Robert Boyle (1627-91): Work-diary XXXVII ('The XVI Century')

Content: Experimental notes, accounts and observations from 1686-90, many concerning the specific gravity of various substances

General Information


Work-diary entries

/BP 21, 191/

[Authorial heading]:
The XVI Century

Entry 1: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
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{ounce} 1 of purifyd Tinkal & {ounce} 1 of Oyl of Vitriol, together with {ounce} 4 of Water, to dilute the one & to facilitate the dissolution of the other were put to distill in a small Retort by degrees of fire, giving a strong one at last. The Event was, that there came over some Ounces of clear Liquor, that was but weak & [blank space in MS, 2 lines] & [d] then about {ounce} 1 by guess of a deep red Liquor, which thô somewhat transparent in drops, was in the <mass> opacous. That which remain'd in the Retort, & for whose Sake <principally> the Distillation was made, amounted to about {drachm} 6 of very clear & colourless Glass <besides some> parts <that> stuck so close to the inside of the Glass, that we could not well separate them.


Entry 2: Editorial notes:
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To render the more probable some Chymical Opinions of mine, I caus'd to be taken {pound} 1 of purify'd Salt peter, & three pound of good White Clay, which being powder'd & diligently incorporated with the Salt, the Mixture was put into a strong Hassian Retort, & distill'd with a naked fire, gradually increas'd till at length it came to be very strong. By this means we obtain'd about nine Ounces & a half of very strong Spirit of Nitre, that emitted red Fumes into the upper part of the Glass, thô it were closed with a Glass Stopple ground to it. The Caput mortuum weighed {pound} 3 & four ounces. So that in Spite of all the Laborants Care, who endeavour'd to make the Experiment exact, as He was told I intended it showed be, there wanted about 2 ; {ounce} of the four pound committed to Distillation. And yet we obtain'd much more than is usually afforded, when the Distillation is made with Earthen Long-Necks. For when the Laborant made the Spirit to sell for His own benefit, He usually obtain'd but somewhat more than five ounces, & seldom so much as six, out of a pound of Nitre. But the Phænomenon I mainly intended in this Operation was such as I look'd for. Since thô the Clay appeard /BP 21, 192/ by its weight to have retain'd four ounces of the Nitre, yet when it was carefully Lixiviated, even with scalding Water, the Laborant could get out but about 5 grains of Salt, that would pass through the Filtre: & that it self I judg'd by the Tast to be rather of a Nitrous Quality than of a Lixivial. With which it agrees well, that we did not find this Salt to produce a yellow Precipitate with the Solution of Sublimate, as Fixt Alcalies are wont to do


Entry 3: Editorial notes:
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To resolve a Question concerning the Cause & manner of Glaciation, we <took> a small spherical Glass, <&> filld it with common Water, & then took off the slender stem, & clos'd the Orifice of it, that the whole vessel might be the more easily cover'd, by the Oyl of Turpentine wherein it was to be immers'd. [d] In <this> Liquor (which we chose, as [d] not subject to freeze with an ordinary degree of Glaciating Cold) we suspended the foremention'd round Bubble, so as that it was every way cover'd with the Oyle & then we plac'd <it> in our Frigorific Mixture, the <containing> Vessel; which was of Glass, that we might see what should happen, & but slender, that the Glaciation design'd might the more easily be made. And accordingly in a very short time we found, that thô the Ambient Oyl of Turpentine continu'd altogether fluid, yet the [d] Water in the Globe was quite frozen, & had by its expansion <burst, & in many places [d] visibly crackt> the little vessel that contain'd it.


Entry 4: Editorial notes:
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Very fine Sulphur vive brought from Germany
weighed in the Air 306 gr.
in Water 152 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 2-1/77 to 1


Entry 5: Editorial notes:
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{ounce} 4 of Quicksylver, {ounce} 2 of Salarmoniac, & as many of Flower of Sulphur, being well ground together were sublim'd in an Urinal fit for the purpose. This being broken after the Operation was ended, the elevated part was mix'd again with the Caput mortuum, & the Sublimation was reiterated. This was done once more, so that the Matter was sublim'd thrice in all. And at the second time there was added to the Mixture <of> fresh Sulphur & Salarmoniac {ana} ; {ounce}. The Work being done, we had in the bottom of the Subliming Urinal /BP 21, 193/ [d] besides a kind of light Cinder {ounce} 3 + {drachm} 4 of a darkish purple colour'd Matter, that was ponderous, & so fixt that the Laborant affirm'd He kept the <Glass> about five hours, in a Heat that made the Sand <& Glass> red hot. The sublim'd Matter seem'd to be white, like Salarmoniac.


Entry 6: Editorial notes:
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A piece of fine Cannel Coa
weighed in the Air {drachm} 9 + 38 gr.
Water 5{drachm} + 49 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that 2 ⅓ - to 1


Entry 7: Editorial notes:
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{ounce} 6 of {sal ammoniac} being mix'd with {ounce} 3 of good filings of steel were sublim'd in an Urinal fit for that purpose, & afforded a Sublimate, partly white, partly yellow, & in some places reddish. All that came up was reconjoyn'd & well mix'd with the Caput mortuum, & then being sublim'd the second time, there came up {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 6 of stuff deeply colour'd & in great part reddish. The Caput mortuum, which was glistering, & in some places with shining flakes, was set to run per deliquium.


Entry 8: Editorial notes:
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A choice piece of Silver Oar, presented me by one that brought it from the best Mine in Saxon
weighed in the Air {drachm} 7 + 38 = 458
in Water {drachm} 6 + 6 = 366
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 5 - 1/46 to 1


Entry 9: Editorial notes:
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{ounce} 1 + 10 gr. of exceeding fine Sylver being cemented with Sulphur, weighed {ounce} 1 + 83 gr. So that its [d] Increase was in proportion [d] to its first weight as 1 is to 6 52/73 or 6 13/18 - .


Entry 10: Editorial notes:
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{ounce} 1 of fine Sylver being dissolv'd in {aqua fortis} precipitated with Salt water, dulcifyd & well dry'd, was found to have gain'd 34 grains in weight.


Entry 11: Editorial notes:
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The Cubic Inch of Brass weighed {drachm} 11 + 3 gr. Being counterpois'd & <exactly> fill'd with Tin-ashes without shaking them (to make them sink) or pressing them down <it> weighed {drachm} 9 + 14 gr. After they were made to sink considerably by shaking without pressing them down, & the Instrument was filld up again <it> weighed {drachm} 11 + 43 gr. Having press'd as many into it as I could with my thumb, it weighed {drachm} 14 + 19 gr. more


/BP 21, 194/

Entry 12: Editorial notes:
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A stone taken out of the [d] Kidney <of a Spaniel that dy'd of it,> weighed {drachm} 9 + 46 gr.
A piece of this stone weighing in the Air {drachm} 6 + 11 gr.
weighed in the Water {drachm} 2 + 15 gr.
So that its proportion to the weight of an equal bulk of Water, was as that of 1 135/236 = 35/59 + to 1


Entry 13: Editorial notes:
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The lesser seal'd Thermoscope, furnish'd with Quicksylver instead of Spirit of Wine, and in whose lower part the Mercury from the bottom to the upper Surface, reach'd by our guess about two inches: this Instrument, I say, we put into a mixture of beaten Ice & Salt, that reach'd as far as the uppermost part of the Mercury, & was of a considerable thickness all about the rest of that fluid Metal. The Event was, that, as we expected, the Mercury was somewhat condens'd by the great Cold & fell beneach the Mark its surface rested at when we put in the Instrument, about 3/16 by our considerate guess. And thô <we> continu'd the Thermoscope a good while longer in the cold mixture, yet it did not descend manifestly lower, nor did it at all, that we could perceive, freeze the Quicksylver in the stem, thô this were as small as a Crows quill, & a drop of Liquor, that had I know not how got in at the first making of the Instrument, was frozen long before


Entry 14: Editorial notes:
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A Stone <taken out of the Kidney of a Spaniel that> dy'd of it [d] was found to weigh [d] nine drams & 46 grains. It was in shape somewhat like one of those rowling pins that cooks make use of to raise past with. Its Colour was white both without & within. But when we came to divide it transversly in the thickest part, we did not find that like Calculi humain & Bezoar Stones, it was made up of several beds of matter embracing one another like the rinds of an Onyon. For it seem'd to be one entire lump of matter, almost like Chalk, save that about the most internal part there seem'd to have been a thin Cavity, as broad as the nail of a mans finger, which was environ'd by a matter [d] full of small Angles /BP 21, 195/ almost like fine white Tartar, which look'd as if it had been form'd in a fluid substance by Concretion. Part of this Stone was beaten into fine Powder, which appear'd exceeding white; & upon a portion of this we put some Spirit of Nitre, which seem'd to have some operation upon it, but not any thing near so brisk a one, as that Menstruum uses to have on Stones taken out of Men. A large Fragment of this Stone
weighing in the Air {drachm} 9 + 46 gr
weighed in the Water {drachm} 2 + 15 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 1 135/236 or 1 34/59 + to 1


Entry 15: Editorial notes:
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A Cube of Brass every way an inch weighed 4 ; {ounce} + 38 gr.


