Leonardo da Vinci Society

NEWSLETTER MAY 2002

The Leonardo da Vinci Society's Annual General Meeting and Annual Lecture, 2 May 2002.
550th-anniversary celebrations at Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci drawings in three exhibitions to celebrate the Queen's Golden Jubilee in 2002
An exhibition of Leonardo and Music in Madrid
A Wellcome Trust exhibition at the Science Museum, London, from 15 March until 28 July 2002: HEAD ON: Art with the brain in mind
A new publication on the Mona Lisa
Raccolta Vinciana XXIX, 2001
The controversy over the restoration of Leonardo da Vinci's Adoration of the Magi in the Uffizi, Florence

RECENT AND FORTHCOMING EVENTS

The Leonardo da Vinci Society's Annual General Meeting and Annual Lecture, 2 May 2002.
Gabriele Neher writes: Following the Society's 16th Annual General Meeting, held at 17:30 in the Warburg Institute, the Annual Lecture was given by the Vice-President of the Society and Editor of the Newsletter, Professor Francis Ames-Lewis. He delivered a lecture on 'Black chalk in Leonardo's drawing practice', previously given at Vinci itself. The scheduling of this lecture seemed especially appropriate given the 550th birthday of Leonardo da Vinci this year, as in many ways Professor Ames-Lewis sought to re-open the debate on Leonardo's drawing technique.

The main theme of the debate was Ames-Lewis's suggestion that we may read the use of black chalk in Leonardo's drawings as more than a choice of a convenient medium. We can rather study the pattern that emerges form a survey of the surviving black chalk drawings with reference to their subject-matter and expressive content. The lecture demonstrated Leonardo's experiments with the use of the medium of black chalk from an early use for the laying-out of designs. These were often supplemented through detailed work in pen and ink overlaying the original black chalk drawing, or, in other cases, black chalk was used in combination with a range of other media for preliminary sketches.

Through a comparison with a number of drawings executed in red chalk, Ames-Lewis demonstrated a difference between subjects done in red, and those drawn in black chalk. Leonardo exploited the harder, sharper lines of the red chalk predominantly for youthful, virile subjects, where the sharpness of the line reflects the energy and vigour of the subject depicted. Black chalk on the other hand, the softer, more malleable and tonal of the two media was chosen for subjects such as women. By reading intent into the choice of the medium, a number of fascinating approaches were opened up by the lecturer: if the use of black chalk does indeed relate to the expressive qualities of Leonardo's subjects, then we have here an instance of drawings where the artist acts clearly as the interpreter of the subject-matter. The question of the artist's 'intent' is a notoriously problematic one, but Ames-Lewis's rethinking of the use of black chalk in Leonardo's drawing practice might provide a key to unlocking another aspect of Leonardo's work.

LEONARDESQUE NEWS


550th-anniversary celebrations at Vinci
To celebrate the 550th anniversary of Leonardo da Vinci's birth on 15 April 1452 (not 2 May 1452 as stated in Newsletter issue 19 (November 2001), for which error the editor apologises) the Città di Vinci mounted a special three-day series of events, centring on the Lettura Vinciana XLII. Held on Saturday 13 April, this was delivered by Pietro C. Marani: his title was 'La Vergine delle Rocce della National Gallery di Londra: maestro e bottega di fronte al modello'. Prof. Marani proposed that the underdrawing of the London painting was initially sketched by Leonardo, this was completed and part of the painting was done by two of his earliest assistants, and the work was finally touched up and refined by Leonardo himself.

On the evening of Saturday 13 April Joaquín Saura (portable organ) and the Grupo Música Antígua gave a concert, in Santa Croce, Vinci, entitled 'Leonardo strumentista in concerto'. In 1992 Joaquín Saura deciphered a sketch of a portable organ with continuous bellows, vertical keyboard and paper pipes drawn by Leonardo on Codex Madrid II f. 76 recto. At this concert, Saura played on his own reconstruction of Leonardo's organ, performing a programme of european fifteenth-century music. Finally, on Monday 15 April Santiago Calatrava, well known for his creative plans for bridges, stations and airports and for his commitment to sculpture and design, gave a paper entitled 'Intorno all'opera di Leonardo da Vinci. In this he proposed a meeting together of his theoretical investigations and the relationship between architectural, artistic and technological planning in Leonardo's design work.

