Robert Boyle (1627-91): Work-diary XXIX (Accounts of experiments and observations, early 1670s)

Content: Accounts of experiments and observations from the early 1670s; experiments involve hydrostatics, magnetism, luminosity, etc.

General Information


Work-diary entries

/BP 27, p.179/

Entry 212: Editorial notes:

the same steele being held in the same posture for two Minutes longer, the ['end' deleted] remotest end seemed ['visibly' deleted] to have gained a sensible Power of takeing up small fileings of steele


Entry 213: Editorial notes:

He causd to be blowne at the Lamp a Pipe ['of' deleted] so <shapd> [ replacing 'bended' deleted] that the bottom was bent upwards and after the place where the curvature was made


Entry 214: Editorial notes:
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We tooke a slender Pipe of a convenient length & caus'd the lower part of it to be so bent at the flame of a Lamp as to be reflected upwards & be made parallell or allmost parallell to the longer leg of the syphon, which was above half a yard ['high' deleted] long, the upper part of the shorter leg of the Syphon was also at the same ['length' deleted] Lamp drawne out into a straight but very slinder <pipe> (parallell likewise to the longer leg) which ['would' deleted] was not much bigger than a pigeons quill. The Syphon being thus fitted, there was about 4 inches of {mercury} power'd into the longer leg which passing through the Curvature into the shorter leg, ascended about ['pretty' deleted] an inch and more into the slender pipe. This done we ['we made f' deleted] 1. we <measur'd by> [ replacing 'made' deleted] a thread held horizontally & stretch'd from the surface of the {mercury} in the capillary Pipe to the longer leg of the Syphon, that this <small> surface was near ⅝ lower than of the {mercury} in the longer leg. And yet the length of that Mercurial Cylinder did not exceede four inches. /BP 27, p.180//BP 27, p.181/ and the Mercury in the Capillary pipe was not near two inches, by which it may appeare that as water ascends in Capilary pipes by so much higher than it does in other pipes ['by so much th <by so m> much the higher than it does in other pipes' deleted] by how much the pipes are more slender the quite Contrary happens to {mercury} as we found by compareing this tryall with an other ['of the with in the' deleted] wherein the Same {mercury}, the syphon whose longer & shorter leg of the same ['o' deleted] bignesse with those of this Syphon, but the small pipe not soo slender <thô> the ['{mercury}' deleted] surfaces of the {mercury} were not neare so much beneath one another as in our present tryall. 2. Letting the Syphon furnish'd with quicksylver as before descend slowly & ['in an erected Pos' deleted] perpendicularly into a tall vesell of water <to> the depth of about half a yard or (18 inches) <I> [ replacing 'and' deleted] then observ'd (as I expected) that the incumbent water had deprest the {mercury} in the slender pipe about ¾ of an inch or more which was proportionable to the higth of the water above the surface of the {mercury} in that pipe. But the {mercury} in the longer leg haveing a much wider surface ['fa' deleted] was raisd above the former marke scarse manifestly, save that the surface was made a great deale more protuberant; by which it appear'd that ['about' deleted] about 14 times as much water in higth was able to depresse the {mercury} in the capillary pipe, as much ['& no more than it would have done, if' deleted] as it ought to have done notwithstanding the resistance of a Mercurial Cylinder in the long leg, which was many times bigger than the Cylinder of water perpendicularly incumbent on the capillary pipe /BP 27, p.182//BP 27, p.183/ 3. This also shews that 'tis not material how much water there bee above or higher than the surface to be prest on if it be laterally plac'd, since in our expereiment, <of> all the [' <collateral> water great quantity of' deleted] water that was in the large vessell superior but collaterally <so> to our slender pipe, no more came to gravitate upon it than that which stood directly over it. 4. And consequently [''tis indifferent whether that' deleted] the higth of the perpendicularly incumbent water being the same, 'tis not material, whether the liquor be included in the Pipe or not. For even of that s water that difuses it self freely, that imaginary Cylinder places it self directly over the orifice or surface to be prest on, presses <physically speaking just> [ replacing 'just' deleted] as much, as if it were included in a pipe. For confirmation of which we broke off about 2 inches of our slender pipe without observing any manifest alteration in the pressure of the water on the {mercury} in the remaining part of the pipe, when 'twas at the former depth. 5. But <we would not> [ replacing 'before we' deleted] breake ['ea' altered from 'o'] off the pipe till we had more than once observd; that as the syphon was let down further & further from the stagnant surface of the <Liquor in the> [in different ink] vessel, so the incumbent water did more & more condense the Aire, that could not get by it in the capillary pipe because of the narrownesse of the passage & by this meanes the cylinder of water at the upper end of this slender pipe grew longer & longer, as the Syphon descended deeper & deeper, whereby we design'd to prove that water gravitates both upon bodys ['ligh' deleted] that are lighter & upon those that are heavier than it self, since in our case <it> [in different ink] both prest /BP 27, p.184//BP 27, p.185/ down & somwhat condens'd the Aire <that was in the capillary pipe> & likewise depres'd the {mercury} that was beneath it, in spite of the gravitation & resistance of the {mercury} in the longer leg of the syphon ['by which' deleted] And if we slowly raisd the Syphon and thereby shorten'd the Cylinder & lessn'd the Pressure of the incumbent water, twas easy to discerne that as the syphon was drawne higher & higher the aire & {mercury} in the Capillary tube were likewise impelld up higher & higher, & would be deprest again if the Syphon were again let downe deeper in to the water, By which it appears 6. that a fluid may transmitt its pressure by the intervention <or notwithstanding the interposition> of a far more subtile fluid than it self, as in our case the water deprest the {mercury} whilst a pritty quantity of Aire was interposd between them. And to try whether we could not shew that a Capillary Cylinder of Mercury would counterballance the pressure of a Cylinder of water of near 14 times its higth thô many times larger than it we so orderd the matter, that ['a l sma Cylin slender' deleted] ¾ or about 1 inch of {mercury} was lodg'd in the Capillary pipe, & about 14 times that higth of water was plac'd higher than the Mercureal surface in the longer pipe of the Syphon wherein no {mercury} was left but this short & slender Cylinder, which yet counterballanc'd the pressure of all that water, that it was not able to run out at the slender pipe, but this little Quicksylver being removed the water was presently impelld up into the Aire at /BP 27, p.186//BP 27, p.187/ narrow orifice to a pritty higth & continued a while to spring like a little fountain, or, as the French speake, jet deau.


