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Professor Penelope Gardner-Chloros

MA (Oxon), MA (Birkbeck), PhD (Strasbourg), GDHA (Courtauld), MA History of Art (Warwick)

Contact details

Department of Applied Linguistics and Communication
Birkbeck, University of London
26 Russell Square,
London
WC1B 5DQ
email: p.gardner-chloros@bbk.ac.uk or p.gardner-chloros@gmail.com

Research and Teaching

Research interests

  • Code-switching is considered by many to be the most common form of multilingual communication, and is of interest from the grammatical, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic perspective. Research on CS is the subject of a large and growing literature. My interest in this subject goes back to 1981-88, when I carried out a study of code-switching between French and the Alsatian dialect (Language Selection and Switching in Strasbourg, OUP 1991). My 2009 book Code-switching (CUP) discusses CS from all these different perspectives; it shows how they are inter-related and argues that work in this field should be more inter-disciplinary. I am currently writing A Very Short Introduction to Bilingualism for Oxford University Press.
  • I have a particular interest in methodological issues and in finding the right types of question to approach different problems. In respect of code-switching for example, I have questioned the appropriacy of some grammatical approaches (Gardner-Chloros and Edwards 2004). I have also argued that CS should be analysed in a comparative context (Gardner-Chloros 2007b), and should be seen in a wider context than the purely linguistic, as a more general semiotic device (Gardner-Chloros 2010b).
  • Another of my interests is in pronouns of address (tu/vous systems), also in a comparative framework, drawing for example on the historical development of address terms in England and France. I have argued that nowadays the choices involved are less a matter of externally imposed social rules than an expression of the speaker's own identity.
  • I have published papers on several aspects of bilingual communities, including indigenous and immigrant minorities (see book chapters, 2007a and 2007c and 2020 in press), and have a long-standing interest in minority languages in Europe, notably Alsace. I wrote an updated description of the linguistic situation in Strasbourg and the fate of the dialect (see the IJSL paper Language in Strasbourg 30 years on).
  • I have increasingly pursued an interdisciplinary line of research on bilingualism, code-switching, hybridity and cultural change, applied to various areas such as literature and art. A paper entitled On the Impact of Sociolinguistic Change in Literature: the last trilingual writers in Alsace appeared in the Modern Languages Review (Autumn 2013). A conference on 'Code-switching in Literature' was organised at Birkbeck in July 2013. I have also written on the notion of CS in material culture (see Art and Code-switching, in Sociolinguistic Studies, 2010b). A Special Issue of the International Journal of Bilingualism on Multilingualism and the Arts also discusses such themes.
  • My current research is on the life of a particular multilingual and multicultural artist, El Greco. As well as changing countries, cultures and styles several times, El Greco wrote extensive multilingual annotations in several books in his possession, making him a suitable subject for comparing visual and linguistic hybridity. For this project I have a Visiting Fellowship at Wolfson College Oxford.

Completed and current PhD students

  • Bilingualism; sociolinguistics; sociolinguistics of French and modern Greek; code-switching in language and in material culture; language contact; tu/vous terms of address; comparisons between linguistics and history of art.
  • If you are considering applying for MPhil/PhD research in any of these areas, you are advised to contact Professor Gardner-Chloros about your research plan before making an application.
  • PhD Supervision: Completed
  • - Dr. R. Sneddon: Language and Literacy in the Multilingual Family (2000)
  • - Dr. K. Fujimura-Wilson: A Sociolinguistic Study of Japanese Conversation; Analysis of three Conversational Features (2005)
  • - Dr. K. Finnis: Language Use and Socio-Pragmatic Meaning: Code-switching amongst British-born Greek-Cypriots in London (2009)
  • - Dr. M. Paraskeva: Code-switching among London Greek Cypriots: a Study of Question-Response Pairs (2012)
  • - Dorota Gaskins: Bilingual Language Acquisition by a Polish-English Child
  • - Brian Ramadiro: Code-Switching in a South African rural school and community
  • PhD Supervision: Current
  • - Virginia Grover: Code-Switching, Categorization and Identity in Gujarat . a Systemic Perspective
  • - Emma Walters: Investigating Loan-words in Hindi – The Path of Semantic Shift
  • - Agnes Marchessou: Living on the borders – The crossing of regional and immigrant identity boundaries in a superdiverse speech community of Alsace
  • Please note that Professor Gardner-Chloros no longer accepts PhD students

Inaugural Lecture

  • You can watch Professor Penelope Gardner-Chloros' inaugural lecture on Speaking in Stereo: New Research in Bilingualism here.