Entry 16: Editorial notes:
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One drop of a Tincture or Solution of Emery made in Aqua regis, turn'd in a trice a spoonfull or two of Infusion of Galls into an Inky Liquor.


Entry 17: Editorial notes:
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Into the same Tincture of Emery we put a great proportion of Quicksylver, which at first drew down the Metalline Part of Emery, & made a kind of a brittle Amalgame, which by shaking the vial was much increas'd. But after the Glass had stood quiet a good while, we were surpris'd to find so great an Effervescence of the Ingredients, that almost all the Mixture ran out of the vial.


Entry 18: Editorial notes:
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{ounce} 7 of Oyl of Guajacum, being slowly rectify'd in a Retort, there remain'd behind about an ounce of Caput mortuum extremely black; which was dry enough to be very brittle, & easily reducible to a fine powder somewhat glistering. That part of it that was contiguous to the bottom of the Retort, appear'd more black & more glossy than the best polish'd black marble I remember to have seen.


Entry 19: Editorial notes:
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<Some lumps of> Venetian Talk being kept in a strong Calcining Fire <for> about 27 hours, was in great part brought both within & without to a fine golden Colour, & some of the Internal Flakes appear'd very smooth & glossy.


/BP 21, 196/

Entry 20: Editorial notes:
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We put a Mouse into a Glass, of which He fill'd, according to our Estimate, about a 5th part. To this we fasten'd very close, but not without difficulty, a Lambs Bladder, whose Capacity seem'd not to differ much from that of the Glass, <I mean, when> when it was full blown: for when we tyd it upon the vessel, we had [d] by wreathing it & otherwise, carefully squeez'd out [d] the greatest part by far, of the Air. This dilatable Receiver (as for distinctions sake I use to call such a vessel) was put into another Receiver, so contriv'd that part of the Air might be suckt out, without a Pump. But the Exsuction was not <then> made so great, as to [d] distend the Bladder near so much, as it was capable of being. And, thô this Expansion of the Air in the dilatable Receiver, did so far rarefye it, that it appear'd to molest the included Animal, & made him often shift places <and postures> ; yet it did not appear to make him very sick, or cast him into convulsive motions. Wherefore to compleat the Experiment, <& show, that <thô> a moderate Rarefaction of the Air (as if it be expanded about a <5th or> 4th part) <makes> it not altogether unfit for respiration, yet an expansion to double the Room or a little more, may make it so;> we did, by the help of an exhausting Glass, so rarefye the Air in the outward Receiver, that the Air shut up in the Dilatable Receiver, passd so plentifully out of the Glass into the Bladder, as to display the Folds & Wrinkles, & fill it as if it had been blown <up> with a pair of Bellows. And by this means the expanded Air in the whole Receiver, being brought, by our Estimate to take up twice as much room as it did before, this expanded Air became too rarefy'd, to be fit for Respiration, & the Mouse, after several <vain> attempts to get out, grew presently very sick, & fell into strong <& differing> Convulsive Motions, by which He was quickly laid upon his back, with his trembling Feet upwards, & appear'd <to be> upon the very point of death. Wherefore making hast to let the <Ambient Air into the> outward Receiver, the Bladder was thereby made to shrink again, & the dilated Air it contain'd was repell'd into the Glassy part of the Vessel, & so acquir'd its former density, & becoming fit for Respiration, quickly recover'd, thô not all at once, the fainting Mouse, which within a very few Minutes was in a condition to make use of the liberty I gave it, to make its Escape.


/BP 21, 197/

Entry 21: Editorial notes:
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A mixture of Tin [blank space in MS, 7-8 characters]
weighed in the Air {drachm} 6 + 12 gr.
in Water 5{drachm} + 20 gr.
So that the proportion of its weight to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 7 3/26 to 1


Entry 22: Editorial notes:
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A lump of choice Tin Oar
weighed in the Air {ounce} 6 + 13 gr.
in Water {ounce} 4 + {drachm} 6 + 34
So that its proporion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 4 + 441/613 to 1


Entry 23: Editorial notes:
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A Stone affirm'd to have been taken out of the Head of a monstrous Snake in Africa
weighed in the Air 5{ounce} + {drachm} 2 + 42 gr.
in Water {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 5 + 17 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of [blank space in MS, undefined]


Entry 24: Editorial notes:
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A piece of Native Cinnabar bought by Mr Longuevil weighed in the Air 120 gr. in W. 85. So that its Prop. to an equall bulk of W. was as that of 3 15/35 to 1

A piece of native Cinnabar very sparkling weighed
in the Air {drachm} 3 + [46] gr.
in Water {drachm} 3 + 14 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water, was as that of 7 1/16 to 1. Another piece of <coarser> Native Cinnabar [d] weighed in the A. 4 ; {ounce} + 81 gr. in W. {ounce} 3 {drachm} 7 + 14 gr. So that the proportion was as that of 6 39/367 to 1


Entry 25: Editorial notes:
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A pound of block Tin being melted in a broad Iron pot, there was put to it little by little {pound} 2 of freshly powder'd Quicklime, which would not enter without stirring it well, but by that means was so well mix'd the Metal that in a little more than two hours, the whole was reduc'd to a fine whitish Calx wherein nothing of Metal appear'd


Entry 26: Editorial notes:
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A young Sparrow being bitten in the <Thigh> by a Viper, dy'd within 3 minutes or somewhat less.


Entry 27: Editorial notes:
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Another young Sparrow, being almost at the same time bitten by a Viper, lay in such a condition, as made the bystanders think it would not long survive the former, thô an East-Indian Snake-Stone, brought for tryal by Mr James Fraser, were almost all the while held upon the bitten Part of the [d] Thigh. But within about a quarter of an hour, by our guess, the <Bird> began to open its Eyes & look about, & a while after to chirp & gape for food, & within no long time after that, to fly to & fro in the room, as far as being not full fledgd it was able.


Entry 28: Editorial notes:
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A Hen or large Pullet, being bitten by a large Viper at 48 minutes after ten, had an East-Indian Snake-Stone, brought for tryal by Sir Robert Gordon, applyd to it. But it seems it was not a genuine, or at least a good one. For this Animal dy'd about four a clock in the afternoon, with manifest appearances of Poyson.


/BP 21, 198/

Entry 28a: Editorial notes:

of the Differences between Native Copper & that which is melted out of the Ore.
of the First Qualities of Copper, viz. Heat, Cold &c.
of the Colours of C. & particularly of That which comes from Japan.
of the differing Colours that C. exhibits in differing Menstruums.
of the Colour that C. imparts in Vitrification.
of the Colours C. acquires by Mixtures with other Minerals.
of the Sound of Copper.
of the Odour of C.
of the Tast of C.
of the Specific Gravity of C.
of the Malleableneness, Ductility &c of C.
of the Fusibleness of C.
Whether C. be an Homogenous Body.
of the analysis <of> C. pretended to by Chymists.
Whether from C. may be extracted any true Salts
of the vitriol of C. & the wayes of making it.
Whether from C. may be obtain'd a true running Mercury? And of some cheating wayes of making it seem to afford one
Whether from C. may be separated or otherwise obtain'd a true Sulphur? And of the way of making a disguis'd one.
of a red Tincture obtainable from C. by a peculiar Menstruum
Whether from C. may be obtain'd a {tincture}, especially so as to leave the Body white? And if so, Of what Colour that {tincture} will be?
of a surprising Effect of this last nam'd Tincture
of the white body of C. that would remain after the extraction of the Tincture


/BP 21, 199/

Entry 29: Editorial notes:
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But another like Animal (save that it was lesser & had been accidentally <[d]> bruis'd [d] before) was bitten in the like place; & yet, Mr. Frasers Stone formerly mention'd, being apply'd to Him, escap'd very well, <& is> still alive N.B. 1. That the Stone was not only apply'd to the bitten part as soon as the Hurt was made, but was kept on as long as it was thought needfull, to try whether the Animal would recover or not. N. B. 2. that the Stone being taken off from one of the bitten Animals, not long after it had been apply'd, did indeed, according to the Tradition, produce some Bubbles in a little Milk it was plung'd into. But I was not convincd that they proceeded, <as 'tis taken for granted> from the Venom that past from the Stone into the Milk; but guess'd rather, they came from some Particles of Air, that were harbour'd in the <little Cavities of the surface> of the Stone which was manifestly rough, & were carry'd down with it into the Milk, which entring those Cavities expell'd the Air thence. And to examine my Conjecture a little farther I caus'd the Milk to be kept for divers hours, but observ'd not any part of it Coagulated, as probably [d] would have happen'd if any Acid Poyson had past into it.