Leonardo da Vinci drawings in three exhibitions to celebrate the Queen's Golden Jubilee in 2002
Three exhibitions in connection with the Queen's Golden Jubilee this year include works by Leonardo da Vinci. The first is a touring show, currently at the Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea (26 April - 7 July; and then at the Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield (12 July - 22 September) and at the Ulster Museum, Belfast (27 September - 8 December)). This comprises ten of Leonardo's finest drawings in the Royal Library: the drapery study for the Virgin of Rocks; one of the studies for the Sforza horse, the map of Valdichiana, the 'mortars bombarding a fortress' drawing, the study for the Neptune drawing for Antonio Segni, the study of a blackberry plant, a profile of a youth, one of the studies of optics, the anatomy of the shoulder; and one of the late Deluge studies. The handsome catalogue Ten Drawings by Leonardo da Vinci. A Golden Jubilee Celebration, is written by Martin Clayton with an preface by the Prince of Wales, who observes that 'I am sure that everyone who visits this exhibition will be as inspired as I always have been by Leonardo's genius and skill'.

The opening exhibition of Treasures from the Royal Collection that recently opened at the new Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace and scheduled to run until 16 March 2003, includes seven Leonardo drawings among a group of about fifty fine old master drawings. The Leonardo drawings are: the Allegory with Wolf and Eagle, a Standing Nude from Behind, the oak, the Storm over a Valley, a Study of Water, the Baby in the Womb, and one of the late Masquerader studies. An exhibition of Leonardo da Vinci: The Divine and the Grotesque will open at the new Queen's Gallery, Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh, on 30 November 2002 (until 30 March 2003) and will transfer to the Queen's Gallery, Buckingham Palace where it will be displayed from 9 May to 9 November 2003. The seventy-five Leonardo sheets will be shown in eight sections, 1. Overture: The Profile Sheet, 2. Ideal Types, 3. The Grotesque, 4. Portraits, 5. Expression, 6. The Last Supper, 7. Women, and 8. Fantasy and Costume.

An exhibition of Leonardo and Music in Madrid
We have been informed by Marta Pirez de Guzman, the Commissary of the exhibition, that to coincide with the 550th anniversary of Leonardo's birth an exhibition about the relationship between 'Leonardo da Vinci and Music' is in preparation at the Biblioteca Nacional of Madrid. The exhibition will be on display in Madrid during February and March 2003, and it will then travel to other the world-wide venues. The goal is to present a new interpretation of Leonardo's mode of thinking, as explained through his relationship with music. We hope to have further news about this forthcoming exhibition in a future issue of this Newsletter.

