New modules running in 2011-12
Course Tutor: Laura Stewart
This course was formerly 'The Birth of Britain, 1603-1707'. There is a course booklet from 2009/10. A course booklet for 2011/12 will become available in the summer. Please note that the seminar and presentation topics, and the essay questions, will be subject to change.
This Group 2 (Level 6) option is dominated by two of the most dramatic events in British history: the civil wars of the mid-seventeenth century and the crisis of 1688-9. Historians have been arguing about their causes and consequences ever since. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them. Why have the events of mid-century proved so contentious that historians cannot even agree on what to call them? What was so ‘glorious’ about the events of 1688-9, and were they even revolutionary?
At the core of this course is an examination of the remarkable political union between England and Scotland. It has endured, in various incarnations, to this day. It begins with something that did not happen: Mary Stuart, queen of Scots, never became queen of England. Had she done so, a very different British union would have been created. Her son, James VI, acceded unopposed to the English throne, but his vision of a new age of peace and prosperity was shattered within fifteen years of his death. Within twenty-five, the British monarchy had been abolished and a union based on English military conquest was put in its place. The restoration of the Stuart kings, in the persons of Charles’s sons, Charles II and James VII and II, brought these issues into sharp relief. The accession of another foreign monarch, William of Orange, is traditionally seen as an English event, but 1689 had a Scottish context, too, and a lasting impact on the relationship between the two countries.
This course will discuss how fundamental constitutional and religious differences between England and Scotland destabilized the British monarchy throughout the seventeenth century. Students who already know of the ‘English Civil War’ and the ‘Glorious Revolution’ will find that this course tests traditional narratives and presents new perspectives on familiar events.
Completion of the Group 1 course, British History, 1450-1750, is desirable, but not essential.
B. Bradshaw and J.S. Morrill (eds), The British Problem, c.1534-1707: State Formation in the Atlantic Archipelago (1996).
K.M. Brown, Kingdom or Province?: Scotland and the Regal Union, 1603-1715 (1992).
P. Collinson, The English Captivity of Mary, Queen of Scots (1987).
J. Guy, ed., The Reign of Elizabeth I: Court and Culture in the Last Decade (1995).
T. Harris, Restoration. Charles II and his Kingdoms, 1660-1685 (2005).
T. Harris, Revolution. The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685-1725 (2005).
A. Hughes, The Causes of the English Civil War (1998).
G. de Krey, Restoration and Revolution (2007).
A.I. Macinnes and J.H. Ohlmeyer, The Stuart Kingdoms in the Seventeenth Century: Awkward Neighbours (2002).
R.A. Mason (ed.), Scots and Britons: Scottish Political Thought and the Union of 1603 (1994).
D. Scott, Politics and War in the Three Stuart Kingdoms (2004).
D.L. Smith, A History of the British Isles, 1603-1707 (1998).
J. Wormald, ed., Short Oxford History of the British Isles: The Seventeenth Century (2008).
J. Wormald, Mary Queen of Scots (1988; rev. edn, 2001).
Dr Christian Goeschel (autumn term), Prof. Lucy Riall (spring term)
Within the same decade, between 1860 and 1870, Italy and Germany were unified politically under the leadership of two powerful states: Piedmont and Prussia. Traditionally, historians have blamed these parallel late national unifications for the rise of fascism in both countries after the First World War. More recently, historians have vehemently argued against this view, locating the rise of fascism as a result of short-term factors and studying the nineteenth century in its own right. Was it mere coincidence that both countries were unified at the same time? Or were there some more profound structural reasons for this parallel nation-building? To what extent does it make sense to compare and contrast Italy and Germany with each other? This course takes these historiographical debates as a starting point for a comparative history of the nation in Italy and Germany in the nineteenth century, from the French Revolution to the aftermath of unification. How and why was the meaning of the nation transformed over the long nineteenth century? Who created the nation? What were its main symbols? How successful was the nation in Italy and Germany? This course will familiarise students with the genesis of one of the most significant historical concepts and its concrete implications. It allows students to engage critically in comparative history and to debate its usefulness. Students will also learn how to think critically about the (political) motives, methods and processes of research in this area.