Entry 215: Editorial notes:
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['We ca' deleted] Because for ought I know it has not yet been observ'd, what <Phænomena,> Iron or steele would afford, if it were reduc'd ['r' altered from 'm'] into extreamly minute parts & incorporated with an other Metal. And bec. I knew that thô it be difficult yet 'tis possible without salts or Sulphurs to melt Iron & Tinn into one masse, we caus'd equall weights of them to be melted down together, & causing one part of this masse to be beaten to a fine powder we found that the Loadstone would take up good quantitys of this Dust, as well if not better as if it had been ordinary fileings of meer iron.


Entry 216: Editorial notes:
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['Takeing' deleted] Takeing also a little Lump of this mixture we found that either end of it would attract successively both ends of a nicely pois'd magnetical needle. ['as' deleted]


Entry 217: Editorial notes:
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As also that by the Loadstone the little lump would be made to acquire North & South poles and to change them too.


Entry 218: Editorial notes:
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Likewise that the Loadstone would easily take up & retaine a Lump of this mass


Entry 219: Editorial notes:
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And that <when we tooke> [ replacing 'takeing' deleted] a longer & bigger portion of it, haveing made it red hot in the fire suffering it to coole perpendicularly upon the ground, it wrought upon the above mention'd Magnetical Needle as a piece of Iron thus heated & refrigerated would have done.


Entry 220: Editorial notes:
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Haveing taken {ounce} iii of good salt of Tartar we distill'd from it 2 quarts of Rhenish wine ['with' deleted] the liquor came off very weake not well tasted. The remaining Salt was very black & increas'd in weight. And being put /BP 27, p.188/ in a Retort & distill'd with a good fire afforded afforded but not plentifully oile & spirit much like those of common Tartar. The {caput mortuum} remaining very black. And thô it were set to calcine in a strong fire, ['yet' deleted] & at length brought to fusion, yet it ['be' deleted] came not <to be> at all white <or blew> but of a darkish red, thô ['it' deleted] upon the tongue it were fiery like Salt of Tartar.


Entry 221: Editorial notes:
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About the bignesse of a small nutmeg of the white, <smoakinges> substance produc'd ['pro' altered from 're'] by equall quantitys of Tinn & sublimat distill'd together, being put in [altered from 'into' by deletion of 'to'] a vial & plac'd in one of the middle siz'd Receivers on the Engine, stopt with a Cork that was not every where close, at every exuction of the Aire there arise a white fume that gott out at the chinks between the Corke & the glass, & ascended a pritty way into the Cavity of the Rr but as this ['is' altered from 'e'] [' Rece' deleted] grew more & more empty, so the ascention grew less & lesse high; & thô the corke was afterwards taken out yet when the Rr was pretty well exhausted the fumes did not, as before, rise up in the aire but being come <up> [ replacing 'up' deleted] to the orifice of the vial fell downe (sometimes after haveing mov'd a little way allmost horizontally) on [altered from 'at'] the outside of the glasse, & at length ['would' deleted] the pumping being continued ['In' deleted] would not visibly come out of the vial at all. And haveing remain'd in this state for some time, the smoaking substance was so alter'd that it would not emitt fumes not only when the Air was ['admi' deleted] let in to the Receiver but not in a pritty while after the vial was taken out of the Receiver. Nor ['scarse' deleted] till it had been remov'd to the window where the wind blowing in fresh & fresh aire it began to smoake as formerly. NB. 1. This substance was not fluid but thô soft, consistent, & had been kept in a large glass where 'twas distilld at least 5, or 6, weeks, & yet would presently smoake very plentifully upon the contact of the Aire, & <be kept> [ replacing 'cease' deleted] from smoaking ['where 'twas stopt from the aire' deleted] , tho /BP 27, p.189/ the chymical Receiver were stopt but with a piece of paper 2. When the vial was put in stopt in the Rr, & the Receiver, close luted on, thô no exhaustion were made yet the white fumes did very quickly cease to ascend into the Receiver as if ['the Aire' deleted] this smoake participated of the nature of a flame, & presently glutted the Aire or otherwise made it unfitt to raise the body that should ascend, but if the pump was set a worke at each of the 5 or 6 first exuctions the fumes would (as was formerly noted) ascend being perhaps excited by the commotion of the Aire & thrown up upon the Discussion of a soft substance by the aire latitant in its pores


Entry 222: Editorial notes:
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A Lump of Dow of about the bignesse of 3 small Hen eggs ['was' deleted] put into a bolthead capable of containing three or 4 times as much and being Hermetically seald up on the first of April <was> kept in the Laboratory 6 weeks at the end of which time it did not appeare moldy or shew any other signs of Putrefaction but the glass being kept awhile inclin'd there came about half a spoonfull of muddy liquor out of the Dow. the Hermetical seale being afterwards broken off the included matter smelt a little sourish but not at all stinking, & the tast both of the Dowe & the newly mention'd liquor was sourish like that of a very weake Leven


Entry 223: Editorial notes:
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Near a quart of fresh urine being seald up the first of April in a bolt head able to containe twice or thrice as much was kept also in the Laboratory 6 weeks that I might try whether it would putrify there as soon as 'tis wont doe when but negligently stopt but we did not find the smell to be near as ranke as probably 'twould els have been nor would some drops of the liquor turn syrup of violets at all greene, and when /BP 27, p.190/ 'twas distill'd there ascended phlegm but not spirit.