Entry 30: Editorial notes:
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A [d] Gyants Tooth lately found in Ireland
weighed in the Air 784 gr.
in the Water 425
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 2 66/359 to 1


Entry 31: Editorial notes:
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A self petrify'd Crab brought from Siam weighed
in the Air {drachm} 5+21 gr.
in the Water {drachm} 3 +17
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 1 114/197 to 1


Entry 32: Editorial notes:
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{pound} 1 of beaten Salarmoniac being put into a glass Cucurbite furnish'd with 5 pints (or pounds) of Water, did in about 10 or 12 minutes, or somewhat less, make the Spirit in a gag'd Thermoscope descend (sometimes hastily enough) to almost a quarter of an inch beneath the Freezing Mark. Yet no Case or Shell of Ice was produc'd in the outside of the Glass; but only as far as the Solution reach'd within, there adher'd outwardly a great deal of conspicuous Dew or small drops of Water, that continu'd there a great while after the Solution was ended. When we perceiv'd no more Salt to dissolve, but the Coldness of the Liquor began to remit, we set into it a Cylindrical vial 8 or 10 inches long, & by guess about an [d] inch & a half in Diameter, almost fill'd with common Water, & suffer'd it to stand there for about about <4> or 5 Minutes; & then giving it a Bystander to /BP 21, 200/ tast, it was found as cold as one that was carefull of his health, would wish his Drink should be. But presently after, causing the same Cylindrical vial to be mov'd a while to & fro in the Solution, the Coldness was manifestly increas'd; insomuch that a Virtuoso that took some of the Water into his Mouth, complain'd both then & sometime after, that <[d] it> had injur'd his teeth. A manifest degree of Coldness [d] from the beginning of the Operation continu'd <till> about an hour after as far as I could guess; but the drops on the outside of the Glass <[d] lasted> much longer. <NB> To show an ingenious Bystander, that the density, of the Water <may> have a great thô unsuspected, interest in <some> Phænomena of Heat & Cold, I <did> at a convenient time, when the red Spirit was low in the Thermometer, take the Instrument out of the Solution into the free Air, & observ'd by a Watch that show'd Seconds, how far the Spirit would ascend in half a Minute, & then, ducking the ball of the Thermoscope into common Water, that stood by in a wide mouth'd glass, <within> another half minute, the Water made the ting'd Spirit to <ascend so hastily> that we judgd it to have risen <in> the same time at least 4 times as much.


Entry 33: Editorial notes:
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At Another time the Tincture <in the gaged Thermoscope> descended from 6 to 3 ¾ in a [d] full Solution of Nitre. And when it would fall no lower, we threw plenty of Salarmoniac into the same solution, & by that means made the ting'd Spirit subside to about ¼ below one, in the same [d] Instrument


Entry 34: Editorial notes:
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{ounce} 4 of good Honey being Calcin'd to a black shining & insipid Caput mortuum, was found to have lost 3 ; {ounce} so that there remain'd half an ounce in the form of a light Cinder, which was put into another Crucible, & kept 3 hours in a Calcining Fire, where it lost {drachm} 2 of its weight. But the remaining {drachm} 2 were not at all Incinerated, & look'd not like Ashes, but appear'd rather blacker than before.


Entry 35: Editorial notes:
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[d] {ounce} 4 of Loaf-sugar burnt at the same time with the Honey, left about {ounce} 1 of black shining & insipid Caput mortuum


/BP 21, 201/

Entry 36: Editorial notes:
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In Gs Distillation of {pound} 6 of Sugar (besides the Sand 'twas mix'd with) the Liquor that came over being Rectify'd, afforded {ounce} 13 of Phlegm, & lb2 + {ounce} 4 of Spirit, & by guess about {ounce} ; of Oyl, whereof a good Part was of a Pitchy Substance, & obstinately stuck to the vessels


Entry 37: Editorial notes:
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<Half a pint, amounting to> {ounce} 3 + {drachm} 1 of Millepedes, being distill'd in a Retort afforded {ounce} 2 of volatile Spirit & Oyl.


Entry 38: Editorial notes:
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The Bolonian Stone
weighed in the Air {drachm} 5 + 30 gr.
in Water {drachm} 4 + 15 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 4 30/75 = 6/15 is to 1


Entry 39: Editorial notes:
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A Leaden Bullet
weigh'd in the Air {ounce} 3 + 73 gr.
in Water {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 6 + 57 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 11 ⅛ to 1


Entry 40: Editorial notes:
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An Ox-eye
weighed in the Air {drachm} 7 + 36 gr.
in Water 19 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 1 1/23 to 1

(A Sheeps Spleen
weighed in the Air {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 1 + 34 gr.
in the Water {drachm} 1 + 12 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 1 1/13 to 1)

The Chrystalline Humour of the Oxes Eye
weighed in the Air 35 gr.
in Water 3 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 1 1/10 - to 1.

(The Vitreous Humour of the same Eye weighed in the Air {drachm} 3 + 7 gr.)


Entry 41: Editorial notes:
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Between half a pint & a pint of fresh (morning) urine was put into a flat bottom'd Bolthead with a long Cylindrical stem of such [d] capacity that two [d] thirds by guess of the whole vessel were left empty Then the Glass was hermetically seal'd, that we might observe, whether the exclusion of the outward Air, would notwithstanding the included Air, keep the Liquor from Putrefaction, or, as 'tis commonly call'd, Fermentation. [d] The date of the beginning of the Experiment was set down in a Note, which being unluckily lost, we could not know precisely how long the Vessel had [d] stood when we came to open it , which was at the end of June. But we concluded upon good Grounds, that at least the Liquor had been kept above 6 moneths. At the end of this time it appear'd clear enough, but not much alter'd in Colour. /BP 21, 202/ The bottom of the Glass was cover'd thinly over with a subsiding or precipitated Matter.

When the seal'd Apex of the Glass was to be broken off, I endeavour'd to observe whether it had produc'd any Elastical Air, or destroy'd any; but the noise we could not avoid making in breaking the Glass <rendred> the Observation difficult to be made. Only it seem'd to me that some little noise that was produc'd distinct from that of the cracking of the Glass, was rather made by some air that rush'd into it, than by any that flew out of it. 'Twas wonder'd <at> that the Smell should after so long a time be so little alter'd. Which made me suspect the Putrefaction had been hinder'd. And accordingly I found that the Liquor wrought but very faintly, as fresh Urine also is wont to do, upon a Solution of Sublimate. Nor would it turn Syrup of Violets green; nor make any Effervescence, or manifest Conflict with an Acid Spirit, as that of salt; <both which> Urine, after but 6 weeks Putrefaction, is wont to do.


Entry 42: Editorial notes:
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{ounce} 4 of Red Coral being calcin'd for [blank space in MS, ] hours in a Crucible, & weighed again, amounted to {ounce} 2 + 25 gr. Troy - weight


Entry 43: Editorial notes:
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{ounce} 4 of Saltpeter being made into Sal prunellæ with Oyl of Turp. weighed 2 ; {ounce} + 7 gr. Troy.


Entry 44: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
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Mustard Seed being distilled in a Retort, afforded a considerable Proportion of Liquid Matter, whereof near one half appear'd in the form of a black supernatant Oyle. And the rest was a reddish Spirit, that appear'd to be of an Urinous Nature, since, thô unrectify'd, it readily turn'd Syrup of Violets green, & Precipitated Sublimate white.


Entry 45: Editorial notes:
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An entire Oriental Bezoar Stone weighing
in the Air 187 gr.
in the Water 61 gr.
So that its Proportion to an equal bulk of Water, was as that of 1 30/63 + to 1

A Fragment of another such Stone
weighing in the Air 56 ½
weighed in the Water 22 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 1 44/69 to 1


Entry 45a: Editorial notes:

[Capt Strouds Names of the best Cornish Mines

Venlake in Dartmoore.
olacut Beeme.
Bottle hill Tin by Nunam in Devonshire, with yellow Mundic. Nosworths Bridge.
Blaclor. Armehead. Clasewell.]