A Wellcome Trust exhibition at the Science Museum, London, from 15 March until 28 July 2002: HEAD ON: Art with the brain in mind
J.V. Field writes: Compared with the displays in nearby galleries in the Science Museum 'Head on' is obviously an art exhibition. However, as is now usual in exhibitions of recent art, the visitor is required to put in a certain amount of effort, to read in the meaning that Postmodernism decrees as his or her obligatory contribution to the experience of a work of art. Substantial verbal explanations are provided, and perhaps should be considered part of the works themselves rather than mere labelling. There is an excellent and fully illustrated catalogue (details below). Some exhibits are apparently straight comments on vision (a camera obscura shown with a portrait drawing by David Hockney) or on external appearances (a large male head by Elizabeth Frink). Some artists explore different layers. For instance there is a group of works by Osi Audu that includes images of the head and of a mind-set, and a model eye that clunks open when it senses movement but unflatteringly rapidly loses interest and clunks shut again. Annie Cattrell has contributed strange frail black shapes, enclosed in perspex blocks as if for safe keeping, that are in fact models of the parts of the human brain that process visual and aural stimuli. These haunting shapes could only be organic. There are also works related to psychology, including Katharine Dowson's word and association tests and Letizia Galli's vivid little cartoon film showing various psychological types parking a car outside a clinic. Another group, by Gerhard Lang, has models of the mind as a storage system, with a wall-case of diverse objects, resembling a slightly quirky museum display is missing its labels, together with two paintings that show how things look within specific frames of mind. Most of the groups of exhibits include historical objects which have a connection with the theme of the artists' works. The inclusion of these 'found objects' from the Museum's collection presumably explains why so many of the Museum's curators are credited in the catalogue. There is a video loop, shaped round an interview with Professor Colin Blakemore, that provides a scientific and historical introduction. It is clear that the historian of medicine and the two art historians who organised this exhibition on behalf of Artakt (www.artakt.co.uk) have taken good scientific advice, and many of the artists acknowledge similar debts. The exhibition thus has impeccable scientific and historical credentials, but in the end it is largely about art.
Catalogue: Caterina Albano, Ken Arnold and Marina Wallace, Head on: art with the brain in mind [a Wellcome Trust exhibition], London: Artakt Ltd, 2002, pp. 60, £6.99, ISBN 0-9542416-0-6.

A new publication on the Mona Lisa
Vivien Northcote writes: Almost every general book on Art History, which covers the Renaissance, includes the work of Leonardo; and almost always the work used to illustrate his opeuvre is a reproduction of the Mona Lisa. This is a direct result of the way in which this particular image has acquired a world-wide reputation and iconic status which has had more impact than almost any other image now reproduced widely. Donald Sassoon's book gives a comprehensive outline of the development of this modern phenomenon. He covers the progress of the hype of the Mona Lisa from its esarly days in the collection of the French crown, through its time in the Louvre, its theft from that collection in August 1911, its position in the growing literature and finally its transition from Old Master to pop image and advertising symbol in the hands of such artists as Marcel Duchamp, Salvador Dalì and Andy Warhol. The book is well illustrated with a selection of images of the Mona Lisa in its various guises, many of which will be well known. Perhaps the most interesting parts of the book are the chapters devoted to the literary references to this work, with extensive discussions of the writing of Theophile Gautier and Walter Pater, among others. This book provides an interesting insight into nineteenth- and early twentieth-century art criticism. The disappointing section is that devoted to the more scholarly aspects of Leonardo's paintings, which is sketchy. It is, however, a useful book for scholars wanting to check a reference or make a telling point in a more developed study of Leonardo's paintings.
Donald Sassoon, Mona Lisa. The History of the World's Most Famous Painting, London: Harper Collins, 2001. ISBN 0 00 710614 9l £16.99 (hardback).

Raccolta Vinciana XXIX, 2001
Volume 29 of Raccolta Vinciana, the premier journal of Leonardo da Vinci studies published by the Ente Raccolta Vinciana and edited by Pietro Marani, appeared recently and is dedicated to the memory of Sir Ernst Gombrich. The contents comprise: Francis Ames-Lewis, 'Leonardo da Vinci e il disegno a matita'; Alberto Ambrosini, 'Leonardo da Vinci: immaginazione visiva e conoscenza'; Steve Farrow, 'An examination of the Archinto Portrait in the National Gallery of London'; Pietro C. Marani, 'Leonardo e gli scultori. Un altro esempio di collaborazione col Rustici?'; Vittorio Pini, 'Sopra la scultura lignea del Cenacolo cinquecentesco a Saronno: il cosidetto "Andrea da Milano" è Andrea da Corbetta?', Giovanni Cislaghi, 'Leonardo urbanista e cartografo a Milano, Porta Vercellina'; Charles D. Duane, 'The circumference measurements of Milan'; Miguel Angel Mila, 'Leonardo y design'; Luca Tomìo, 'Leonardo, Zoroastro, Bramantino e le concezioni astrologiche, magiche e alchemiche del Rinascimento'; Valeria Clelia Tranquilli, 'Sull'interpretazione del Cenacolo della chiesa di San Rocco a Inzago secondo i testi ebraici'; Mario Valentino Guffanti, 'Il Conte di Caylus e le caricature di Leonardo'. There is also a very substantial bibliographical section, the Bibkliografia internazionale leonardiana (BIL) 1999-2001, edited by Monica Taddei (Bihblioteca Leonardiana di Vinci): this is also available on-line at http://reanet.comune.empoli.fi.it/vinci/home.htm