Entry 224: Editorial notes:
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['Calx of' deleted] Quicklime being put into a convenient proportion of Aqua fortis first produc'd a conflict of much heat & the solut. being filtrated through cap paper & gently evaporated; afforded not a salt but a substance like a white Jelly.


Entry 225: Editorial notes:
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Fileings of Iron being dissolved in Aqua fortis gave an allmost red solution which being filtrated & evaporated ad siccitatem afforded a ['kin' deleted] coarse kind of Crocus {iron}is which the Loadstone would not, that I was sure of, meddle with [' approximately 1 character, illegible, ' deleted] , whether the Crocus were presented to the Magnet in little clotts or in the form of powder.


Entry 226: Editorial notes:
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Some pounds of Malago Raisins being bruisd and put to as many quarts of water were kept 16 days in ['which t' deleted] a convenient vessell in which time they acquir'd the smell of must and then being desirous to try whether (the season being warm & in the month of May) so short a fermentation might suffice to cause them to be distill'd, <we> [ replacing 'but' deleted] found that <most was> [ replacing 'only' deleted] weake & phlegmatic, but very little of it being fireable in comparison of that <afforded> when the fermentation had been continued between 3 & 4 weeks


Entry 227: Editorial notes:
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A large tooth of a shark, taken up by him that brought it me near the mouth of the Thams, appearing to me to have been penetrated towards the roote by a Marchasitical substance I suppose it might like a Marchasite strike fire with a steele, & upon tryal found it to doe so well


Entry 228: Editorial notes:
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A Receiver made of a glass egg with a moderatly long stem had <about> an ounce or two of quicksylver put into it & then being not ill exhausted & well secured was kept some howers in a fire, part of the time the Heat was great enough to make it boile the event was according to expectation, for the upper <Region <or> [ replacing '&' deleted] oval> part of the Glass & the neighboring /BP 27, p.191/ part of the stemm were ['ere' altered from 'as'] lin'd with little globuls of quicksylver that had been sublim'd there & stuck there. The glass notwithstanding that degree of Heat was not broken or crackd as we found by tryal under water when we let in the Aire.


Entry 228a: Editorial notes:
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The little Loadstone I weare in a gold Ring with one Pole tooke up a key that weighd 159 grains.


Entry 229a: Editorial notes:

The French measure for a second pendulum is 36 inches 8 ½ lines, which being reducd to English measure makes - 39 2/10 <inches>

The measure for a second pendulum made by My Lord Brounker is 39 - 4/10 <inchs>


Entry 229: Editorial notes:
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A graine of Scotch Gold (such as nature had made it) without any adhering stone or sparre weighd {drachm} iii + 21.


Entry 230: Editorial notes:
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Another graine of the same gold, that had here & there some little stone or sparre sticking to it & partly inclos'd in it weighd {drachm} iii + 3 gr. So that the heterogeneous substance being according to my estimate abated it weighd about {drachm} iii

A graine of Scotch Gold weighd ['in the Aire' deleted]
in aire 43 gr
in water 39 + ½ gr
Differ. 03 + ½
Proport. 12 + 2/7 to one


/BP 27, p.192/

/BP 27, p.193/

Entry 231: Editorial notes:
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A piece of Counterfeit saphir weighed in the aire {drachm} ii + 55 gr. ¾ in water {drachm} i + 44 gr ½ so that its proportion to water is as [blank space in MS, 2 characters] to 1


Entry 232: Editorial notes:
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We tooke one ounce of fine block tinn (as they call it in the shops) and when 'twas melted putt to it an æqual weight of {mercury} these ['se' altered from 'm'] being well stir'd ['i' altered from 'o'] together made an Amalgam, which when 'twas cold was taken out of the Crucible and afforded us a Metalline Lump, that was considerably hard and brittle (the bottom of it lookd of a colour betwixt yellow and red).


Entry 233: Editorial notes:
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To give an ocular prooft of the intumescency of dry and solid bodies, by the insinuation of aqueous particles into the pores, we tooke a Cylinder of good wood that had been dry'd and haveing putt upon it a ring of Ivory, that had been made for the purpose, so that it did not only slip on and off, but left about the thicknesse of the back of an ordinary knife (about it's midle part between the Cavity of the ring and the turn'd piece of wood, this latter did swime in a bason of cold water for some howers after, (perhaps 8 or 10) and then we found as was expected that the Cylinder of wood being wip'd dry, was so swell'd that [',' deleted] the Ivory <ring> [ replacing 'thing' deleted] which had not touchd the water, would no [altered from 'neither'] <more> come on upon it, at least without so much violence as we were unwilling to use, for fear of breaking it. The Diameter of the Cylinder should have been just one inch but was then swollen to one inch and about ⅜.

Fresh


Entry 234: Editorial notes:
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Fresh lime-water being powred upon a strong clear solution of sublimat, turn'd it immediately into a kind of Orange colour, thô divers parts of the præcipitat [altered from 'præcipitated' by deletion of final 'ed'] seem'd at first to be white ['te' inserted, replacing 'ght'] , this liquor by haveing a dew Quantity but small proportion of spirit {nitre} drop'd and shaken in to it, presently became again a clear and colourless liquor.


/BP 27, p.194/

/BP 27, p.195/

Entry 235: Editorial notes:

The Loadstone I had of Mr Gum ['u' altered from 'a'] , which I often ['laying by a' deleted] mean by my vigorous Load Stone weigh'd without <its> [ replacing 'his' deleted] Caps {ounce} iii + {drachm} vii + 20 gr. (The capping by it self weigh'd {ounce} i + {drachm} ii + 10 gr) This ['Anchor weighd' deleted] Loadstone tooke up an iron anchor weighing {pound} ii + {ounce} iii ; ['tog' deleted] at which hung a scale and some sand in it weighing {ounce} v ;.