/BP 21, 203/

Entry 46: Editorial notes:
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A Manatee Stone Weighing in the Air- 450 gr.
weighed in Water- 293 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 2 13/15 + 1.


Entry 47: Editorial notes:
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A piece of Tutty weighing in the Air 104 gr.
weighed in Water- 81 + gr.
So that its proporion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 4 12/23 to 1


Entry 48: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

It has been elsewhere mention'd that a piece of Glacial Noctiluca in the Custody of a Domestic of mine, was kept so long that at the end of the 3d or 4th year we found it to shine <upon the taking out of the Kork it had been stopt with.> I shall now add, that this was done in the first week of August; & that having for Ffurther Tryals sake kept the Glass under lock & key, till the Second Week of that August that came two years after, I did the other day take it out, & thô I unstopt it in the broad daytime, & in a place not very obscure, yet [d] immediately the whole Cavity of the Glass was filld with a brisk Light, & perhaps as vivid as [d] when the Noctiluca was first put up [d] So that the [d] Disposition to become Lucid, upon the appulse of the free Air lasted 5 or 6 year, thô the [d] Phosphorus first put up were but of inconsiderable bulk, covering but the bottom of one of these slender Glasses ( <not> so thick as ones little finger) that are commonly called Essence-vials.


Entry 49: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Being minded to repeat an Experiment I had many years ago made, when I chanc'd to be in the Country in a place where I could procure no furnace, I caus'd to be taken half a bushel of Wheat-bran, & five pints of common Water. These were mix'd together in a Wooden Pale that was very tight upon Friday the 5th of August; but having been press'd too close together, there was produc'd but little Heat for above two Dayes: & then the Matter being stirr'd, that it might be more loose & [d] accessible to the Air, the <Heat> quickly [d] increased, & invited us to place in the midst of the Pale, a pretty large Body & Head of Glass, with a fit quantity of common Brandy in it, by which means in about 3 dayes We had in the Receiver about half a Pint of Spirit very diaphanous, & more pleasant than the Liquor that afforded it. After this, the Heat being decay'd, but not [d] lost (for it was still greater than to be measur'd by a gag'd Thermoscope we put into it) [d] we caused [d] /BP 21, 204/ the matter to be stirr'd up & a quart of <moderately> warm water to be mix'd up with it; & then having pour'd out the remaining Brandy, we put in the same Cucurbite some ordinary Spirit of Urine to be Rectify'd <from> which in about 2 dayes we obtain'd about {ounce} 2 by guess of fine [d] Spirit of Urine, & afterwards having taken out this Liquor & a second time <well> stirr'd up the Matter [d], which now appear'd to have produc'd store of Maggots; but without the Addition of Water it quickly grew so hot that we were invited to put some crude Urine, which had been kept above 6 weeks in Putrefaction, into the same Body, after we had pour'd the Spirit of Urine out of it. And this crude Urine did, as we expected, afford us as great a proportion of good Spirit of Urine as we thought it worth while to draw. And now upon the 17th of August the Matter (which begins to smell strongly, & abounds in Maggots) seems to be as warm as ever. So that when <I had thrust> my Hand in it I was not displeas'd it was no hotter.


Entry 50: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

[Aug. 26 <in the Afternoon> two little bits of Phosphorus were shut up in 2 pint glasses of a Cylindrical shape & about [blank space in MS, 2 characters] inches in diameter: one being left full of air, & the other half exhausted, but both shut up from all entercourse with the outward Air. Aug. 27. they were look'd upon <in the day time> & both found to continue shining [d] Being look'd upon again at night, that in the <exhausted> Glass was found quite dark, thô the other gave an indifferent good Light still. But after a few Minutes the former all of a sudden began to shine again & that more vividly than the other, & so continu'd for 2 or 3 minutes by guess, & then the Light began to [d] decrease & very soon evanish'd. Quickly after this the other Light went out <also> in like manner, & [d] continu'd dark about half a quarter of an hour, before it began to shine again, which it did suddenly like the former, but not near so soon, thô when it was once kindled again, it continu'd <shining> much longer. And thus they were observ'd for about an hours time <sometimes> to give light both together, sometimes the one & not the other, & sometimes neither: sometimes to go out suddenly, & sometimes by degrees: & <at> sometimes to continue longer shining or dark <than at other> times. But the Light in the Glass that was full of Air lasted alwayes much longer than the other, & when it was once extinguish'd <did usually> continue longer dark. When the Light reappear'd in either of the Glasses it was alwayes of a sudden, being vivid the very first moment; /BP 21, 205/ not unlike to a Fire lately kindled when it breaks out suddenly into a Flame. Sometimes the Light was constant, & at other times increas'd & decreas'd by turns, like the flame of a Candle burning within the socket. The following night <also> they were observ'd [d] to shine & grow <dark> againe per vices much after the like manner. Two nights after that one of them was found quite dark & was never observ'd to shine more. The other was found shining, but after a while its Light evanish'd also. A night <or> two after, That last mention'd was found shining, thô but dimly, & continu'd so to do for an hour or two, without any likelyhood of disappearing as it usd to do. And this is the last time that it was observ'd to shine

weighed in the Air 198 gr
in Water 88 gr
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was about 1 11/14 to 1


Entry 51: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{pound} 2 of good French Verdegreece being first dry'd & then distill'd with a strong fire, afforded us about {ounce} 14 of Spirit with but little Phlegm: and no Oyl that we took notice of past into the Receiver. The Caput mortuum lookt almost like Crocus Veneris, & part of it that was strongly clotted together, had an appearance of a beginning Reduction


Entry 52: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

The great Marbles, 3 ⅙ inches in Diameter, <being Oyl'd> sustain'd eighty four pounds.


Entry 52a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

[A great old Medal found at Pauls weighed in the Air {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 1 + 6 gr.
in the Water {ounce} 1
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 8 ¼ to 1]


Entry 53: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

An [d] exactly turn'd Globe of Iron of an inch Diameter weighed {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 7 + 6 gr. Another exactly turn'd Globe of Steel of the same Diameter weighed {ounce} 2 + 26 gr.


Entry 54: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

[d] There was taken of good clear Oyl of English Vitriol & high rectify'd Brandy, of each one pound. These were [d] mix'd together by degrees for fear of overheating the vessel, & they quickly acquir'd both a yellowish Colour & a good scent. This Mixture having been digested for some dayes was put into a large Retort & distill'd in a sand Furnace with a very slowly graduated heat, so that the /BP 21, 206/ Distillation lasted about 4 dayes. During which the Receiver was several times taken off, & the Liquors pour'd out, & kept in distinct Glasses to observe their differences. That which came over first, which was guess'd to be between two & three ounces, was well sented, but both in Smell & Tast was much inferiour to the second parcel of Spirit, which was brisk & very Aromatical. These came over before the Oyl, & both <together> amounted to {ounce} 7 + {drachm} 2 <About the same time with the Acid Spirit began to come over a whitish Oyl more ponderous than the Spirit it self, which we took off at twice. The first parcel <that> weighed {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 2 retain'd something of the Aromatic Sent of the Spirit, thô not if I
Acid {spirit} 1. {ounce} 4 + {drachm} 2
2. {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 3;
Oyl 1. {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 2
2. {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 7
3. {spirit} {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 7
{caput mortuum} {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 3
misremember not without some Sulphureous Alloy; but the Tast was, thô very penetrant yet pleasant, like that of some Aromatic Oyl. The other parcel, which weighed {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 7, smell'd Sulphureous (perhaps on the account of the Acid Spirit,) but tasted very well, & like an Essential Oyl. And the whole Oyl together amounted to {ounce} 5 + {drachm} 1> Then there came an Acid Spirit, whereof the first part weighing {ounce} 4 + {drachm} 2 was somewhat Sulphureous; & afterwards that which came over was more Acid & <more> Sulphureous, & [d] was taken off at several times: Of this the first parcel weighed {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 3;, the next (which was also the last) {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 7. So that the whole Acid Spirit amounted to {ounce} 8[d] + {drachm} 4;. The Caput mortuum, which weighed {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 3, was both without & within of a deep & shining black, almost like Jet, but not very friable.


