-8950.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2013) Written language production disorders: historical and recent perspectives. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 13 (8), ISSN 1528-4042.
  • Johnson, J.K. and Lorch, Marjorie and Nicolas, S. and Grazino, A. (2013) Jean-Martin Charcot’s role in the 19th century study of music aphasia. Brain 136 (5), pp. 1662-1670. ISSN 0006-8950.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Hellal, Paula (2012) The 'idioglossia' cases of the 1890s and the clinical investigation and treatment of developmental language impairment. Cortex 48 (8), pp. 1052-1060. ISSN 0010-9452.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2011) Re-examining Paul Broca’s initial presentation of M. Leborgne: understanding the impetus for brain and language research. Cortex 47 (10), pp. 1228-1235. ISSN 0010-9452.
  • Hellal, Paula and Lorch, Marjorie (2010) Darwin’s contribution to the study of child development and language acquisition. Language & History 53 (1), pp. 1-14. ISSN 1759-7536.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2010) Commemorating the 3rd epoch of Aphasia research: 50 years since the founding of the Academy of Aphasia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 6 , 10 - 11. ISSN 1877-0428.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Hellal, Paula (2010) Darwin's “Natural Science of Babies”. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 19 (2), pp. 140-157. ISSN 0964-704X.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2009) Multiple languages, memory, and regression: an examination of Ribot's Law. Aphasiology 23 (5), pp. 643-654. ISSN 0268-7038.
    Lorch, Marjorie and Li, Wei (2009) Research in applied linguistics at Birkbeck, university of London. Language Teaching 42 (2), pp. 265-269. ISSN 0261-4448.
  • McDowell, H.J. and Lorch, Marjorie (2008) Phonemic awareness in Chinese L1 readers of English: not simply an effect of orthography. TESOL Quarterly 42 (3), pp. 495-513. ISSN 0039-8322.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2008) The merest logomachy: the 1868 Norwich discussion of aphasia by Hughlings Jackson and Broca. Brain 131 (6), 1658 -1670. ISSN 0006-8950.
  • Hellal, Paula and Lorch, Marjorie (2007) The validity of Barlow's 1877 case of acquired childhood aphasia: case notes versus published reports. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 16 (4), pp. 378-394. ISSN 0964-704X.
    Atkin, K. and Lorch, Marjorie (2007) Language development in a 3-year-old boy with Prader- Willi syndrome. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 21 (4), pp. 261-276. ISSN 0269-9206.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2007) Bilingualism and memory: early 19th Century ideas about the significance of Polyglot Aphasia. Cortex 43 (5), 658 - 666. ISSN 0010-9452.
    Lorch, Marjorie (2007) History of memory. Cortex 43 (5), 577 - 578. ISSN 0010-9452.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2006) Phrenology and methodology, or "playing tennis with the net down". Aphasiology 20 (9-11), pp. 1059-1071. ISSN 0268-7038.
    Atkin, K. and Lorch, Marjorie (2006) Hyperlexia in a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Neurolinguistics 19 (4), pp. 253-269. ISSN 0911-6044.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2006) Language and memory disorder in the case of Jonathan Swift: considerations on retrospective diagnosis. Brain 129 (11), pp. 3127-3137. ISSN 0006-8950.
  • Hellal, Paula and Lorch, Marjorie (2005) Charles West: a 19th century perspective on acquired childhood aphasia. Journal of Neurolinguistics 18 (4), pp. 345-360. ISSN 0911-6044.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2005) Papers on the history of neurolinguistics: introduction to the special issue, Journal of Neurolinguistics. Journal of Neurolinguistics 18 (4), p. 299. ISSN 0911-6044.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2004) The unknown source of John Hughlings Jackson's early interest in aphasia and epilepsy. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology 17 (3), pp. 124-132. ISSN 1543-3633.
    Barrière, I. and Lorch, Marjorie (2004) Premature thoughts on writing disorders. Neurocase 10 (2), pp. 91-108. ISSN 1355-4794.
  • Hellal, Paula and Lorch, Marjorie (2003) Acquired childhood aphasia: British contributions to the 19th century debate. Brain and Language 87 (1), pp. 122-123. ISSN 0093-934X.