All these ounces were Troy weight


Entry 236: Editorial notes:
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We tooke half a pound of well calcin'd Roch allom, and haveing incorporated it, with an æquall weight of fine Salt peter, distilld < [' approximately 3 characters, illegible, ' deleted] > [ in pencil, replacing 'it' deleted] in a sand furnase ['a' altered from 'i'] [' capable of' deleted] wherin <we> [ in pencil, replacing 'it' deleted] gave a heat that allmost melted the glass: by this means obtaind {ounce} vii + ¼ of a ponderous spirit that lookd greenish and ['in the cold' deleted] was strong enough to afford in the cold some red fumes, in the allmost filld glass we kept it stop'd in. The Caput Mortuum weigh'd a quarter of an Ounce more than the Calcind Allom had done, and seemd to ['be ins' deleted] have <very> little (if any) more of tast then It.


Entry 237: Editorial notes:
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We took a large glass Egg, which had been exhausted of Air, and securd against its return above a year agoe (viz from the 14th or [altered from 'to'] 15 June [' [eas bearla] [unclear]' deleted] the year last past) and looking upon a Damask rose almost half blowen and two lesser buds together with <a stalck and> [ replacing 'some' deleted] flowers commonly call'd Larks spur, ['tog' deleted] which < whether it were> [ replacing 'were it not' deleted] for want of vessells or time had been seald up together with them, we perceiv'd them to be much faded in point of colour. And haveing given access to the outward Air which rushd in with noise we tooke out the flowers, and thô the mixture might be supposd to have somwhat confounded and therby chang'd their smells <yet> [ in pencil, replacing 'but' deleted] I was surpris'd to see them so alterd or rather destroyd, even in those buds that had never been blowen, that if I had judgd /BP 27, p.211/ by my nostrills only ['the' deleted] I should have concluded the things I smelt to have been pickled Cowcumbers, which was also the <very first> guess of a young Lady, that being in an other roome and knowing nothing of what had passd before, was invited to ['deliver her opinion' deleted] say what she could conjecture that smell to proceed from.


Entry 238: Editorial notes:
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The same time we opend a large bolt head wherin we had about the midst of June was 12 month Hermetically seald up about a pint by guess of French claret wine, which when we came to looke upon appeard verry clear and high colourd, and had <deposited> [ replacing 'the positive' deleted] store of feces at the bottom of the glass but fastned no ['store of' deleted] Tartar ['that' deleted] we perceivd to the sides. Upon the braking of the seald top of the glass ['it' deleted] the bystanders thought that there was an eruption of included Air or steams, and above the surface of the wine, there appeard to a pretty hight a certain white ['steam' deleted] smoake allmost like a mist, which continued pretty thick for some little time, and then gradually vanishd. the wine continued well tasted and was a little rough upon the tongue but not at all sour.


Entry 239: Editorial notes:
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Being desirous to try whether the thunder would have ['as' deleted] such effect upon beer and ale exactly stop'd in glass Vessells, as ['tis a' deleted] it often has on those liquors in the ordinary woodden casks, I caus'd some ale moderatly strong, to be putt into a <conveniently shap'd ['Glass' deleted] Receiver> [ replacing 'bolt-head' deleted] haveing exhausted the Air and Securd the glass <vessel> 'twas putt in to a quiet but not cool place. Last weeke which was about 6 weeks after it had been inclos'd there happening some very loud thunder and our beer thô the cask was kept in a good Cellar being /BP 27, p.212//BP 27, p.213/ generally noted to have been turnd sowr [altered from 'sower' by deletion of 'e'] ['by this remarkable' deleted] After ['A' altered from 'a'] this thunder I staid yet a day or two longer, that the operation upon our included liquor might be the more ['sorted' deleted] certain and manifest, and then permitting <an access to> [ replacing 'then' deleted] outward Air <which> [ replacing 'to' deleted] rushd in <with noise> [ replacing '(which it did with noise)' deleted] we ['found that the' deleted] powred out the Ale and found it to be good drinke and not <at> all sowred.


Entry 240: Editorial notes:
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About the same time we ['open'd' deleted] tooke a bolt head wherein midling bear had been Hermetically seald up, above a 12 month before, and haveing crackd the seald end <at first the> [ replacing 'the' deleted] imprison'd Air ['stren' deleted] strengthend <by> the accession either of some ['Air' deleted] afterwards generated Air, or of some steames afforded by the liquor threw off ['the' deleted] with violence and noise the crack'd part of the glass to a good distance, which Phenomenon was immediatly follow'd by the <attention> [ replacing 'assumption' deleted] of a copious and thick white fume, that ['ase' deleted] ascending from the liquor all along the pipe and ishuing out where it was broken off dispersd it self in the Aire, the beere [second 'e' altered from 'a'] in the mean time emitting such plenty of bubles, that tho the ['v' deleted] bolt head was not much above half full yet the froath filld the remaining cavity <of the ball> and [altered from 'in'] the whole pipe and ran plentifully over. The bear being powred out <was concluded to be still good drinke (if not improv'd)> & ['taste' deleted] < n> either by tast nor smell judg'd to be sour, notwithstanding the thunders of the last year, and the great ones of the last weeke. It was again seald up together with the french wine <before> mention'd, for farther prosecution of the experiment.>


Entry 241: Editorial notes:
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Brick weighed in the Aire {drachm} ii + 50 gr.
In the water {drachm} i + 38 gr.