Entry 55: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A sort of red glass that look'd blew at the edges weighed in
Air 83 gr.
Water 51 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 2 19/32 or ⅝ - to 1


Entry 56: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Mr W's Vitrum Saturni made per se weighed in
Air {drachm} 7 + 26 gr.
Water {drachm} 6 + 15 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 6 2/7 - to 1


/BP 21, 207/

Entry 57: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A fine Oriental Bezoar Stone weighed
in the Air 172 gr.
in Water 60 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 1 15/28 to 1


Entry 58: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A piece of Manganese
in the Air {drachm} 5 + 21 gr.
in Water {drachm} 3 + 50 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 3 48/91 to 1


Entry 59: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 1 of totally Ardent Spirits was by 8 drops of slowly rectify'd & very clear Oyl of Hartshorn, manifestly impregnated with the Tast & more with the Smell of the Oyl


Entry 60: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 2 of <strong> Oyl of Vitriol were satiated with {ounce} 6 + {drachm} 4 [d] of good strong Spirit of Urine. But two ounces more of the same Oyl of Vitriol took but {ounce} 5 of very strong {spirit} of {sal ammoniac} with Quicklime.


Entry 61: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{pound} 6 of Crystals of Saltpeter being (according to our way doubly) Calcin'd with Charcoal, afforded but {pound} 2 + {ounce} 1 of fiery Alcaly


Entry 61a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A Lump of French Chalk (to take out Spots withall
weighed in the Air {drachm} 7 + 28 gr.
in Water {drachm} 4 + 48 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 2 8/10 to 1


Entry 62: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 4 of well fix'd Alcaly of Nitre being mingl'd with {ounce} 1 of white Sand Calcin'd (as Chymists think) & kept about a full hour in fusion, the Mixture swell'd & puff'd much, almost like crude Alum when put to Calcine, but at length came to a Glass-like mass, that whilst hot was pretty transparent, & seem'd manifestly to have by Candle-light between a blewish & a greenish Colour. It was very fiery upon the tongue, & so apt to contract the moisture, as they speak, that the surface grew soft as soon as it was grown quite cold, if not before.


Entry 63: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 2 of purg'd {mercury} & {ounce} 6 of good Oyl of {vitriol} being distill'd together, afforded {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 3 of very white & flaky substance, fit to make Turbith of.


Entry 64: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 3 of the Compound Regulus of {iron} & {copper} being kept about 4 hours in good fusion with thrice its weight of fiery Alcaly of {nitre}, the Salt appear'd to have devour'd <about> {ounce} 1; of the Regulus, the rest being reduc'd into a lump.


Entry 65: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

The high yellow Tincture drawn with {spirit of wine} from the red Tincture of undulcify'd Colcothar of English {vitriol}, did readily turn an Infusion of Galls into an Inky Substance. And the same {tincture} with {spirit} of {urine} afforded a /BP 21, 208/ copious Precipitate, whereof some part was of a fine red Colour.


Entry 66: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{drachm} 1 of Gold being dissolv'd in Aqua Regia & precipitated cum Liquore Silicum, the Powder struck down being well dulcify'd & throughly dry'd, amounted to {drachm} 2 wanting above a grain, which may be reasonably presum'd to have been lost by sticking to the Filter &c And 'tis to be noted, that notwithstanding all our Care, the Liquor that pass'd through the Filter, being left in a wide mouth'd glass for some dayes in the Air, let fall a pretty copious reddish Powder, & had its surface almost cover'd with a floating substance that look'd manifestly of a Golden nature. These things I have not yet had opportunity to examine.


Entry 67: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Some Pebbles that being made red hot, quench'd in Water & broken, appear'd to be within of blewish, brownish, & other Colours, but [d] scarce any red; these broken Pebbles, I say, being finely powder'd & searc'd, & brought to good fusion with 4 times their weight of Fixt Nitre, so as to be almost Vitrefy'd, appear'd in the form of a Cake of a high Colour that was blew partaking of green. This mass being seasonably beaten in a warm mortar, to prevent its drawing the Moisture of the Air, had totally Ardent Spirits put upon it, which in very few hours had acquir'd a Blood red Tincture. [d]


Entry 68: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{pound} 1 of Salt of good Potashes was made by Filtration & Coagulation, & being joyn'd with an equal weight of powder'd Salarmoniac, there was distill'd thence all the Urinous Spirit & Volatile Salt that would come over. <Then> the {caput mortuum}, being taken out and powder'd should <have> been mingl'd with twice or thrice its weight of Tobacco-pipe Clay, <but> it was by the mistake of the Laborant mingl'd with 5 times its weight, & being distilld with a strong fire, there were forc'd over {ounce} 6 {drachm} 6 [d] of a Gold-colour'd Spirit, that smell'd partly <like> & partly unlike Spirit of Salt, after it had been a while kept stopt in the Vial. Which Circumstance is added, because when the Retort & Receiver were first parted, there was produc'd an unexpected Scent that was taken notice of by two persons that were by; whereof one who knew not whence it came, took it to be somewhat like that of Musk; whereas the other, who was the Laborant himself, told me (when He brought me the Liquor) that He rather resembled the perfum'd Steams to those of Ambergreece. The {caput mortuum} being taken out appear'd not to have almost any Tast. And {pound} 1 of it being put into Common Water

[d]


/BP 21, 209/

Entry 69: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 2 of strong Oyl of {vitriol} took {ounce} 5 of very strong Spirit of Sal armoniac made with Quicklime to satiate it.


Entry 70: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A Scottish Amethyst weighed in the Air 390 gr.
in Water 243 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 2 96/147 to 1


Entry 71: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Copper & tin {ana} colliquated, & weighing in the Air {ounce} 1; + 48
weighed in Water {ounce} 1 {drachm} 3 + 18
So that the proportion of this Mixture to an equal bulk of Water was <somewhat [d] below> that of [d] 8 ⅓ to 1.


Entry 72: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Kelp was by solution filtration & coagulation brought to a fine white Salt, on which some Liquor that it had retain'd or attracted from the moist Air was pour'd. This was in tast salsus, not Acid, Lixivial, or Urinous. It would neither deprive the double Tincture of its Blewness, nor restore that Colour to it, <when> a very little Spirit of Vinegar had made it disappear. The same Salt Liquor being dropt upon Syrup of Violets, seem'd to make little or no change of its Colour, at least whilst I look'd on: nor did it at first make a Precipitation when dropt into a Solution of Sublimate. Being mix'd with a little {aqua fortis}, it enabled this Menstruum to dissolve some Leaf-gold that I put into it. And when Oyl of {vitriol} was pour'd on some of the Salt, there was presently produc'd a great Conflict between them & not without noise, & store of white Fumes were rais'd.


Entry 73: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Water brought to the saltness of the Sea-water in our coasts, by dissolving one part of French bay salt dryed, in 43 times its weight of common water, was examind by the Liquor-weigher, above mentiond, & was found to be somewhat heavier than my urine, since it requir'd 7 ½ gr. to depress the Instrument to its wonted station in common water, ie till one Inch of the Neck were under Common Water.


Entry 74: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A piece of Cinnabaris nativa <weighing {drachm} 2> that did not look coarse, & weighed, being put into a Crucible that was kept uncover'd in a good fire for about half an hour, lost 40 gr. that is ⅓ of its weight. That which remain'd was a white substance that retain'd its former shape & manifest Dimensions, but was brittle & seem'd to be of the nature of a Stone, but yet of one more compact than ordinary. For neither Spirit /BP 21, 210/ of Vinegar, nor Spirit of Salt appear'd to dissolve it, or work upon it, at least in the Cold, for I try'd it not in Heat.


Entry 75: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 5 & a quarter of double Aqua fortis was found to be requisite & sufficient to dissolve {ounce} 1 of Filings of Copper.


Entry 76: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 2 of finely powder'd Native Cinnabar (of a middle sort between very fine & course) were diligently rub'd in a mortar with double the weight of Salarmoniac. And the Mixture being sublim'd <in a Retort> the Remains were found to want {ounce} ; of the first weight of the Cinnabar alone. [d] (for it pass'd not into the Receiver) weighed {drachm} 1 ;


Entry 76a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

[One of Starbridge Marcasites weighing in the Air {drachm} 4 + 3 gr.
weighed in Water {drachm} 3 + 9 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 4 27/54 is to 1

One of Bedford Marcasites weighed in the Air {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 6 + 57 gr. in Water {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 3 + 54 gr. proportion 4 165/183 to 1]


Entry 77: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 1 of Native Cinnabar betwixt course & fine, being well powder'd & mix'd with an equal weight of good white Salt of Tartar, was distilld in a small glass Retort in a little sand furnace by degrees of Fire. This Operation afforded {drachm} 1; of Quicksylver that adher'd to the neck; (for none pass'd into the Receiver) & in the Remains or Caput mortuum the Salt of Tartar seem'd to have done what we intended; which was, that the Alcali might work upon the Sulphureous part of the Mineral. For a strong fire having been given at last the Salt of Tartar was turn'd from white to a deep blew; & a highly rectify'd Vinous Spirit having been pour'd on it, & kept in a competent heat did much sooner than bare Salt of Tartar is wont to do, give a yellow Tincture deep enough to the Liquor.