You should purchase the following two textbooks:
D. Blackbourn, History of Germany, 1780-1918: The Long Nineteenth Century (Blackwell Classic Histories of Europe) (2002)
L. Riall, Risorgimento: The History from Napoleon to the Nation State (2008)
Court Tutor: Frank Trentmann
The course explores the rise, decline, and revival of “civil society” in the modern period. We shall look at the changing meaning of the idea and at civil society in practice, in clubs and associations, and in national, imperial and global settings. Readings and discussion will connect the British and European history of ‘civil society’ since the seventeenth century with more recent debates about its potential for global democracy. Students will discuss a mix of primary and secondary sources from the history of ideas, social and cultural history, and politics. Weekly themes include toleration and democracy, sociability and gender, imperial culture, the revival of civil society in Eastern Europe, the controversy about the decline of civic America, and the debate about global civil society. The course will provide students with an opportunity to read texts closely and to think comparatively.
J. Locke, The Second Treatise on Government,
Adam Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiment,
R.J. Morris, Class, Sect, and Party: the Making of the British Middle Class.
Church Missionary Tracts, no.3. Missionary Conversation on India (London: 1852).
Karl Marx, “On the Jewish Question”.
Robert Putnam, ‘The Strange Disappearance of Civic America’.
Václav Havel, ‘Power of the Powerless’ (1978), repr. in Havel, Living in Truth.
David Strand, “Protest in Beijing: Civil Society and Public Sphere in China”
Problems of Communism 39 (May-June, 1990).
John Hall and Frank Trentmann, eds., Civil Society (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
Global Civil Society Yearbook (2001--).
The second half of the twentieth century was shaped by the Cold War. This course provides a broad introduction to the history of the Cold War, and the ways it shaped the world we live in. The course combines the study of key moments in the Cold War—the communist takeover of Eastern Europe, the Korean War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan—with an exploration of key themes including the Cold War’s impact on decolonization, and the contest for cultural supremacy between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Drawing on recent historiography and newly released archival documents, this course will take a truly global perspective on the Cold War, examining its impact on Europe and the Atlantic World, Asia, and Africa. The seminars will make extensive use of film, literary and visual sources.
Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper, Forgotten Wars: The End of Britain’s Asian Empire (2007)
Anthony Best, Jussi M. Hanhimäki, Joseph A. Maiolo, and Kirsten E. Schulze, International history of the twentieth century and beyond (2008)
Matthew Connelly, Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population (2008)
Bruce Cumings, The Korean War (2010)
Victoria De Grazia, Irresistible Empire: America’s Advance Through Twentieth Century Europe (2006)
John Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (2000).
John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (1998).
Jussi M. Hanhimäki and Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts (2004)
Tony Judt, Postwar (2006)
Melvyn P. Leffler, For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War (2007)
Lorenz Lüthi, The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the Communist World (2008)
Charles Maier, Among Empires: American Ascendancy and its Predecessors (2007)
Vijay Prashad, The Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World (2008)
Jeremi Suri, Henry Kissinger and the American Century (2007)
Odd Arne Westad, The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times (2007)
Vladislav Zubok, A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (2007)
Course Tutor: Carmen Mangion
This course examines developments in the social and cultural understandings of death and pain in Britain from the late eighteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. We will examine cultural responses – such as behaviours, beliefs and emotions – to these phenomena and question what they can tell us much about changes to social structures, individual and community identities and family relationships. The course will also address religion, secularisation and the medicalisation of the body as influences to changing ideas of death and pain. Engaging with historical texts, literature and visual sources, students will develop their historical interpretation skills and understand how diverse responses to death and pain reflected wider social and cultural change.