Entry 242: Editorial notes:
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Tobacco weighd in the Air {ounce} ;
In water {drachm} ii + 26 gr


Entry 243: Editorial notes:
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I made oil of Camphire with spirit of Niter (not {aqua fortis}) and haveing poured it clear off from the subjacent liquor, we found by makeing it <simper> [ replacing 'sinke' deleted] in a glass vial upon a body rich in {mercury} that it would emitt store of red <fumes> [ replacing 'things' deleted] like those of spirit of {nitre}


Entry 244: Editorial notes:
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The head of a Tobacco pipe being hung by a pretty long and very slender wire of steel to [altered from 'in'] a skale carefully counterpoysd, we filld the cavity of a brass weight of {ounce} viii [' of' deleted] with well rectifyed Spirit of wine and haveing plac'd <it> under the suspended body, yet so as ['not' deleted] to leave some little distance betwixt them to keepe them from touching, we lighted the spirit with the flame of a little burning paper, whereupon the ['flame' deleted] opposite skale ['was' deleted] appear'd to præponderat as if the flame had like an ascending stream ['had' deleted] driven up the body that [altered from 'it'] stood in its way, and this præponderancy in the opposite skale was so manifest, that ['it would' deleted] by degrees we put in ['5' deleted] 2 gr. to the skale whereto the pipes head was fastned, and yet ['y' altered from 's'] thereby did but reduce the ['body to an' deleted] ballance to an æquilibrium.


Entry 245: Editorial notes:
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But suspecting, that this Phenomenon might [altered from 'may'] either totaly or in part, be causd <by> [ replacing 'from' deleted] the recess of some undiscernd steams, whose <avolation> [ replacing 'operation' deleted] might leave the clay somewhat lighter then before, we blew out the flame of the Sp of wine, and /BP 27, p.216//BP 27, p.217/ haveing again brought the ballance to an æquilibrium, we plac'd the flaming ['wine' deleted] {spirit of wine} underneath the now thorowly dry'd clay, notwithstanding which, we found that this body being invirond by the flame, the opposit scall was heavier by about a grain (which was half the former difference.


Entry 246: Editorial notes:
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Afterwards we counterpoysd the same way a bullet of led, weighing about {ounce} iii and ¼ and letting this body hang [altered from 'hanging' by deletion of final 'ing'] in the aire by a steell wire in the flame of {spirit of wine} above mention'd, the scall it hung from, did at first appear lighter then the opposit scale by about a grain. for we were hinderd from prosecuting the Experiment by the operation the flame had upon the bullet, of which it melted some part and made it drop down into the subjacent spirit.


Entry 247: Editorial notes:
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Then we made the like tryall with an allmost square piece of a brass plate, whose Area I guessd to be above ['ve' altered from 'ut'] an inch square, and which was so tyed that it hung ['on' deleted] horizontally over the flame by which means the flame springing up as it were just beneath it, seem'd manifestly enought to buoy it up, and made the opposite scale ['heavi' deleted] appear heavier by 2 gr. if not better, ['when the' deleted] especially when ['the vertex o' deleted] a good part of the flame happend to be so directly under it, as to be hinderd from terminating in a vertex


Entry 248: Editorial notes:
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Lastly we plac'd just under the same piece of Copper a small sylver lamp with a weck supplyd with {spirit of wine}, and so <closed> [ replacing 'closd' deleted] that <the> flame could not extend it self over the surface of the liquor, this flame <seemd> [ replacing 'did' deleted] by reason of its convenient position to beat against the bottom of the brass plate but not so strongly as in the last recited tryall, for half a grain was the most that <we found> [ replacing 'was' deleted] requisit to keepe the scales in an Æquilibrium.


/BP 27, p.221/

Entry 249a: Editorial notes:
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Being desirous to try what <alterations> [ replacing 'texture' deleted] that change <of Texture> would make in the specifick gravity of lead, I causd some minium to be melted and cast in some large bullett mold, that we might reduce the powder into a lump, then breakeing the bullet that the hollowness which is often found in bodyes so cast that ['may' deleted] < might not> deceive us, we tooke ['t' altered from 'b'] a piece that weighed about {drachm} vi in the Aire, and haveing afterwards weighed it in water we found the specifick gravity of the solid to be 10 that liquor as 8 to 1 (omitting lesser fractions).


Entry 249b: Editorial notes:

Haveing no glass of lead made per se of my own praparing at hand, I desired a little of a chymist, who assured me that he himself made it with out any addition, and it lookd in [altered from 'as'] point of colour and Diapheniety as if it were genuine. But weighd in water the proportion appeard to be but <as> 6 to one or thereabouts.

This glass was somewhat heavier than some Antimonial glass made per se in my own Laboratory by calcination and fusion of crude Antimony, for examining Hydrostatically a piece of glass that weighed above {ounce} ; we found its proportion to a weight of water of the same bulk as 4 and very near ⅘ to one.

Afterwards haveing an opportunity, I made ['some glass of Lead' deleted] after a new way some glass of Lead per se out of minium, into which the metall had been reduc'd by calcination: and this glass which was somewhat opacous was hydrostatically found to be to water of the same bulk as 6 and 4/7 to one.

And Examining after the same way a piece of the fluxd Minium ['about' deleted] that continued unchang'd into glass in the vessell whence the glass was taken we found its <proportion> [ replacing 'proportion' deleted] to that ['and' deleted] < to> water of the same bulk to be <ferè> [ replacing 'very near' deleted] as 7 to one.


/BP 27, p.222/

/BP 27, p.223/

Entry 250: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Wee tooke two Glawormes, that <vividly enough> [ replacing 'shon' deleted] especially one of them whose light appeard strong and tincted as if it had been transmitted thrugh a blew glass, these we laid upon a little plate <which we included in> a small Receiver of finer glass than ordinary that we might the better see what would happen. And haveing for the same purpose removed the Candles, that no <other> [ replacing 'none of the' deleted] light might obscure that of the Insects, we waited <in the dark> till that was cospicuous ['co' altered from 'per'] , and then order'd the Aire to be <begun to be> [ replacing 'exhausted' deleted] pump'd out and <as we> [ replacing 'observ'd' deleted] expected, ['that' deleted] upon the very first exsuccion, there begun to be a manifest diminution of the light, which grew dimmer and dimmer as the Air was more and more withdrawn till at length it quite disappear'd, though there were young eyes among the Assistants. This darkeness haveing been sufferd to continue a long while in the Rr we let in the Air again, ['which' deleted] whose presence as we looked for restor'd at least as much light as its absence had depriv'd us of: This experiment was repeated ['much alike in both' deleted] with one more of those insects, and the Event was that they all three gradually lost there light by the Exhaustion of the Rr and regaind it <with some increase (as was judg'd)> [ replacing 'upon' deleted] by the return of the Aire. And in this Experiment we let in the Aire by degrees and with an intervall or two, to observe as we did that as the diminution of light was greater and greater, when the Aire was more and more withdrawen, so the returning Splendor was gradually increas'd as we pleasd to let in more and more Air upon the worms.