Entry 78: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 3 of choice Calabrian Manna, being distill'd per se in a sand furnace, afforded {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 5 of a very deep colour'd Liquor, consisting partly of Phlegm, partly of small portions of Oyle copiously dispers'd through the Spirit, without in any quantity floating at the top or settling at the bottom, /BP 21, 211/ but chiefly of Spirit, which was of an Acid nature, as appeard by its readily working upon powder'd Coral. The Caput mortuum, which was black & very light, weighed about{drachm} 6


Entry 79: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A piece of transparent Glass of Lead made with Earth instead of Sand, weighed
in the Air {drachm} 6 + 40 gr.
in Water {drachm} 5 + 34 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 6 ⅙ - to 1.


Entry 80: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A Mixture of Water Gold & well Copel'd Silver {ana} weighing
in the Air 121 + gr.
weighed in Water 113 - gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 15 ⅛ to 1.


Entry 81: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A Calculus humanus that was Oval & somewhat rough
weighed in the Air {drachm} 5+ 2 gr.
in Water {drachm} 1 + 37 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 1 97/205 to 1

A Grain of Native Gold (Scottish as I suppose) weighed
in the Air 44 gr.
in Water 40 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 11 to 1

A piece of <clear> Vitrum Saturni (I think) of a blewish green Colour
weighed in the Air {drachm} 4 + 44 gr.
in Water {drachm} 3 + 23 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 3 41/81 to 1

A piece of fine Japan copper (I think) weighed
in the Air {drachm} 6 + 40
in Water {drachm} 5 + 55
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 8 40/45 to 1

A Mixture of {silver} very well Cuppell'd & good Copper {ana}
weighed in the Air {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 7 + 36
in Water {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 6
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 9 9/12 to 1

{ounce} 2 of Serum of Human blood was put up [d] in a flat bottomd egg May the 10. 1688

{drachm} 10 + 6 gr. of <clear> Serum of Human Blood being gently evaporated <in one of the Pots of our Digestive> to a pulverable transparent substance, was found to weigh but 57 grains. {ounce} 3 of the Serum of another parcel of human blood being evaporated in like manner amounted to {ounce} 3 + 9 gr.

Equal parts of Water Gold & very well refin'd Silver being melted together, weighed
in the Air {drachm} 2
in Water 51 gr.
So that the proportion of this Compound Metal to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 13 ⅓ to 1

A Mercurial Metal
weighing in the Air {drachm} 12 + 3 gr.
weighed in Water {drachm} 10 + 21 gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 7 9/102 to 1


Entry 82: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{pound} 4 of hard Marcasites (without Efflorescence on them) being kept in an open Crucible about 4 hours in the fire, afforded [d] {pound} 3 within {drachm} 1 or {drachm} ; more or less of Caput mortuum very black & for the most part in the form of Powder, or by a light touch reducible to it.


Entry 83: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{pound} 1 of fine Salt peter & {pound} 1 of crude Tartar, being fulminated together, afforded about {ounce} 15 of white Calcinatum.


Entry 84: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 1 of <a French mans compound distill'd {mercury}> being weighed in water amounted to 44 gr.

So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 13 ⅓ to 1


Entry 85: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

The Hydrostatical Jar mark'd B weighs in Water 137 gr.

A Mixture of 3 parts of fine Sylver colliquated with one of Gold
weighing in the Air 136 + gr.
weighed in Water- 124 + gr.
So that its proportion to an equal bulk of Water was as that of 11 ⅓ to 1


Entry 86: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

As much tin as weighed {ounce} 1 <(troy)> in Water, was by a horse-hair suspended from one of the Scales of a good Ballance, & counterpois'd by as much Lead as in the same Liquor, weighed {ounce} 1, & hung likewise by a horse hair from the other scale of the Ballance. Those two metalline Lumps being of equal weight in the same Medium, Water, so that they kept the Ballance in an Equilibrium, when they were rais'd above that Liquor into a very much thinner Medium the Air; the Metals, thô carefully dry'd & free'd from the adhering Water, presently lost their Equilibrium & to make them equiponderant in the Air, it was requisite to add 31 grains to that Scale whereto the Tin was fastned.


/BP 21, 213/

Entry 87: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A large broken Granat weighed
in the Air {ounce} 4 + {drachm} 6 + 48 ½ gr.
in the Water {ounce} 3 + {drachm} 4 + 33 ½
So that its proportion ot an equal bulk of Water was as that of 3 481/614 to 1.


Entry 88: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A piece of Marcasited Wood weighed
in the Air 643 gr.
in Water 479 gr.
Proportion to Water as 3 151/164 to 1

Another piece of comon Marcasite weighed
in the Air 814
Water 631
Proportion to Water as 4 82/183 to 1


Entry 88a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

The perforated Copper Boxe weighed <in the Air> {ounce} 3 + {drachm} 7 + 50 gr. tr. & in Water {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 4 + 58 ½


Entry 88b: Editorial notes:

Weight in Proportion to
Air Water an eq. bulk
dr. gr. dr. gr. of {water}
A Lump of E. Indian but very poor Gold-Ore 18 20 11 22 as 2 63/100 to 1
Another Lump of the same Ore 19 11 11 57+ as 2 65/100 to 1
A fine Porcelane Cup 45 55 25 38 as 2 24/100 to 1
Lapis Lazuli 6 25 4 16 as 3- to 1
Common Cinnabar 13 22 11 42 as 8 1/50 to 1
Native Cinnabar [blank space in MS, remainder of line]
Cinnabar of {antimony} 3 17 2 49 as 7 1/28 to 1
The Head of a Tobacco Pipe 2 38 ½ 1 36 ½ as 2 54/100 to 1
A piece of Osteocolla 3 15 1 48 as 2 24/100 to 1
An Agat 4 11 2 36 as 2 64/100 to 1
A Cornelian [d] Agat 2 48 1 43 as 2 58/100 to 1
A piece of Rock-Crystal 4 28 2 51 as 2 76/100 to 1
in Ol. Tereb. 3 3 as 3 15/100 to 1
Rich Copper Ore 8 47 6 7 as 3 29/100 to 1
Good Lead Ore 11 26 9 50 as 7 4/100 to 1
A polish'd Shell of Cocos of Maldivia 5 31 1 25 as 1 34/100 to 1
A lump of Chalk 2 52 1 38 as 2 32/100 to 1
A fine large piece of Amber 21 29 1 26 as 1 7/100 to 1
A Marcasitical Snake Stone 12 4 9 7 as 4 7/100 to 1
Vitrum Saturni very clear 2 24 1 55 as 4 96/100 to 1
Vitrum {lead} cum Cerussa fact. 2 13 1 52 as 2 38/100 to 1
A Factitious Sapphire 3 11 1 55 as 2 51/100 to 1
A piece of a Brick 11 43 6 16 as 2 15/100- to 1
Mercury reviv'd from {mercury} {spirit} & {antimony} 16 as 13 91/100 i.e. 9/10 +
<Small> Oriental Pearls 4 as 2 75/100 i.e. ¾
Crabs eyes 4 2 25 as 2 52/100
Calx lota 1 30 57 as 2 72/100 to 1
Dr Hubarts Tinore 13 32 10 13 as 4 8/100 to 1
Vitrum Antimonii per se 5 57 ½ 4 42 ½ as 4 76/100 to 1
Silver <prepar'd with {iron} &> then Cupell'd 3 31 ½ 3 13 ½ as 7 55/100 to 1
The Tusk of a wild Boar 17 39 8 32 as 2 5/100 to 1
A piece of Gold coin'd in Japan 4 36 4 20 as 17 ¼ to 1
A Guiney coind 1686 2 9 ½ 2 2 as 18 3/7 to 1
Milk in the Air {ounce} ; in {oil} of turp. 30 as 1 14/100 to 1
Juice of Limons in the air 105 gr. in oyl of turp. 19 as 1, 22 + to 1


/BP 21, 214/

Entry 89: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

The white Spar of the Gold Ore sent me from Sumatra, was so hard that with a piece of Steel it strook fire rather more than less easily & copiously than a good Flint would have done.