  • Pitres, A. and Barrière, I. and Lorch, Marjorie (2003) Considerations on agraphia in light of a new observation of pure motor agraphia; Translation by I. Barrière and M. Lorch from French of A. Pitres (1884) Considérations sur l’agraphie. Revue de Médicine, 855–873. Brain and Language 85 (2), pp. 262-270. ISSN 0093-934X.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Barrière, I. (2003) The history of written language disorders: reexamining Pitres’ case (1884) of pure agraphia. Brain and Language 85 (2), pp. 271-279. ISSN 0093-934X.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Whurr, R. (2003) Cross-linguistic study of vocal pathology: perceptual features of spasmodic dysphonia in French-speaking subjects. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders 1 (1), pp. 35-52. ISSN 1476-9670.
    Whurr, R. and Lorch, Marjorie (2002) Perceptual aspects of spasmodic dysphonia across different languages. Stem-, Spraak- en Taalpathologie 11 (1), pp. 22-29. ISSN 0924-7025.
  • Barrière, I. and Lorch, Marjorie and le Normand, M.T. (1999) On the overgeneralization of the intransitive/transitive alternation in children's speech: a cross-linguistic account with new evidence from French. International Journal of Bilingualism 3 (4), pp. 351-362. ISSN 1367-0069.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Ferner, R.E. and Golding, J. and Whurr, R. (1999) The nature of speech and language impairment in adults with neurofibromatosis. Journal of Neurolinguistics 12 (3-4), pp. 157-165. ISSN 0911-6044.
  • Whurr, R. and Bhatia, K.P. and Marsarei, A. and Lorch, Marjorie and Kingsley, D. and Pramstaller, P.P. and Srinivasan, A. and Marsden, C.D. (1999) The incidence and nature of dysphagia following botulinum toxin injections for torticollis. Journal of Medical Speech - Language Pathology 7 (3), pp. 195-207. ISSN 1065-1438.
  • Whurr, R. and Nye, C. and Lorch, Marjorie (1998) Meta-analysis of Botulinum toxin treatment of Spasmodic Dysphonia: a review of 22 studies. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 33 (S1), pp. 327-329. ISSN 1368-2822.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Borod, J.C. and Koff, E. (1998) The role of emotion in the linguistic and pragmatic aspects of aphasic performance. Journal of Neurolinguistics 11 (1-2), pp. 103-118. ISSN 0911-6044.
  • Whurr, R. and Lorch, Marjorie and Lindsay, M. and Brookes, G.B. and Marsden, C.D. and Jahanshahi, M. (1998) Psychological function in spasmodic dysphonia before and after treatment with Botulinum Toxin. Journal of Medical Speech - Language Pathology 6 (2), pp. 81-92. ISSN 1065-1438.
  • Nye, C. and Lorch, Marjorie and Whurr, R. (1997) The utility of meta-analysis in the determination of efficacy of treatment in aphasia: a reply to Robey (1994). Brain and Language 57 (2), pp. 280-282. ISSN 0093-934X.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Meara, P. (1995) Can people discriminate languages they don't know? Language Sciences 17 (1), pp. 65-71. ISSN 0388-0001.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (1995) Language and praxis in written production: a rehabilitation paradigm. Aphasiology 9 (3), pp. 280-282. ISSN 0268-7038.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (1995) Laterality and rehabilitation: differences in left and right hand productions in aphasic agraphic hemiplegics. Aphasiology 9 (3), pp. 257-271. ISSN 0268-7038.
  • Whurr, R. and Lorch, Marjorie and Fontana, H. and Brookes, G.B. and Lees, A.J. and Marsden, C.D. (1993) The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 56 (5), pp. 526-530. ISSN 0022-3050.
  • Lees, A.J. and Turjanski, N. and Rivest, J. and Whurr, R. and Lorch, Marjorie and Brookes, G.B. (1992) Treatment of cervical dystonia hand spasms and laryngeal dystonia with botulinum toxin. Journal of Neurology 239 (1), pp. 1-4. ISSN 0340-5354.
  • Whurr, R. and Lorch, Marjorie and Nye, C. (1992) A meta-analysis of studies carried out between 1946 and 1988 concerned with the efficacy of speech and language therapy treatment for aphasic patients. European Journal of Disorders of Communication 27 (1), pp. 1-17. ISSN 0963-7273.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Whurr, R. (1991) Hemiplegic writing with the use of a prosthesis in an Aphasic Agraphic patient. Grazer Linguistische Studien 35 , pp. 171-179. ISSN 1015-0498.