Entry 251: Editorial notes:
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But <here> [ replacing 'because' deleted] I foresaw it might be suspected that this disappearing of the light in our ex. Rr did not so much proceed from any real though but temporary extinction or Ecclips of it, but from this, that the glowormes ['of st' deleted] of haveing as I have often observed /BP 27, p.224//BP 27, p.225/ a power of drawing the luminous part in to the opacous part of their body, they might finding themselves very much prejudiced by the withdrawing of the Air hide their light from our Eyes, with out loseing it, till being again refreshd by the return of the Aire, they might be invited to protrude it again into the transparent part of their tailes. This scruple seeming ['worthy to' deleted] grounded upon the nature of the thing, I thought it worth while to remove it by the help of another observation, that I long since made and have elswhere mentioned about gloworms: which is that if they be killd whilst they are shineing there luminous matter <may> [ replacing 'will' deleted] continue to shine for a good while after it is taken out of their bodyes, and accordingly haveing putt some of that we tooke out of the forementioned insects upon a little paper, and inclos'd <it> in the Rr we imploy'd, the Candles ['we' deleted] being removed we perceivd it to shine vividly enough before the pump was set on worke and afterwards to grow <dimmer> [ replacing 'more' deleted] and ['more' deleted] dimmer, as the air was more and more drawen out, till at length it quite vanished; it reappeard immediatly upon the Aires return. This Experiment was reiterated twice more, with the same success for the main but <we> tooke notice that the <luminous matter> [ replacing 'light' deleted] after the air was let in, seem'd to us not only to have regaind its former degree of light, but sensibly increased it, (as it once happened also in the Experiment made on the liveing worms) which whether it was caused by any real change made by the recess, and access of the Air in the matter it self, or by the greater accustomance of our Eyes to the darkeness of the place I dispute not, and shall only add this Phenomenon of one of our tryalls, that haveing a mind to see whether a very little proportion of Returning Aire would not suffice to restore some little light to the disappearing matter, it <was> [ replacing 'is' deleted] somewhat strange to observe, that ['how' deleted] < so> very small a quantity of aire <as> was let in before the light was revived <was> enough to <make it> become plainly visible though but dimm, in which state it continued till we thought fit to let in more Aire upon it.

(Farthar tryalls I could not make with these Glowormes, haveing received them but that night out of the Country, and being the next morning to begin a journy.)


Entry 252: Editorial notes:
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To shew what the intestine motion of the parts might in a very short time doe in Metals, as to the effecting great changes in their Texture, we tooke some Ounces of Minium, and putt it in to a New Crucible, which we <also> putt into a larger, that if the matter upon its melting should run thorough one as ['tis' deleted] I have found it very apt to doe, if the Crucible were not excellent, it might be retain'd by the other: This Minium being thus plac'd was in a small forge quickly brought to fusion, and as we expected a great part of it perforated the innermost Crucible, and was caught in the outward most, where being remov'd from the fire part of it not withstanding the ['foregoing' deleted] precedent fusion, retaind the forme [altered from 'former' by deletion of final 'r'] <of> [in pencil] Minium, save that the parts were clotted together, ['into an' deleted] and the colour somewhat paler, but the remaining and greater part, of what had run out into this externall Crucible lay at the bottom of it in a lump of perfect Lead, and ['co' deleted] consequently was exceedingly chang'd both as to colour, specifick gravity, easiness to be melted pliableness, extension under the <hammer> [ replacing 'hand' deleted] &c (Compare with this the Reduction of præcipat per se [' made by the base exterior of' deleted] into running {mercury} by meer distillation.


Entry 252a: Editorial notes:

I made choise at a wire=drawers of a size of sylver wire that was not so very small, but that it was yet fitt to be fl <a> [approximately 10-12 lines illegible, remainder of page torn off] .


/BP 27, p.228/

/BP 27, p.229/

Entry 253: Editorial notes:
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A peice of Amber weigh'd In the Air {ounce} ii + {drachm} iiii + 24 gr. ⅛
In Water {drachm} i + 36 ⅞
Difference {ounce} ii + {drachm} ii + 47 gr. 2/8
Proportion as 1 97/1127 to 1


Entry 254: Editorial notes:
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After the lately mentioned tryalls we made with the Gloworms, haveing procured two or three other <of those insects> [altered from 'others' by deletion of final 's' and insertion of 'of those insects'] whereof one was judg'd [altered from 'as'] to be as large as three ordinary ones, we found when we had brought them out of the Country to London, that this great worm was dead as far as we were ['we' deleted] able to judge, and finding him yet to retain a ['matt' deleted] considerable degree of luminousness <in the under part> [ replacing 'beneath' deleted] his tail, we putt him into a small Rr formerly mention'd to try whether after the death of the animal the shineing Creature would retain its former propertys but at the first time the air was pump'd out after the usuall manner, < ['yet' deleted] > the light was not only not abolish'd but continu'd vivid enough and so <it> did when the air being let in, and again withdrawen: the Tryall was made a second time. But ['B' altered from 'b'] being unwilling to abandon the experiment till ['we' deleted] we try'd it yet further I caus'd the Rr to be exhausted yet once <or twice> more and <at ['last' deleted] length> [ replacing 'then' deleted] I perceivd that the light began to diminish as the air was withdrawn, & <last of all> [ replacing 'at length' deleted] it so disappeard that the bystanders could not see it, whereas upon the readmission of aire the light shone vividly as before if not more bright. This experiment was reiterated with the like success, and in both these times <the ['light happend' deleted] like happend> to the light of this dead one and <of a> [ replacing 'the' deleted] liveing one that we included with it, to be able to compare them together; Though there were this disparity between them, that the luminous part of the dead worm was much larger then that of the liveing, and the light of the latter appear'd of a very greenish blew wheras that of the former seem'd to be of a white yellow.