The controversy over the restoration of Leonardo da Vinci's Adoration of the Magi in the Uffizi, Florence
Readers of this Newsletter may recall that at the end of our first report on this matter in issue 19 (November 2001) the hope was expressed that a further report would appear in the present issue.
The final results of the diagnostic tests which were in progress at the time of our earlier report, by which the state of conservation of the painting and the materials and technique used by Leonardo should be fully established, have not yet been published. The date of the public meeting that Antonio Paolucci, the Soprintendente delle Belle Arti in Florence, intends to hold to discuss these results has therefore not yet been announced. Meanwhile, on 21 April 2002 the New York Times carried an interview (followed up by the Daily Telegraph on 23 April) with Maurizio Seracini, an engineer, medic and now specialist art diagnostician, who has undertaken the diagnostic tests for the Uffizi. His belief is that Leonardo da Vinci made the underdrawing, but that the orange-brown paint laid over this drawing was crudely added by a mediocre painter considerably later - perhaps in the mid- to late-sixteenth century. A paint-layer cross-section shows, in his reading, that the paint was laid on only after significant cracking had occurred in the priming layer, cracks that he believes could only have developed between 50 and 100 years after Leonardo made his underdrawing. After hearing of these results at a meeting last January with Seracini, also attended by Annamaria Petrioli Tofani, Director of the Uffizi Galleries, and Antonio Natali, curator of Renaissance paintings at the Uffizi, Antonio Paolucci considers that this is not the right time to move ahead with any restoration of the painting.

In an electronic response to this interview and to other leaks of the results of Seracini's diagnostic tests, James Beck takes issue with his conclusions. While welcoming the postponement of the proposed restoration, and while applauding Seracini's 'deliberate, comprehensive and unhurried study', Beck finds the results inconclusive. He states that the Adoration is not really a painting, but rather a drawing upon which 'a preparatory layer of transparent, orange-brownish underpainting has been brushed'. Given that this layer would have been covered by others, it need not be expected that it should show the artistic accomplishment of a finished painting by Leonardo. Moreover, Beck disputes the validity of Seracini's late dating of the paint-layer on the grounds of the cracks in the primer which, Beck believes, could have developed 'the day after Leonardo finished it' and not necessarily 50 years or more later. He calls attention to an early sixteenth-century Florentine drawing in the Louvre, in which the Adoration, already with its paint layer, is partially but faithfully copied.

Beck is concerned that a scientist turned art diagnostician is reaching conclusions based not on scientific evidence but on aesthetic or critical judgements. Although Petrioli Tofani wishes to press ahead with restoration (as recorded in Il Giornale on 23 April 2002), Beck once more urges caution because of the ambiguity of Seracini's provisional results. His view is echoed by Carlo Pedretti, whom he quotes as saying 'if matters are actually as described, one would begin [to clean] without knowing where to stop. One more reason to do nothing'. Finally, he proposes that a modern 'virtual' restoration should be carried out, a non-invasive alternative to physical intervention that would allow for further clarification of the status of the underdrawing and the paint layer.