ARIES, P., Images of man and death (1985)
ARIES, P., The Hour of Our Death (1981)
ARIES, P., Western attitudes toward death: from the Middle Ages to the present (1974)
BENDING, L., The Representation of Bodily Pain in Late Nineteenth-Century English Culture (2000)
COAKLEY, S., and KAUFMAN, K. (eds.), Pain and its Transformations: The Interface of Biology and Culture (2007
CURL, J., The Victorian Celebration of Death (1972; 2002)
DAVIES, D J., Death, ritual, and belief: the rhetoric of funerary rites (1997)
DOLLIMORE, J., Death, desire, and loss in Western culture (1998)
HOWARTH, G & LEAMAN, O., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying (2002)
JALLAND, P., Death in the Victorian family (1996)
JUPP, P. and GITTINGS, C. (eds.), Death in England: an illustrated history (1999)
SCARRY, E., The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World (1985)
STRANGE, J.M., Death, grief and poverty, 1870-1914 (2005)
WALL, P., Pain: The Science of Suffering (1999)
Course Tutor: Orlando Figes
When did the Russian Revolution start? And when did it end? The aim of this course is to study the Russian Revolution in the longue durée, from its beginning in the nineteenth century (specifically in 1891, when the public's reaction to the famine crisis set it for the first time on a collision with the tsarist autocracy) to its end, with the collapse of the Communist regime in 1991.
We will chart this hundred years as a complete revolutionary cycle, within which there were successive waves of violence, erupting from the tension between the people and the state. In 1905 and February 1917 there were popular rebellions. But the state-engineered violence of the Civil War, the war against the peasantry (collectivization), and the terror campaigns of the 1930s, 1940s and early 1950s were all rooted in the instabilities of the Bolshevik regime - instabilities which had their origins in the coup d'état of October 1917.
Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution
Richard Pipes, Three Whys of the Russian Revolution
Martin Malia, The Soviet Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia
Moshe Lewin, The Soviet Century
Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891-1924
Abraham Ascher, The Revolution of 1905: A Short History
Geoffrey Hosking, The Russian Constitutional Experiment
Norman Stone, The Eastern Front, 1914-1917
Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power
Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes
Stephen Cohen, Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution
Dmitry Volkogonov, Lenin: A New Biography
Robert Tucker, Stalin in Power: The Revolution From Above
Leon Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed
Nicholas Timosheff, The Great Retreat
J. Arch Gettey and Oleg Naumov (eds.), The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self- Destruction of the Bolsheviks
Orlando Figes, The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia
Catherine Merridale, Ivan's War
Geoffrey Hosking, Rulers and Victims - The Russians in the Soviet Union
William Taubman, Khrushchev and His Era
Stephen Kotkin, Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse since 1970
Course Tutor: Julia Laite
‘Get tough on crime’ has become a mantra in contemporary Britain and Europe, and the function of the criminal justice system remains a pressing present-day policy issue. These problems and concerns have a long history, and crime and its repression has been a dominating social and political question throughout the modern period. In the nineteenth century, crime and its control came to the fore of political, social and scientific debates. This course will consider discourses and state responses to crime such as the rise of the criminal law, policing, and the modern justice system, the development of criminology, and the use of crime statistics, and ask how they were transformed over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It will also examine concrete manifestations of crime and ask what they can tell us about a particular society or social group. What impact did political and social change have upon crime and its repression? How did nation states define and deal with crime and disorder? Why and how did crime-control institutions develop? How did people experience crime and the criminal justice system? This course will help illuminate the intricate relationship between crime and punishment in nineteenth- and twentieth- century Britain.