Two nights after I perceiv'd a manifest though but dimm light in the tail of a dead Glo-worm.


Entry 255: Editorial notes:
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Wee tooke an ordinary Glo-worm the luminous part of whose tail shone vividly enough but was but very little, this we putt into a small clear glass with water, to try <how> [ replacing 'whether' deleted] that liquor would worke upon this seeming fire, but the insect swumm upon the top of the water and lost not the light that was ['as' altered from 'ere'] in its tail. and then it was taken out and putt into a glass with well rectifyed {spirit of wine}, at the bottom of which he continued moveing for some while, during which his tail <was> (for the most part) shineing, then wee tooke him out and <suddenly cutting> [ replacing 'clipping off' deleted] his tail expressd out of his body a milky substance which we could not perceive so muh as to glimmer in the dark, but the tail it self shone vividly enough at the bottom of the {spirit of wine} and for the space of 4 or 5 minutes the light seemd to be quite extinguish'd <and> [ replacing 'yet' deleted] suddenly lost <by> [ replacing 'which' deleted] shakeing the glass it recoverd again: ['yet the' deleted] <and continued under the {spirit of wine}> variing the degrees of intesness <for> [ replacing 'were' deleted] about [' <an hower or> [ replacing '¾ of' deleted]' deleted] an hower <or better> [ replacing 'by our guess' deleted] and then the late hower of the night would not permitt us to observe it any further. But by the littleness of the luminous part though not by its faintness (for we could see it shine though there were <two> [ replacing 'a couple' deleted] of candles ['of' deleted] burning not for off) it appeard not likely to last very long.


Entry 256: Editorial notes:
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August ii

Haveing putt some destilld viniger upon our powderd glass of Lead made per se, and kept them in a good digestive heat all night, this morning we had a solution of a ['fine' deleted] pleasant and high colour, and which by its very sweet tast discoverd it self ['to' deleted] very fit to make Saccharum saturni


/BP 27, p.232/

/BP 27, p.233/

Entry 257: Editorial notes:
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Upon another portion of the same powderd Vitrum Saturni, {aqua fortis} being put, the solution came curdled, abounding in a white and light substance, which <was> not sweet to the tast, and the spirits that plaid ['on the' deleted] up and down the cavity of the vial when open'd whilst the liquor was very warm appear'd not in the formes of red fumes like those of spirit of Nitre but were white ones.


Entry 258: Editorial notes:
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Oil of Tartar made per deliquium gave both before and after filtration a considerably green liquor, which seem'd plainly to proceed from some Metallin particles corroded by the Salt of Tartar whilst it was boiling up in a Copper pan.


Entry 259: Editorial notes:
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The liquor of Alcaliz'd sal mirabilis did with the clear solution of Sublimat afford first a white and in a moment after a black præcipitat.


Entry 260: Editorial notes:
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About æquall parts of strong Sp. of Salt (made <with> [ replacing 'of' deleted] burnt Allom) and rectify'd sp of Barbadoes Tar; afforded by destillation in a Retort, a very black Caput Mortuum. The liquors swimming upon one an other, came over pretty clear, but ['with' deleted] had a strong smell which some tims seem'd very sulphurious.


Entry 261: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
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A seald weather glass being hung out in the open air, the cold was there so great, that the tincted {spirit of wine} subsided to the second division beneath the <freesing> [ replacing 'Phrytian' deleted] mark.

  • Endorsement: Transcd
  • Date: Decemb. 30
  • 30 December, early 1670s Being a very hard frost the weather glass having layn in the beer sellar all night, the liquor in the morning rested at 1 and ¼ above the freesing ['Phrytian' deleted] mark.


    Entry 262: Editorial notes:
    Marginal notes integral to entry text
    Later marginal endorsements:

    Being a rainy morning and the wind South west. the weather glass in the Cellar rested at 1 and ½ above the freesing ['Phrytian' deleted] mark.


    Entry 263: Editorial notes:
    Marginal notes integral to entry text
    Later marginal endorsements:

    <The weather being rainy> The weather glass was put in the Cellar at night resting at the 4th division, the next morning being Janu. 6th it was found to rest at 1 and ¾ above the <freezing> [ replacing 'Phrytian' deleted] mark and the same day in the chamber it rested at the 5th division above the <fore> said mark.


    /BP 27, p.234/

    /BP 27, p.235/

    Entry 264: Editorial notes:
    Marginal notes integral to entry text
    Later marginal endorsements:

    The weather glass expos'd at night to the open aire, rested at one division below the ['Phr' deleted] freesing mark, and the next <morning> [ replacing 'quarter' deleted] it rested at <a> quarter of a division lower.