Recent Leonardo da Vinci bibliography
Ackerman, J., 'The anticipation of Cinquecento architecture in church designs by Leonardo da Vinci', Studi di storia dell'arte in onore di Maria Luisa Gatti Perer, Milano, Vita e Pensiero, 1999, 198-204.
Andersen, W.V., Freud, Leonardo da Vinci, and the vulture's tail: a refreshing look at Leonardo's sexuality, New York: Other Press, c.2001
Parolsky, P., 'The Paradox of Leonardo's Virgin of the Rocks;', Source 18/4, 1999, 16-18.
Bessot, D., 'Léonard de Vinci et les distorsions perspectives', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Bickmann, I., Leonardismus und symbolistiche ästetik: ein Beitrag zur Wirkungsgeschichte Leonardo da Vincis in Paris und Brüssel, Frankfurt am Main/Bern/New York, P.Lang, 1999.
Billet, F., 'Permutations et fusions des éléments du langage musical au temps de Léonard', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Blum, H.P., 'Psychoanalysis and Art, Freud and Leonardo', Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 49/4, 2001, 1409-1425.
Brambilla Barcilon, P. and Marani, P.C., Leonardo: The Last Supper. Chicago/London: University Of Chicago Press, 2001.
Calì, M., 'Le due versioni della Vergine delle rocce: proposte per una nuova soluzione', Arte d'Occidente: temi e metodi: studi in onore di Angiola Maria Romanini, Roma, Sintesi imformazione, 1999, 1087-1101
Caroli, F. ed., Il cinquecento lombardo. Da Leonardo a Caravaggio, catalogue of exhibition held at the Palazzo Reale, Milano, 4 Ottobre 2000 - 25 Febbraio 2001, Milano, 2000.
Castellucci, N., Il Cenacolo di Leonardo. Espressioni e gestualità del Cristo e degli Apostoli, Milano/Firenze, 2000.
Cataldi, L., 'Foetal Placental Anatomy: a mis-interpretation by Leonardo da Vinci', Pediatric Research 47/4, 2000, 503ff.
Colombo, A., 'Titolo nuovo di Gallica accortezza: U. Foscolo e i restauri della Cena di Leonardo', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Costamagna, P., 'L'influence de Léonard de Vinci sur les artistes toscans et ses apports à la maniera: le rôle du séjour français d'Andrea del Sarto', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Da Leonardo a Mondrian : Disegni del Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam, Firenze : Centro Di, 2000.
Davis M.F., Mona Lisa's Modernity: Queer Theories through Pater and Freud, Ann Arbor: Umi, 2001.
Deho, V. and Vezzosi, A. eds, Leonardo in azione e poesia: Leonardo in Action and Poetry, Vinci: Museo Ideale Leonardo Da Vinci, 2001.
Dellaneva, J., 'Perpetuum-Mobile, Metamorphoses of Bodies and Works, from Leonardo da Vinci to Montaigne', Rivista di letterature moderne e comparate 52, 1999, 413-416
Dunton, C., 'Meaning and appearance: a Merleau-Pontian account of Leonardo's studies from life', Art History 22/3, 1999, 330-346.
Echinger-Maurach, C., 'A Sketch of Michelangelo for the 'Tondo Pitti' and its Relationship to Leonardo da Vinci, works of Antiquity, and Raphael', Mitteilungen Des Kunsthistorischen Institutes In Florenz 42/2-3, 1998, 274-310
Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Fabrizio-Costa, S., 'Autour de G. Manzi, éditeur du Traité de la peinture 1817', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Fara, A., ed., Leonardo a Piombino e l'idea della città moderna tra Quattro e Cinquecento (Arte e archgeologia: studi e documenti, 25), Firenze: L.S. Olschki, 1999.
Fiorio, M.T., Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio: Un pittore milanese lel lume di Leonardo. Archivi Arte Antica; Milano: Jandi Sapi, 2000.
Fitzgerald, Nicola. Scienza and Fantasia in the creative processes of Dante and Leonardo, 2000.