Current research projects

A Colourful Life: El Greco between Cultures and Style

  • For some years I have been interested in the intersection between language, culture and art (see the following publications: (2014) Bilinguality and Bimodality: Comparing linguistic and visual acculturation in artists’ letters and their works. International Journal of Bilingualism vol. 18 no. 2 175-197. (Special Issue, Multilingualism and the Arts); (2010) Art and Code-switching. In P. Gardner-Chloros (ed.), Special Issue, Sociolinguistic Studies, vol. 4/3, December. Second strings & linguistic connections: bilingual and bilinguistic explorations, 635-664.)
  • In 2019-20 I have a Visiting Fellowship at the Oxford Centre for Life-Writing (OCLW) to carry out research on the life of a bilingual, bicultural artist, El Greco. Moving countries is nothing unusual for artists – whether for reasons of patronage like Rubens, or for inspiration like van Gogh, but El Greco is remarkable for the extreme stylistic transitions which resulted from these moves. Starting as an icon-painter in Crete, he became a Renaissance master in Italy, and then achieved fame as an idiosyncratic Mannerist in Spain. In my research I try to understand the interaction between the changes he experienced in cultural, linguistic and religious environments and the development of his particular brand of creativity.

Multicultural London English and Multicultural Paris French

  • This sociolinguistic project benefited from an ESRC/ANR bilateral scheme and ran from 2010-2014. Professor Jenny Cheshire of QMUL was Co-investigator, Professor F.Gadet was the French partner, and Dr Maria Secova was the Research Assistant. Its purpose was to compare language change in contemporary London English with those occurring in Paris French. It paid particular attention to the influence on the main languages, English and French, of varieties spoken by major communities of immigrant origin, including Afro-Caribbeans in the UK and French Caribbeans and Maghrebians in France.
  • Data obtained in two previous ESRC funded projects in London were used as a basis for a similar data-collecting exercise in Paris, having regard for the very different distribution of ethnic communities in the two cities. Recordings of speakers in Paris, in areas with a heavy concentration of migrant populations, were collected. New linguistic features were analysed at a variety of linguistic levels to determine their relationship with ethnic-derived varieties and with more traditional sites of linguistic change, such as non-standard - but widely diffused or levelled - varieties of English on the one hand, and français populaire on the other. These linguistic features were correlated with a number of sociolinguistic variables including age, gender, ethnicity, network pattern and discourse type.
  • The analysis enabled a comparison of language change in the two settings. We also drew out more general conclusions about processes of language change in large metropolises, based on contrasting circumstances in London and Paris. We paid particular attention to the educational and policy-related context in each country. This project constitutes the first large-scale comparison of two significant Western European settings from a sociolinguistic perspective, and contributes to our understanding of sociolinguistic processes of language change as well as social questions to do with migration, integration and their educational consequences.
  • The results of the ESRC Project Multicultural London English/ Multicultural Paris French can be found at:
  • http://www.mle-mpf.bbk.ac.uk/Outcomes.html

Publications

Books

  • (in preparation) Bilingualism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • (2009) Code-switching. Cambridge: CUP.
  • (1991) Language Selection and Switching in Strasbourg. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Edited Volumes

  • (2018) Jenny Cheshire & Penelope Gardner-Chloros (eds.) Special Issue, Journal of French Language Studies (JFLS):  Language Innovation and Change in Paris. 28 (2), 235-263. doi: 10.1017/S0959269518000078.
  • (2015) Penelope Gardner-Chloros and Daniel Weston (Eds.),Special Issue, Language and Literature, Code-switching in Literature.
  • (2013) Special Issue, International Journal of Bilingualism, Multilingualism and the Arts. 1367006912458390, first published on September 12, 2012 as doi:10.1177/1367006912458390
  • (2010) Special Issue, Sociolinguistic Studies, Second strings & linguistic connections: bilingual and bilinguistic explorations, vol. 4/3, December.
  • (2000) Special Issue, International Journal of Bilingualism, 278 pp. The LIDES Coding Manual: a Document for Preparing and Analysing Language Interaction Data. Co-edited with Melissa Moyer and Mark Sebba.
  • (1997) Vernacular Literacy: a Re-evaluation. Co-edited with A.Tabouret-Keller, R.B.Le Page, and G.Varro. Oxford: OUP.