    Whurr, R. and Lorch, Marjorie (1991) The use of a prosthesis to facilitate writing in aphasia and right hemiplegia. Aphasiology 5 (4-5), pp. 411-418. ISSN 0268-7038.
  • Kohn, S.E. and Lorch, Marjorie and Pearson, D.M. (1989) Verb finding in Aphasia. Cortex 25 (1), pp. 57-69. ISSN 0010-9452.
    Lorch, Marjorie and Meara, P. (1989) How people listen to languages they don't know. Language Sciences 11 (4), pp. 343-353. ISSN 0388-0001.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (1989) The true nature of the linguistic trigger. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (2), p. 350. ISSN 0140-525X.
  • Borod, J.C. and Koff, E. and Lorch, Marjorie and Nicholas, M. and Welkowitz, J. (1988) Emotional and non-emotional facial behaviour in patients with unilateral brain damage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 51 (6), pp. 826-832. ISSN 0022-3050.
  • Borod, J.C. and Lorch, Marjorie and Koff, E. and Nicholas, M. (1987) Effect of emotional context on bucco-facial apraxia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 9 (2), pp. 155-161. ISSN 0168-8634.
  • Barod, J.C. and Koff, E. and Lorch, Marjorie and Nicholas, M. (1986) The expression and perception of facial emotion in brain-damaged patients. Neuropsychologia 24 (2), pp. 169-180. ISSN 00283932.
  • Borod, J.C. and Koff, E. and Lorch, Marjorie and Nicholas, M. (1985) Channels of emotional expression in patients with unilateral brain damage. Archives of Neurology 42 (4), pp. 345-348. ISSN 0003-9942.
  • Swift, A.B. and Lorch, Marjorie (1985) A non-invasive index of hemispheric activity during cognitive tasks. Perceptual and Motor Skills 60 (2), pp. 515-524. ISSN 0031-5125.
  • Friedman, R.B. and Lorch, Marjorie (1982) On the underlying causes of semantic paralexias in a patient with deep dyslexia. Neuropsychologia 20 (5), pp. 559-568. ISSN 0028-3932.
  • Book Sections
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2017) Investigating the biographical sources of Thomas Prendergast’s (1807-1886) innovation in language learning. In: McLelland, N. and Smith, R. (eds.) The History of Language Learning and Teaching II 19th-20th Century Europe. Oxford, UK: Legenda. ISBN 9781910887103. (In Press)
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Greenblatt, S. (2015) Singing by speechless (Aphasic) children: Victorian medical observations. In: Altenmuller, E.O. and Finger, S. and Boller, F. (eds.) Music, Neurology, and Neuroscience: Historical Connections and Perspectives. Progress In Brain Research. New York, U.S.: Elsevier. ISBN 9780444633996.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2013) Language and the brain. In: Li, Wei (ed.) Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 69-88. ISBN 9781405193580.
  • Li, Wei and McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa and Lorch, Marjorie (2013) Literacy and multimodality. In: Li, Wei (ed.) Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 130-148. ISBN 9781405193580.
  • Hellal, Paula and Lorch, Marjorie (2012) The modern beginnings of research into developmental language disorders. In: Marshall, C. (ed.) Current Issues in Developmental Disorders.Current Issues in Developmental Psychology. New York, U.S.: Psychology Press, pp. 173-192. ISBN 9781848720848.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2012) Speaking for yourself: the medico-legal aspects of aphasia in nineteenth-century Britain. In: Jacyna, L.S. and Casper, S.T. (eds.) The Neurological Patient in History.Rochester, UK: University of Rochester Press, pp. 63-80. ISBN 9781580464123.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2010) "Fools at musick": Thomas Willis (1621-1675) on congenital amusia. In: Rose, F.C. (ed.) Neurology of Music. London, UK: Imperial College Press, pp. 151-171. ISBN 9781848162686.