Gallone, A., 'La nature et la distribution des liants dans la couche picturale: La Dernière Cène de Léonard de Vinci et la Pala Montefeltro de Piero della Francesca', in La Peinture dans les Pays-Bas au 16e siècle: pratiques d'atelier: infrarouges et autres méthodes d'investigation, Leuven, Peeters, 1999, 215-220.
Galluzzi, P., ed., Renaissance Engineers from Brunelleschi to Leonardo da Vinci, Firenze: Giunti, 2001 (catalogue of exhibition held at Palazzo Strozzi, Florence).
Goetz, A., 'L'image de Léonard en France au XIXe siècle, peintres, critiques, historiens', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Greenstein, J.M., 'Mantegna, Leonardo and the times of painting', Word and Image 15/3, 1999, 217-242
Harma, J., 'Portrait of a Lady: Description and Ekphrasis (Leonardo da Vinci, 'La Gioconda', 'Mona Lisa')', Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 101/2, 2000, 177-184
Harma, J., 'Portrait of a Lady: Description and Ekphrasis (Leonardo da Vinci, 'La Gioconda', 'Mona Lisa')', Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 101/2, 2000, 177-184
Hobbs, M., 'Fortune is a River: Leonardo da Vinci and Niccolo Macchiavelli's magnificent dream to change the course of Florentine history, Sixteenth Century Journal 30, 1999, 840-843
Hohmeyer, B., 'Leonardo da Vinci: grosser Auftriff für ein Genie', Art 4, 1999, 30-37.
Jeanneret, M. 'Perpetual Motion: Transforming shapes in the Renaissance from Da Vinci to Montaigne'. Parallax (Baltimore, MD); Baltimore /London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Jestaz B., 'François I, Salai and the Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci', Revue de l'Art 126, 1999, 68-72
Kang, Y-W. Levels of "Reality" in Leonardo's theories and practice of painting, 2001.
Kemp, M. ed. and Walker, M. trans., Leonardo on Painting: An Anthology of Writings by Leonardo da Vinci with a Selection of Documents relating to his Career (Revised), Yale University Press, 2001.
Kwakkelstein, M.W., 'The use of sculptural models by Italian Renaissance painters: Leonardo da Vinci's Madonna of the Rocks reconsidered in light of his working practices', Gazette des Beaux Arts 133, 1999, 181-198.
Landrus, M. 'Leonardo da Vinci's Ideas of World Harmony. Analecta Husserliana LXXIII, 39-49.
Laurenza, D., De Figura Umana: Fisiognomica, Anatomia a Arte in Leonardo, Biblioteca Di Nuncius: Studi E Testi 42, Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, 2001.
Le Goff, J.-P., 'Abraham Bosse, lecteur de Vinci: ou querelle à l'Academie Royale autour du Traité de la Peinture de Léonard de Vinci: l'argumentation d'Abraham Bos', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Leonardo Da Vinci: il Codice Atlantico della Biblioteca Ambrosiana di Milano nella trascrizione critica di Augusto Marinoni, con presentazione di C. Pedretti. Firenze: Giunti, 2000.
Leonardo da Vinci: il Codice Atlantico di Leonardo Da Vinci nell'edizione Hoepli 1894-1904 curata dall'Accademia dei Lincei (Gioppo, L. and Redemagni, P.), Gargagnate Milanese: Anthelios, 2000.
Leonardo da Vinci: i manoscritti dell'Istituto di Francia, trascritti da Govi, G., ed. Capri, P.P., Roma: H. B. Van Der Poel, 2000.
Leonardo da Vinci in the Institute de France: manuscript I, trans. and annot. J. Venerella, Milano: Ente raccolta vinciana, 2000.
Lund, J.R. and Byrne, J.P., 'Leonardo Da Vinci's Tensile Strength tests: Implications for the Discovery of Engineering Mechanics', Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 18/3, 2001, 243-250
Madonna-Desbazeille, M.N., 'L'esprit de l'utopie dans l'oeuvre de Léonard de Vinci', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Marani, P.C., Leonardo Da Vinci, The Complete Paintings, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000.
Moskowitz, A.F., 'What did Leonardo learn from Arnolfo di Cambio?', Arte d'Occidente: temi e metodi: studi in onore di Angiola Maria Romanini, Roma, Sintesi imformazione, 1999, 1079-1086.