Course Tutor: Julian Swann
For generations of scholars, Louis XIV was the model of an absolutist monarch. According to the dominant interpretation the king had completed the work of the great cardinal ministers, Richelieu and Mazarin, and had forged a powerful, centralised state that had broken the power of the protestant Huguenots, tamed the traditional unruly nobility and silenced previously independent institutions such as the parlements or provincial estates. By the end of the seventeenth century, Louis XIV had an army of 300,000 men, which added new provinces such as Franche-Comté and Flanders to the kingdom and proved capable of resisting powerful European coalitions, despite the terrible effects of the ‘years of sorrow’ that saw millions die from disease and malnutrition. Yet many historians have claimed that absolutism was a ‘myth’ and that the king’s power was, in reality very limited and was instead based upon a system of social collaboration with existing elites. This module will consider the arguments for and against the ‘revisionist’ interpretation, and will consider whether the concept of absolutism is still a useful means of approaching the history of seventeenth-century France. It will do so by concentrating on the crucial period from the outbreak of the War of the League of Augsburg (1688) to 1720, when the attempts to resolve the financial and religious legacy of Louis XIV’s reign provoked a major crisis between the Regency government and the Parlement of Paris. The period is particularly rich in primary sources, including the memoirs of the duc de Saint-Simon and the correspondence of the duchesse of Orléans as well as the important critiques of Louis XIV’s rule penned by the king’s critics both within France and abroad. The module will draw upon this primary material in order to provide an insight into the nature of Louis XIV’s regime, the nature of the crisis that it faced after 1688 and the implications of that crisis for the future of the French monarchy.
W. Beik, Absolutism and society in 17th-century France (1985)
P.R. Campbell, Louis XIV (1994)
J. Collins, The state in early modern France (2nd edn., 2010)
Daryl Dee, Expansion and Crisis in Louis XIV’s France: Franche-Comté and Absolute Monarchy, 1674-1715. (2009)
W. Doyle, Old regime France (2001)
N. Henshall, The myth of absolutism (1992)
Hurt, J.J., Louis XIV and the parlements (2002)
R. Mettam, Power and faction in Louis XIV's France (1988)
Rowlands, G., The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV. Royal Service and Private Interest, 1661-1701 (2002)
Smith, J., 'Our sovereign's gaze: king's, nobles and state formation in 17th century France', French Historical Studies 18 (1993), 396-415
Smith, J., The culture of merit: nobility, royal service, and the making of absolute monarchy in France (1996)
J. Swann, Provincial power and absolute monarchy: the estates general of Burgundy, 1661-1790 (2003), chaps. 1, 6
Course Tutor: Lee Moore
This module will provide understanding of the complexity of political thought and culture. By the end of the course, the students will be able confidently to examine multi-layered ancient sources such as Cicero, Caesar, Livy or the iconography of late Republican coinage. The course will foster awareness of historiographical debates raised by Roman Republican politics, both in the field of political thought, and of ancient history/classics.
General reading list – recommended to buy
M. Beard & M.H. Crawford (2000) Rome in the Late Republic (2nd ed.).
P.A. Brunt (1971) Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic.
C.B. Champion (2004) Roman Imperialism: Readings and Sources.
M.H. Crawford (1992) The Roman Republic (2nd ed.).
J.R. Patterson (2000) Political Life in the City of Rome.
N.S Rosenstein & R. Morstein-Marx (2006) A Companion to the Roman Republic.
H.H. Scullard (1982) From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 BC to AD 68 (5th ed.).
A. Wallace-Hadrill (2008) Rome's Cultural Revolution.
General reading list – supplemental reading, including journals and more specialist materials
J.P.V.D. Balsdon (1979) Romans and Aliens.
P. Garnsey & R. Saller (1987) The Roman Empire: Society and Culture.
E.S. Gruen (1974) The Last Generation of the Roman Republic.
W.V. Harris (1985) War and Imperialism in Republican Rome 327-70 BC. 2nd edition.
---------------- (1990) On defining the political culture of the Roman Republic: some comments on Rosenstein, Williamson, and North. Classical Philology 85: 288-294.
H. Hill (1952) The Roman Middle Class in the Republican Period.
K-J. Hölkeskamp (1993) Conquest, competition and consensus: Roman expansion in Italy and the rise of the nobilitas. Historia 42: 12-39.