  • Hellal, Paula and Lorch, Marjorie (2009) The emergence of the age variable in 19th-century neurology: considerations of recovery patterns in acquired childhood aphasia. In: Aminoff, M.J.and Boller, F. and Swaab, D.F. (eds.) History of Neurology. Handbook of Clinical Neurology 95. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 843-850. ISBN 9780444520159.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2009) Neurolinguistics and the non-monolingual brain. In: Li, Wei and Cook, V. (eds.) Linguistics for the Real World. Contemporary Applied Linguistics 2. London, UK: Continuum Press, pp. 184-201. ISBN 9780826496812.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (2007) Explorations of the brain, mind and medicine in the writings of Jonathan Swift. In: Finger, S. and Smith, C.U.M and Whitaker, H. (eds.) Brain, Mind and Medicine: Essays in Eighteenth-Century Neuroscience. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, pp. 345-352. ISBN 9780387709666.
  • Barrière, I. and Lorch, Marjorie (2006) On the acquisition of ambiguous Valency-marking morphemes: insights from the acquisition of French SE. In: Torrens, V. and Escobar, L. (eds.) The Acquisition of Syntax in Romance Languages. Language Acquisition and Language Disorders 41. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins, pp. 23-49. ISBN 9789027253019.
  • Lorch, Marjorie and Barrière, I. (2002) Pitres’s two remarkable cases: Pure agraphia (1884) and Polyglot aphasia (1895). In: Fabbro, F. (ed.) Advances in the neurolinguistics of bilingualism: essays in honor of Michel Paradis. Udine, Italy: Forum Press, pp. 193-205. ISBN 8884200741.
  • Barrière, I. and Lorch, Marjorie and le Normand, M.T. (2001) La cliticisation en SE dans le langage de l’enfant: surgénéralisation des affixations et des omissions. In: Muller, C. (ed.)Clitiques et Cliticisation: Actes du Colloque de Bordeaux. Paris, France: Honore Champion, pp. 251-265. ISBN 9782745304537.
  • Barrière, I. and Lorch, Marjorie and Le Normand, M.T. (2000) Argument structure alternation in French children's speech. In: Perkins, M. and Howard, S. (eds.) New Directions in Language Development and Disorder. Springer, pp. 139-148. ISBN 9781461541578.
  • Whurr, R. and Lorch, Marjorie (1999) Acquired disorders of language (aphasia): evaluation of effectiveness of intervention. In: Fabbro, F. and Asher, R.E. (eds.) The Concise Encyclopedia of Language Pathology. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 384-392. ISBN 9780080431512.
    Lorch, Marjorie (1996) Laterality and written language production: writing with the right hand in an aphasic agraphic hemiplegic patient. In: Powell, T.W. (ed.) Pathologies of Speech and Language: Contributions of Clinical Phonetics & Linguistics. New Orleans, U.S.: International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association, pp. 297-304.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (1995) Disorders of writing and spelling. In: Kirshner, H.S. (ed.) Handbook of neurological speech and language disorders. Neurological disease and therapy 33. New York, U.S.: Dekker. ISBN 9780824792824.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (1995) Some neurolinguistic evidence regarding variation in interlanguage use: the status of the ‘switch mechanism’. In: Eubank, L. and Selinker, L. and Sharwood Smith, M. (eds.) The Current State of Interlanguage: Studies in Honor of William E. Rutherford. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins, pp. 255-263. ISBN 9789027221520.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (1990) Cross-linguistic study of the agrammatic impairment in verb inflection: Icelandic, Hindi, and Finnish Cases. In: Nespoulos, J.-L. and Villiard, P. (eds.) Morphology, Phonology, and Aphasia. Springer Series in Neuropsychology. Berlin, Germany: Springer, pp. 156-184. ISBN 9781461389712.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (1989) Agrammatism and paragrammatism. In: Code, C. (ed.) The Characteristics of Aphasia. London, UK: Taylor and Francis, pp. 75-88. ISBN 9780850664706.
  • Borod, J. and Koff, E. and Lorch, Marjorie and Nicholas, M. (1986) Deficits in facial expression and movement as a function of brain damage. In: Nespoulous, J.L. and Perron, P. and Lecours, A.R. (eds.) The Biological Foundations of Gesture: Motor and Semiotic Aspects. Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, pp. 271-294. ISBN 9780898596458.
  • Lorch, Marjorie (1986) Effect of emotional context on bucco-facial apraxia. In: Nespoulous, J.L. and Perron, P. and Lecours, A.R. (eds.) The Biological Foundations of Gestures: Motor and Semiotic Aspects. Neuropsychology and neurolinguistics. New Jersey, U.S.: L. Erlbaum Associates, pp. 271-294. ISBN 9780898596458.