Natali, A., 'La natura atrefatta', Leonardo a Piombino e l'idea della città moderna tra Quattro e Cinquecento, Firenze: L.S. Olschki, 1999, 137-148.
Natali, A. ed., L'annunciazione Di Leonardo. La Montagna Sul Mare, Milano, 2000.
Ono, H, Wade, N.J. and Lillakas, L. 'The Pursuit of Leonardo's Constraint', Perception 31/1, 2002, 83-102
Oppelt, A.L., Kurth, W. and Godbold, D.L., 'Topology, scaling relations and Leonardo's rule in root systems from African tree species', Tree Physiology 21/2-3, 2001, 117-128
Panofsky, E., Il Codice Huygens e la teoria artistica di Leonardo da Vinci, Sant'oreste (Roma), 2002.
Pedretti, C., '"Non mi fuggir, donzella ...": Leonardo Regista Teatrale del Poliziano', Arte Lombarda n.a.1, 128, 2000,7-16 Pedretti, C., Leonardo da Vinci: the Battle of Anghiari and the Fanciful Weapons, Florence: Editions Grantour (Giunti), 2000.
Pevsner J., 'Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to Neuroscience', Trends in Neurosciences 25/4, 2002, 217-220.
Rossi, M., 'La Vergine delle rocce, Leonardo e il Cardinale Federico Borromeo', Studi di storia dell'arte in onore di Maria Luisa Gatti Perer, Milano, Vita e Pensiero, 1999, 301-305.
Rotundo, D., 'Leonardo e la Calabria', Calabria letteraria 47/1-3, 1999, 56. Sassoon, D., Becoming Mona Lisa: The Making of a Global Icon, New York: Harcourt Brace, 2001.
Scarpati, C., Leonardo scrittore, Milano: Vita e Pensiero, c.2001
Scherr, A., 'Leonardo da Vinci, Sigmund Freud, and Fear of Flying', Midwest Quarterly-A Journal Of Contemporary Thought 42/2, 2001, 115-132.
Schneider, M. ed., Leonardo Da Vinci: Delle Acque, Palermo: Sellerio, 2001.
Shell, J., 'The Gioconda in Milan', Atti e memorie - Accademia clementina 38-9, 1998-99, 148-162.
Starnazzi, C., La "Madonna dei Fusi" di Leonardo da Vinci e il paesaggio del Valdarno Superiore, Arezzo: Città di Arezzo, 2000.
Steinberg, L., Leonardo's incessant Last Supper, New York: Zone Books, 2001.
Sutera, S., Leonardo: le fantastiche macchine di Leonardo da Vinci al Museo Nazionale della Scienza e della Tecnologia di Milano: disegni e modelli, Milano: Skira, 2001.
Tanaka, H., 'Influenza dell'arte cinese nelle opere di Leonardo da Vinci: il paesaggio della Mona Lisa e il paesaggio cinese', Bijutsushigaku 20, 1999, 1-40.
Tivellato, P., 'Ostinato rigore ou l'universalité de la pensée de Léonard de Vinci', in Fabrizio-Costa, S., ed., Léonard de Vinci entre France et Italie miroir profond et sombre: actes du colloque international de l'Université de Caen, 3-4 octobre 1996, Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen, 1999.
Venturelli, P., 'Segreti di Leonardo da Vinci per ottenere "Perle Grosse", Arte Lombarda n.s.2, 132, 2001, 42-47
Viatte, F., Léonard de Vinci: Isabella d'Este, Paris: Editions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1999.
Wade, N.J., Ono, H and Lillakas, L. 'Leonardo Da Vinci's struggles with representations of Reality', Leonardo 34/3, 2001, 231-235
Wandt, B., 'Long-Axis Contraction of the Ventricles: a modern approach, but described already by Leonardo da Vinci', Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 13/7, 2000, 699-706
White, M., Leonardo : The First Scientist, London: Little Brown, 2000. Winters, L. ed., Leonardo da Vinci and the Splendor of Poland: a History of Collecting and Patronage, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
Wise, M.W. and O'Leary, J.P., 'Leonardo da Vinci: Anatomist and Physiologist', American Surgeon 67/12001, 100-102
On-line bibliography: As of mid-April, Project Gutenberg (Http://Promo.Net/Pg/Index.Html) has Jean Paul Richter's Notebooks Of Leonardo Da Vinci.


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