Publications Since 2000 in Peer-Reviewed Journals

  • (2020) Code-switching, Script-shifting and Identity in Social Media: Syrian refugees on Facebook (with Lisa McEntee-Atalianis and Mohammed Ateek). Submitted to Language in Society.
  • (2018) “Il parle normal, il parle comme nous”: Self-reported usage and attitudes in a banlieue (with Maria Secova and Frederique Atangana). In Jenny Cheshire & Penelope Gardner-Chloros (eds.) Special Issue, Journal of French Language Studies (JFLS):  Language Innovation and Change in Paris. 28 (2), 235-263. doi: 10.1017/S0959269518000078.
  • (2018) Grammatical change in Paris French: In-situ question words in embedded contexts (with Maria Secova). In Jenny Cheshire & Penelope Gardner-Chloros (eds.) Special Issue, Journal of French Language Studies (JFLS):  Language Innovation and Change in Paris. 28(2), 181-207. doi: 10.1017/S0959269518000091.
  • Introduction: Multicultural youth vernaculars in Paris and urban France (with Jenny Cheshire). Journal of French Language Studies. 28 (2), 161-164. doi: 10.1017/S0959269518000082.
  • (2016) Migrants and Language(s) (with N.Gogonas and L.McEntee-Atalianis) Education et Sociétés Plurilingues. ISSN1127-266X, 95-103.
  • (2014) Bilinguality and bimodality: Comparing linguistic and visual acculturation in artists’ letters and their works International Journal of Bilingualism vol. 18 no. 2 175-197. (Special Issue, Multilingualism and the Arts).
  • (2013) On the Impact of Sociolinguistic Change in Literature: the last trilingual writers in Alsace. Modern Languages Review, October, vol. 108, Part 4, 1086-1102.
  • (2013) On the Impact of Sociolinguistic Change in Literature: the last trilingual writers in Alsace. Modern Languages Review, Autumn Issue.
  • (2013) Language in Alsace, 30 Years On. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Singles Issue, no.224, 143-177.
  • (2013) Code-switching and Pausing: An Interdisciplinary Study (with L.McEntee-Atalianis and M.Paraskeva). Journal of Multilingualism, Vol.10, 1, 1-26. Code-switching and pausing: an interdisciplinary study.
  • (2011) Multicultural London English (MLE) / Multicultural Paris French (MPF): Research report. CAHIERS AFLS, Volume 17(1), ISSN 1756-4476.
  • (2010b) Art and Code-switching. In P. Gardner-Chloros (ed.), Special Issue, Sociolinguistic Studies, vol. 4/3, December. Second strings & linguistic connections: bilingual and bilinguistic explorations, 635-664.
  • (2010a) Introduction. P. Gardner-Chloros (ed.), Special Issue, Sociolinguistic Studies, vol. 4/3, December. Second strings & linguistic connections: bilingual and bilinguistic explorations, 505-508.
  • (ed.) (2010) Bilingualism and Multilingualism. Abingdon, UK & New York: Routledge, vol.1, 130-150..
  • (2007) (with Reeva Charles) Subiko Welcome (Welcome to Everyone): Hindi/English Code-Switching in the British-Asian Media. Birkbeck Studies in Applied Linguistics 2, 64-97.
  • (2007) (with Malcolm Edwards) Compound verbs in Code-switching: Bilinguals Making Do? International Journal of Bilingualism, vol.11 no.1, 73-91.
  • (2004) Language attitudes and use in a transplanted setting: Greek Cypriots in London (with L.MacEntee-Atalianis and K.Finnis). Journal of Multilingualism, 2,1, 52-80.
  • (2004) When the blueprint is a red herring: Transactions of the Philological Society. vol. 102, 1, 103-29. Reprinted in Li Wei
  • (2004) Le développement historique de T/V en français et en anglais: parallélisme et divergence. Franco-British Studies 33-34 (Autumn 2003-Spring 2004), Special Issue: Second Person Pronouns and Forms of Address in the Languages of Contemporary Europe, 90-99.
  • (2004) How code-switching mediates politeness: gender-related speech among London Greek-Cypriots (with K.Finnis). Estudios de Sociolinguistica, vol. 4 (2) .Language and Gender:an Interdisciplinary Perspective.. University of Vigo, Spain.. Eds: Acu.a-Ferreira, V. & Álvarez-Lógpez, S. University of Vigo, Spain, 505-533.
  • (2000) Parallel Patterns? A comparison of monolingual speech and bilingual codeswitching discourse (with R.Charles and J.Cheshire) Journal of Pragmatics. Special Issue on Code-switching, edited by Marlene Dolitsky, no. 32, 1305-1341.
  • (2000) The LIDES Coding Manual: a Document for Preparing and Analysing Language Interaction Data. Prepared jointly with the LIPPS Group (+11 contributors). Special issue, International Journal of Bilingualism, 278 pp.
  • (2000)  assumptions behind grammatical approaches to code-switching (with M. Edwards).The tortoise and the hare: distinguishing processes and end-products in language contact. Bilingualism, Language and Cognition. Vol.3 (2), 112-114.