The unperforated Hydrostatical Jar weighed
in the Air {drachm} 6 + 1 gr.
in Water {drachm} 3 + 42 1/16 gr.
Proportion to an eq. bulk of Water as 2 59/100 to 1


Entry 90: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A Globe or solid Sphere of Brass just an inch in Diameter weighed in the Air {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 3 + 17 3/32
A Globe of Tin of the same Diameter {ounce} 2 + 37 5/32 [fere]
A Globe of Steel of the same Diameter {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 1 11/16

The large Hydrostatical Jar with a neck weighed
in the Air {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 5 + 29 gr.
in Oyl of turp. {ounce} 1 + 45 ½ gr.


Entry 90a: Editorial notes:

Weight in the Proport. to
Air Water an equal b.
dr. gr. dr. gr. of Water
<A fine piece of Venetian> Talk 13 28 8 28 ½ as 2, 69 ⅓
[d] A Counterfeit Sapphire made in the house <[3 48 -- 2 16]> as 2, 48 -
<Fine> Lead Ore 27 40 23 53 as 7, 31 to 1
Mercury from Saturn [d] 32 ½ 29 ½ as 10, 83 to 1
Good Vinegar (to Oyl of turp.) as 1, 15 to 1
Minium 8 7 3 ½ as 8, 49 + to 1
Block tin (in {oil} of turpentine 8 18 ⅛ 7 8 ⅛ as
Iron Ore 21 40 17 10 as 4, 81 ½+
A <Starry> Marcasite 15 39 12 12 as 4 53/100 +
A Marcasitical Snake stone 1 9 53 as 4, 31 ¼ = 5/16
A great <oyster> Shell of Mother of Pearl 80 51 50 49 as 2, 68 ½ -
Sulphur vive 6 11 3 54 as 1, 99 ½ +
A Germ. Marc. of {sulphur} & {vitriol} 23 3 17 18 as 4 + to 1
Red & White Gulden ertz 7 52 5 56 as 4 7/100 -
<Very clear> Serum of Human Blood 13 14 1 36 as 1, 13 ½ +
The Fibrous part of the same Bl. 11 18 1 52 as 1, 19 ½ +
Glass Erts containing much {silver} 11 17 8 42 as 4, 36 ½ +
A Bullet of Bismuth 8 3 7 17 as 10 ½ to 1
Kobolt 17 13 12 12 as 3, 38 ½ +
Ore where {silver} grows 4 53 3 47 as 4, 44 -
Serjeant Maynard {lead} ore 8 26 7 10 as 6, 65 ½ +
German Copperas Stone 9 6 ½ 7 4 ½ as 4, 47 ½ -
Ore containing {lead}, {copper} & {silver} with <Spar> 6 8 4 16 as 3, 28
Another lump of the same without <Spar> 9 49 7 5 as 3, 59 +
Roth Gulden ertz 1 39 39 as 1, 68 +
Tin ore finely figur'd with spar 15 25 11 12 as 3, 65 +
The same pure without spar 3 2 33 as 6, 66 ½ +
The Spar alone 3[d] 1 50 as 2, 57 1/7
A suspected (Western) Bezoar stone 25 12 12 44 as 2, 2 +
Salgem {drachm} 3 + 25 (in Oyl of turp. {drachm} 2 + 1 gr. Prop. 2,38) 106 as 2, 7 to 1
The Spoil'd Gold 1 40 1 33 as 14 2/7 to 1


/BP 21, 215/

Entry 91: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A Mouse being bitten in the Body by a viper between 8 & 9 at night, seem'd brisk enough at first, but within 7 or 8 minutes, appear'd to be very sick; & about the 9th Minute had many Convulsions & lay upon its Back <with his Feet upwards> but yet continu'd alive with great Pantings & little Convulsive Motions till about the 18th minute when it was judg'd to be quite dead.


Entry 92: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 1 of Salgem took {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 5 - of Water to dissolve it. {ounce} 1 of common bay salt took {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 5 ;. Alum {ounce} 1 took {ounce} 7 ; Nitre {ounce} 1 took {ounce} 3 ;- {sal ammoniac} {ounce} 1 took {ounce} 2 {drachm} 5 ;. Salt of Tartar took {drachm} 6 ;. Salt of Potashes {ounce} 1 + {drachm} 5 + {scruple} 1 Vitriol. anglican. {ounce} 2 + {scruple} 2 Dantisc. {drachm} 6 + {scruple} 2 Romanum {ounce} 2 + {drachm} 2 ;. {vitriol} Album {drachm} 5 ; Leaf sugar but not very fine, {drachm} 5 ;


Entry 93: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Silver prepar'd with Crocus {iron} 3 29 3 8 as 9 95/100
Lapis Judaicus 6 14 3 53 as 2 65/100 +
A Mixture of an equal weight of fine {silver} & of Copper 3 32 3 9 as 9 21/100 +
A piece of fine Gold with an Arabic Inscription 2 50 2 41 as 18 8/9
A Touch Stone 44 20 29 48 as 3 5/100 + to 1
Fine red Silver ore 7 24 5 36 as 4 11/100 to 1
Oddly shap'd & oddly colour'd Pearls 1 56 1 10 as 2 47/100 to 1
A piece of refin'd Sylver [d] 8 28 7 39 as 10 367/1000
The same in Oyl of turp. {drachm} 7 + 45 Proportion to that Oyl as 11 814/1000 to 1
An Eagle Stone 3 0 2 5 as 3 27/100
<Small> Hyacinths 3 30 2 30 as 3 50/100
<Small> Rubies 4 0 2 54 as 3 636/1000
A Hens Egg 16 55 as 1, 6/100
Emeralds 4 3 7 as 4 528/1000
Lead Ore call'd Steel-Ore 14 40 12 36 as 7 9/100 to 1
Native Guiney Gold 4 3 46 as 17 1/7
Mercury coagulated with the fumes <of Lead> 1 56 1 46 as 11 6/[blank space in MS, 1-2 characters]
Shining Talk 14 7 8 42 as 1 99/100
A Soaplike Stone 4 33 2 31 as 2 23/100 +
Western Bezoar 72 35 as 1 94/100
Mr Vigam's coarse Copper ore 16 8 10 24 as 4 9/100
Minera {copper} opt. & ditiss. & Fodinis Falangicis 6 53 5 14 as 4, 17 -
Minera alia haud multo vilior 23 56 18 10 as 4, 15
Minera {copper} saxo permista 4 8 2 56 as 3, 44 +
Minera communissima 5 23 4 8 as 4, 30 -
Minera vilissima 3 36 2 47 as 2, 40 -
Cuprum in Fodinis ipsis perfectum 2 15 113 as 6, 13 +
Good Spar of Lead ore 392 245 as 2, 66
+ The great Cordial stone of Goa 9 25 4 28 as 1, 89 +
A counterfeit Emerauld 1 16 44 as 2, 37 ½
Native gold 20 19 3 as [blank space in MS, remainder of line]
Regulus Stellatus 7 30 6 16 as 6, 33 ½
Filings of Brass 20 17 [blank space in MS, remainder of line]
The Lapis Amianthus of Cyprus 9 58 5 39 as 2 30/100 to 1
A Mixture of Lead 3 parts with 2 of {tin} 27 59 25 10 as 9, 88 +
A mill'd Crown piece 7 43+ 6 58 3/16 [blank space in MS, remainder of line]
A piece of Block tin counterpois'd in the Air 7 43+ 6 41 as 7, 46 ¾
A piece of Amber 22 25 1 26 [blank space in MS, remainder of line]
Another piece of Amber 20 28 1 35 [blank space in MS, remainder of line]
Regulus Antim. simpl. 10 22+ 8 48 as 6, 61 +


/BP 21, 216/

Entry 94: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A lympid Solution of Tin in our Aqua regis Spirituosa, being precipitated with [d] Sulphur, did not afford a black or blackish Precipitate, as I found some other Metals to do, but a yellow one.


Entry 95: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

In The Artificial Marcasites we made of Tin & Lead, we found that two ounces of each Metal had gain'd, one of them about seven, & the other about 6 drams, from the Additaments imploy'd for <their> production [d]


Entry 96: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

My small rough Diamond, that consists of parallel Plates whose Edges are visible to the naked Eye, is so Electrical that being rub'd it <[d]> took up grains of black Sand us'd in the Standish without immediately touching them, & readily attracted at a pretty distance, the Flower-de-luce of a Mariners-Needle, thô not over nicely pois'd; & after their Contact made the Needle nimbly enough perform <more than> a whole Revolution about [d] a Needles <Point that> its Center lean'd upon.