R. Laurence (1994) Rumour and communication in Roman politics. Greece & Rome ns 41: 62-74.
N. Lewis & M. Reinhold (1990) Roman Civilisation: Selected Readings (two volumes)
A.W. Lintott (1999) The Constitution of the Roman Republic.
R. MacMullen (1980) Roman elite motivation: three questions. Past and Present 88: 3-16.
F. Millar (1984) The political character of the classical Roman Republic, 200–151 BC. Journal of Roman Studies 74: 1-19.
----------- (1986) Politics, persuasion and the people before the Social War (150–90 BC). Journal of Roman Studies 76: 1-11.
----------- (2002) The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic.
H. Mouritsen (2001) Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic.
C. Nicolet (1980) The World of the Citizen in Republican Rome.
W. Nippel (1995) Public Order in Ancient Rome.
J.A. North (1990) Democratic politics in Republican Rome. Past & Present 126: 3-21 (= Classical Philology 8: 277-287)
T. Parkin & A. Pomeroy (2007) Roman Social History: A Sourcebook.
E. Rawson (1974) Religion and politics in the late second century BC at Rome. Phoenix 28: 193-212.
N.S Rosenstein (1990) War, failure, and aristocratic competition. Classical Philology 85: 255-265.
---------------------- (1993) Competition and crisis in mid-Republican Rome. Phoenix 47: 313-338.
N.S Rosenstein, C. Williamson & J.A. North (1990) Responses to W.V. Harris. Classical Philology 85: 294-298.
H.H. Scullard (1955) Roman politics. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 2: 15-21.
------------------ (1973) Roman Politics, 220–150 BC (2nd ed.).
R. Syme (1939) The Roman Revolution.
L.R. Taylor (1949) Party Politics in the Age of Caesar.
T.P. Wiseman (1985) Roman Political Life 90 BC–AD 69.
Course Tutor: Jane McCarthy
Virgil's epic poem tells the story of Aeneas' escape from the destruction of Troy. After many adventures, including a doomed romance with Queen Dido of Carthage, he reached Italy. There his descendents eventually founded Rome. The Aeneid is regarded as one of the "great works" of world literature, and this module offers the opportunity to study the poem as a whole and through detailed discussion of selected passages.
We will consider the poem as literature, looking at Virgil's use of language and imagery. We will also look at wider literary themes, including the relationship between Virgil's poetry and Homer's epics, the role of the gods, heroism, characterisation, and individual responsibility.
The political and historical context of the Aeneid will form another major area of study. Virgil wrote the Aeneid as Augustus was establishing his position as emperor. We will examine whether or not Virgil's epic should be seen as part of a programme of cultural propaganda, supporting Augustus' imperial ideology. The way Virgil presents Rome's past, present and future and his influence upon contemporary literature will be considered as part of this discussion.
We will work from C. Day Lewis's translation, available in the Oxford World's Classics series.
The text used in class will be C. Day Lewis (2008) with an introduction by Jasper Griffin The Aeneid (Oxford)
Also available, and with a useful introduction by Elaine Fantham, is F. Ahl (2010) The Aeneid (Oxford)
Camps, W. A. (1969) Introduction to Virgil's Aeneid (Oxford)
Gransden, K. W. (1990) Virgil: The Aeneid (Cambridge)
Hardie, P.R. (1998) Virgil (Greece and Rome: New Surveys in the Classics 28) (Oxford)
Hardie, P.R. ed. (1999) Virgil: Critical Assessments, vols. 3-4 (London)
Harrison, S.J. (1990) Oxford Readings in Vergil’s Aeneid (Oxford)
Ross, D.O. (2007) Virgil’s Aeneid: A Reader’s Guide (Oxford)
Williams, R. D. (1987) The Aeneid (London)
Williams, R. D. (1998) Aeneas and the Roman Hero (London)
Course Tutor: Astrid Voigt
Virgil’s Aeneid is a literary monument set right at the heart of Augustan Rome. It tells us the story of the Trojan refugee Aeneas who finds his destined way to Italy, and, after his battles there, founds a new Troy, the future Rome. Taking the Homeric epic poems Iliad and Odyssey as its main models, the Aeneid (re-)defines the epic genre and becomes the point of reference for generations of poets to come. The way in which this grand Augustan tapestry is shot with fine threads of subtle literary technique makes it a sophisticated piece of art, inviting a great variety of approaches and divergent readings.