Monographs

  • (In preparation) Bilingualism. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, Very Short Introductions.

Book Chapters since 2000

  • (forthcoming 2020) Contact and Code-switching. In R.Hickey (ed.) (2nd Edition) The Handbook of Language Contact. Malden, MA & Oxford: Blackwell Riley,
  • (forthcoming 2020) Deux ou trois choses que je sais d’elles : les variantes émergentes en français multiculturel de la région parisienne. (with Jenny Cheshire and Maria Secova) In Diémoz, Federica, Gaétane Dostie, Pascale Hadermann, Florence Lefeuvre (Eds), « Le français innovant », Bern : Peter Lang.
  • (in press, 2018) Historical and Modern Studies of Code-switching: a Tale of Mutual Enrichment. In Pahta, Päivi, Janne Skaffari & Laura Wright (eds.). 2018. Multilingual Practices in Language History: English and Beyond. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
  • (2016) Multilayered Multilingualism: the contribution of recent research to understanding code-switching. In L. Sciriha (ed.), International Perspectives on Bilingualism. Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • (2015) Mind the gap: What code- switching in literature can teach us about code-switching (with D. Weston). In P.Gardner-Chloros and D.Weston (Eds.), Special Issue, Language and Literature, Code-switching in Literature, Vol. 24(3) 194–212.
  • (2015) Code-switching and Multilingualism in Literature (with D.Weston). In P.Gardner-Chloros and D.Weston (Eds.), Special Issue, Language and Literature, Code-switching in Literature. Vol. 24(3) 182–193.
  • (2013) Language Diversity and Contact. Chapter in Li Wei (ed.) Introduction to Applied Linguistics (Wiley-Blackwell).
  • (2011) Mullticultural London English/Multicultural Paris French. In (Eds) Maurice Fraser and Philippe Lane, Franco-British Academic Partnerships - Mullticultural London English/Multicultural Paris French. In (Eds) Maurice Fraser and Philippe Lane, Franco-British Academic Partnerships - The next chapter. Liverpool University Press (with J. Cheshire and F. Gadet).
  • (2010) Contact and Code-switching. In R.Hickey (ed.) The Handbook of Language Contact. Malden, MA & Oxford: Blackwell Riley, 188-208.
  • (2009) Sociolinguistic Factors in Code-switching. In The Handbook of Code-switching, eds. B.E.Bullock and A.J.Toribio. Cambridge: CUP, 97-114.
  • (2008) Bilingual Data: Criteria for its Classification. In The Blackwell Guide to Research Methods in Bilingualism. Eds. Li Wei and M. Moyer. Oxford: Blackwell, 53-73.
  • (2007d) Tu/vous choices: an .Act of Identity.? In The French Language and Questions of Identity. Eds. M. Jones and W.Ayres-Bennett. Legenda, 106-116.
  • (2007c) Multilingualism of Autochtonous Minorities. In Handbook of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 5: Multilingualism and Multilingual Communication. Eds. P.Auer and Li Wei. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 469-493.
  • (2007b) (with Mark Sebba and Melissa Moyer) The LIDES Corpus. In Models and Methods in the Handling of Unconventional Digital Corpora. Vol. 1:Synchronic Corpora; vol.2: Diachronic Corpora. J.C.Beal, K.P.Corrigan and H.Moisl (eds.). Palgrave, 91-121.
  • (2007a) European Immigrant Languages in the British Isles. In Language in the British Isles, fully revised second edition, ed. D.Britain. Cambridge: CUP, 325-340.
  • (2004) Ellinokipri sto Londino. Mia embiriki meleti gia ti glossiki chrisi, tis glossikes stasis kai tin taftotita (Greek Cypriots in London. An empirical study of language use, language attittudes and identity). In R.Tsokalidou and M.Paparousi (eds.), Themata taftotitas stin elliniki diaspora: glossa kai logotechnia (Issues of identity in the Greek Diaspora: Language and Literature). Athens: Metaixmio, 69-93. (with K.Finnis and L.MacEntee-Atalianis).
  • (2003) Code-switching. International Encylopedia of Linguistics, Ed. W.J.Frawley, 2nd Edition, vol.1, Oxford: OUP, 331-33.
  • (2001) Code-switching and Language Shift. In Sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives on maintenance, shift and loss of minority languages. Eds: Ammerlaan, T., Hulsen, M. Strating, H. and Yagmur, K.Munster, New York, Munich, Berlin: Waxmann, pp.127-139.

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