Entry 97: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

In a small Receiver capable of holding about [blank space in MS, 3-4 characters] ounces of Water, we put a couple of House Snails, & having diligently pump'd out the Air, we observ'd that they both of them continu'd to move as before, insomuch that they climb'd up to the top of the Receiver, & seem'd unconcern'd enough at the absence of the Air, save that they appear'd swell'd, probably by the expansion of the Aereal Particles contain'd in their Juices. We kept and observ'd them in our Vacuum for a full half quarter of an hour (reckon'd by a Minute Watch) & then let in the Air, which in a trice made them manifestlty shrink into lesser Dimensions.


Entry 98: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Afterwards having furnish'd the same Receiver with fresh Air we put into it a small Mouse, & by pumping out the Air as before we brought it in less than half a Minute (by a Watch that shows Seconds) to such violent Convulsions, that thô we hastily let in the Air & took off the Receiver, the little Animal was irrecoverably gone.


/BP 21, 217/

Entry 99: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

This done we put into the same Vessel, a Leech, which notwithstanding the exhaustion of it, mov'd in it to & fro as when it was full of Air. And this Animal did, as the Snails had done, get up to the Cover of the Receiver. And thô in this [d] Unusual & Incommodious Ambient we kept it above ten Minutes, yet it lost neither Life nor Motion, thô upon the letting in of the outward Air at the top of the Receiver; it seem'd to move to & fro much more briskly than before.


Entry 99a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

We took {ounce} 1 of the Fibrous part of Human Blood, & expos'd it <to the Air> in a clear cak'd Glass in the Window of the room over the Laboratory [d] for several Weeks, till the Mass was dry & pulverable, & then having it weigh'd it carefully found it to amount to {drachm} 3 - 5 gr.


Entry 100: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} 1 of Steel Ore reduc'd with [d] Fluxe Powder yielded {ounce} ; & 4 gr. of Malleable Lead. Another ounce of the same Ore being reduc'd with the Metalline Fluxe, afforded {ounce} ; & 16 gr. of the like Lead.


Entry 101: Editorial notes:

Tutenague 4 33 4 6 as 10 11/100 to 1
Antimony Ore 13 53 10 24 as 3 98 ½/100 +
A Mineral that Amalgams with {mercury} 25 40 20 54 as 5 [d], 38.
A red Earth suppos'd to contain some <Iron & a little {mercury}> 14 36 9 32 as 2, 88


Entry 102: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

four pieces of clear horn being weigh'd were three dragme & g. 9 & exposd to the air all night in a window acquird g. 10 of Weight the following morning.

A piece of pure {gold} [blank space in MS, 19-21 characters] weighd in the {air} 54 g. ¼ in {water} 51 g. 11/12 so that the proportion of its weight to water of the same bulk is as 23 ¼ to 1.

Colcothar of {vitriol} in the air weighd {drachm} 3 g. 8 <&> in water {drachm} 2 g. 25 so that its proportion to water of the same bulk is <as> 4 37/100 to 1

Artif. [d] marcasite of {tin} weighd in {air} {ounce} 2 {drachm} 6 ; g. 4 in {water} {ounce} 2 {drachm} 3 g 15 so that the proportion of its <weight> to water of the same bulk is as 6 85/97 to 1

The Glasse Bubble weighd in air {ounce} 1 {scruple} 2 g. 6 in sea water {drachm} 1 g. 21. so that the proportion of its weight to water of the same bulk is as 1 1/425 to 1

In [d] water destilld it weighd {drachm} 1 g. 28

Rock crystall in air weighd {drachm} 4 g. 16 in water {drachm} 2 {scruple} 2 in oyle of Turpent. {drachm} 2 ; g. 30 + so that the proportion of its weight to an equal bulk of water is as <12 20/100 to 1> to that of oyle of Turp. as [d] 2 94/100 to 1

The four pieces of horne after continuing a good while in the little roome where it was very dry weighd at night {drachm} 3 g. 7 & being exposd all night in a window which the wind did blow upon with considerable Rain weighd {drachm} 3 g. 16


/BP 21, 218/

Entry 103: Editorial notes:

Regulus antimonii decompounded in {air} 648 in {water} 571 so the proportion is as 8 41/100 to 1 of {water}

An anonymous Regulus weighd in {air} 939 in {water} 800 so the proportion is as 6 18/100 to 1

The rock crystall weighd Jan. 1. in oyl of {vitriol} weighd {drachm} 1 g. 17 In spirit of {salt} that was not very strong {drachm} 2 g. 32

(spelter oare in air {drachm} 4 g. 4 ¾ in {water} {drachm} 1 ; g. 9 5/16

Amber in air weighs {drachm} 2 ; g. 16 in {water} g. 12 ½

Figurd Talk in the Air {drachm} 3 ; g. 5 - ¼ in the {water} {drachm} 2 g. 1 12/32

A piece of Sir William Strodes questiond Tin in the air {drachm} 3 ; g. 9 ⅓ in the {water} {drachm} 3 g. 6 + ¼

Flint in the Air {drachm} 2 ; + 12 g. - 1/16. in Water {drachm} 1 ; + 12 g. + 7/16


Entry 104: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

Another piece of crystall in {air} {ounce} 2 {drachm} 3 g. 9 in {water} {ounce} 1 {drachm} 3 ; g. 28. So the prop. is as [d] 2 66/100 to 1

Artificiall crystall in {air} {ounce} 3 {drachm} 6 ; g. 23 {water} {ounce} 2 {drachm} 1 ; g. 11 so that the proption is as 2 35/100 to 1

Red earth in {air} {drachm} 6 g. 7 in {oil} turp. {drachm} 4 g. 21 so the proportion is as 3 57/100 to 1 of {oil}

Unicorns horne in the {air} weighd {ounce} 1 {drachm} 1 g. ⅛ in {water} {ounce} ; g. 21 ⅛ so the proportion is as 1 2089/2232 to 1. or as 1 83/100 to 1 prox.

{sal ammoniac} in {air} weighing {drachm} 1 g. 9 in oyl of turp. weighd g. 27 so the proportion is as 1 64/100 to 1

{mercury} {sublimate} in {air} {drachm} 4 g. 17 in oyl of turp. {drachm} 3 ; so the proportion is as 5 22/47 to 1

{alum} roch in {air} [d] {drachm} 3 - in <oyl of turp.> {drachm} 1 g. 25 so the proportion is as 1 80/100 prox. to 1.

[d] {nitre} decrepitated in {air} 3 ; {drachm} g. 21 in <oyl of turp.> {drachm} 1 ; g. 3 so the proportion is as 1 67/100 to 1

black lead in {air} g. 56 in {water} g. 26 so the proportion is as 1 86/100 to 1.

Copper Oare {ounce} 1 ; g. 9 in {water} {ounce} 1 {drachm} 2 g. 12 ; so the proportion is as 6 23/100 to 1

{gold} sand in [d] Air weighed {drachm} 2 in {water} {drachm} 1 ; g. 21 so the proportion is as 14 11/100 to 1

Spanish {mercury} in [d] {air} {ounce} 1 g. 25 in {water} {drachm} 7 ; g. 18 so the proportion is as 13 64/100 to 1

[d] 4 ½ to 1

fine {lead} oare in {air} {ounce} 1 ; {drachm} 1 g. 15 ½ in {water} {ounce} 1 {drachm} 3 g. 28 ½ so the proportion is as [7] 40/100 to 1

[d]

Congeald {water} in {air} {drachm} 2 g. 10 ¼ in {water} {drachm} 1 g. 14 so the proport is as 2 31/100 to 1

The copper <box> weighs {ounce} 1 {drachm} 2 g. 35

{amalgam} of {mercury} & {lead} {ounce} 1 {drachm} 3 in {water} {ounce} 1 {drachm} 4 ; g. 22 so the propor. is as 12 36/100

A supposed copper plate whited {drachm} 2 g. 5 in {water} {drachm} 1 ; g. 22 so the propor. is as 9 61/100

Granates in {air} {drachm} 3 g. 24 in {water} {drachm} 2 ; g. 9 so the propor. is a 4 5/10 to 1

The glasse bucket weighs [d] {drachm} 3 g. 50 + in {water} {drachm} 1 ; g. 49

The crystall ball in {air} {ounce} 2 {drachm} ; g. 3 in {water} {ounce} 1 {drachm} 2 g. 18 ½ propor. as 2 57/100 to 1

Roman {vitriol} in [d] {air} 593 gr. in <{oil} of turp.> 348 the proportion is as 2, 42/100 to 1

loaf sugar in {air} 128 in {water} 53 so the proportion is as 1 70/100 to 1