This course will provide the opportunity to read selected episodes of the poem very closely and also (further into the course) explore broader questions in relation to the poem (e.g. characterization of protagonists; the role of the divine; Virgil’s use of myth in the context of Augustan culture; Virgil’s literary career; his interaction with his predecessors and other poetic genres; the poem’s contribution to Roman self-definition as well as its polyphony and pathos; patronage and Virgil’s relationship to Augustus; and also aspects of Virgil’s narrative technique).
Preliminary Reading (in translation)
Virgil: Eclogues, Georgics
Homer: Iliad, Odyssey
Texts, Translations and Commentaries (in selection)
Conte G.B. (ed.) (2005): P. Vergilius Maro: Aeneis. Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Mynors, R.A.B. (ed.) (1969): P. Vergili Maronis Opera. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Recommended for purchase for the course)
Fairclough, Rushton H. (trans.) (ed.) (1999): Virgil. Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid I-VI. Revised by G.P. Goold. Camb. (Mass.): Harvard University Press. (First published 1916.)
Fairclough, Rushton H. (trans.) (ed.) (1999): Virgil. Aeneid VII-XII. Appendix Vergiliana. Revised by G.P. Goold. Camb. (Mass.): Harvard University Press. (First published 1916.)
Ahl, Frederick (trans.) (2007): Virgil: Aeneid. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McCrorie, Edward (trans.) (1995): The Aeneid. Virgil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
West, David (trans.) (1990): Virgil. The Aeneid. A new prose translation. London: Penguin Classics.
Conington, John; Nettleship, Henry (2007): Conington’s Virgil, Aeneid, Books I - II. With a new general introd. by Philip Hardie and an introd. to the Aeneid by Anne Rogerson. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. (orig. 1852-)
Horsfall, Nicholas (2008): Virgil, Aeneid 2: A Commentary. Leiden: Brill. (= Mnemosyne Supplement 299)
Conington, John; Nettleship, Henry (2008): Conington’s Virgil, Aeneid, Books III - VI. With a new general introd. by Philip Hardie and an introd. to the Aeneid by Anne Rogerson. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. (orig. 1852-)
Horsfall, Nicholas (2006): Virgil, Aeneid 3: A Commentary. Leiden: Brill. (= Mnemosyne Supplement 273)
Williams, Robert Deryck (1960): P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos liber quintus. Oxford: Clarendon. (1960).
Austin, Roland Gregory (1986): P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos liber sextus. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Conington, John; Nettleship, Henry (2009): Conington’s Virgil, Aeneid, Books VII - IX. With a new general introd. by Philip Hardie and an introd. to the Aeneid by Anne Rogerson. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. (orig. 1852-)
Horsfall, Nicholas (2000): Virgil, Aeneid 7. A commentary. Leiden: Brill. (= Mnemosyne Supplement 198.)
Gransden, K.W. (1976): Virgil. Aeneid. Book VIII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hardie, Philip (1994): Virgil. Aeneid. Book IX. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Conington, John; Nettleship, Henry (2008): Conington’s Virgil, Aeneid, Books X - XII. With a new general introd. by Philip Hardie and an introd. to the Aeneid by Anne Rogerson. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. (orig. 1852-)
Harrison, Stephen J. (1991): Vergil: Aeneid 10. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Nicholas Horsfall (2003): Virgil. Aeneid 11. A Commentary. Leiden: Brill. (= Mnemosyne Supplement 244)