    Entry 265: Editorial notes:
    Marginal notes integral to entry text
    Later marginal endorsements:

    At night the liquor in the division of the weather glass rested at ¼ below the freesing mark. being kept in the Cellar a night it rested a division and ¼ above it. The night being a very frosty one


    Entry 266: Editorial notes:
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    Judging it worth while to observe whether or no the affinity between a bituminous body (as Petrolium <)> [insertion in line, in pencil][insertion in line][in pencil] and oil of sulphur [')' deleted] were the same as between this last liquor and vegetable distill'd oils (as of Turpentine) we procur'd the best Petrolium we could get at the Marchants which seem'd and was judg'd by a skillfull person to be very good. This we leisurely rectifyed to try if it would bring over <a> [ replacing 'any' deleted] red colour or leave any feces behind: and found that there remaind after the destillation a Caput Mortuum black and shining almost like Jet, but it was not much, and was very light. The destill'd liquor (as the laborant affirm'd) came over colourless, but when within a day or two, I came to consider it, I found it to ['be' deleted] have acquired a darkish red colour.


    Entry 267: Editorial notes:
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    An ounce of this Rectif. Petrolium was ['as' altered from 'el'] mix'd by degrees with a <æquall> [in pencil] weight of strong oil of Vitriol, on whose surface the other liquor seem'd to worke, allmost like a Menstruum upon a Metal numerous and small bubles continually ascending for a while into the oil of Peter which has its colour manifestly alter'd and deepen'd by the mixture: but not so much as if oil of Turpentine had been used in its steede and though upon the action and reaction of these liquors there was produced a tepidness, that I found discernable by the touch, yet there was no such smoking and boiling and /BP 27, p.236//BP 27, p.237/ intens heat to be observ'd as if oil of Turpentine had been mixed with oil of Vitriol. The liquors being destilled ran over clear enough swimming one upon the other; And behind them they left a Cap. Mort. exceeding black and very light but yet copious enough to amount to a dram and a half.


    Entry 268: Editorial notes:
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    Fine rectify'd Barbadoes Tar being mix'd with an equall weight of good Sp. of salt. The liquors came over clear enough and distinct, and left a black residence behind them but in very small quantity.


    Entry 269: Editorial notes:
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    Being willing to shew that gross and vegetable oils may some of them have same operation upon Metallin bodys, we try'd among others the following experiment: we took 1 lb of Minium and caus'd one half of it, to be with <Lind-seed> [ replacing 'Linsey' deleted] oil well incorporated and made up into a soft paste ['ste' altered from 'ce'] , the other half was put ['to' deleted] without any additament into a Crucible, which it self was put into a greater, the better to hinder the minium from running <away when> [ replacing 'out and' deleted] brought to fusion. the former of these parcells of calcin'd lead was in a Smiths forge in half an hower or little more so reduc'd that we had out of it, above {ounce} iii together of good lead, besids what lay dispers'd in the Crucible or was lost in the operation. < This reduction seemd in part due to the oil for> The other parcel being brought to fusion perforated both the Crucible and ran allmost all out in to the fire.


    Entry 270: Editorial notes:
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    Æquall parts of Sal Armoniack and quicklime were in about a quarter of an hower or better <(in our forge)> brought to a very thin liquor < ['in our forge' deleted] > [' and' deleted] that would easily be powred out of the Crucible.


    Entry 271: Editorial notes:
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    Wee tooke a quantity of the stony stiræ that ['consist of coa' deleted] are found in some caves and consist of coagulated water, and haveing beaten it to powder, we found that [altered from 'a'] good strong ['liquor' deleted] viniger undistilled would readily worke upon it, even in the cold.


    Entry 272: Editorial notes:
    Later marginal endorsements:

    Wee tooke 1 {pound} of Sal Armoniack reduc'd to powder, half a pound of oil of english vitriol /BP 27, p.238//BP 27, p.239/ and about 3 pound of common water. These being put together to [altered from 'to' by supralinear insertion of 'gether to'] be destill'd in a Retort afforded a good Quantity viz {ounce} xxv besides phlegm of a ['smoking and' deleted] very acid liquor <that seemed to be> [ replacing 'allmost' deleted] like Sp. of Salt,


    Entry 273: Editorial notes:
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    there sublimed up also <Twelve> [ replacing 'several' deleted] Ounces of a substance so white and shineing that it looked like fine Mercureus dulcis, and so hard that we could strike fire with it <on> [ in pencil, replacing 'and' deleted] a knife, the remaining matter to the [altered from 'a'] quantity of severall Ounces appeared fluid, whilst 'twas hot, but presently after coagulated into a saline substance very apt to run per deliquium


    Entry 274: Editorial notes:
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    To shew the Laziness and mistake of those, who chuse rather to grant <then examin> the matter of fact is that famous objection, <wherein the> [ replacing 'ascribed to the' deleted] old Atomists are said to endeavour to prove vacuityes by urgeing that a vessell of ashes will contain as much water, as it would if the ashes were not there, we took woad ashes <clean and> finely sifted, and without pressing them down put them to the highth of a foot in to a ['Cyl' deleted] Cylindrical tube seald with one end. Then we powred <back> [ replacing 'both' deleted] into the same tube a foot of <fair> water, and leaveing them together for very ['v' altered from 'w'] many howers, that the < ['faire' deleted] > water might thorowly <mix itself> [ replacing 'be inbibed as much as it was possible' deleted] with the Ashes. After which all that we found to be <lost> [ replacing 'last' deleted] of the highth of the water was but 2 inchens and a half, which was sunke in to the water, above which the rest of the liquor remaind swimming.


    /BP 27, p.240/

    /BP 27, p.241/

    [Authorial heading]:
    Continuation from 15 Novemb.

    Entry 275: Editorial notes:
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    To examin Rhubarb according to some of the ways I have elswhere proposd of examining drugs a somewhat thick yellow infusion was made of it, which being somewhat depurated by filtration thorow Cap paper, (which 'twill but slowly permeate) we dropd upon <a small part of> it a little, Sp. {salt}, it seem'd to make the colour more light and clear [altered from 'cleare' by deletion of final 'e'] . <Another portion> [ replacing 'with' deleted] by <some drops of> an Alkaly (I us'd fixt {nitre}) ['it grew to be ab' deleted] was presently turn'd into a deep red or crimson: and such a colour <I found that> an urinous sp would give the dry Rubarb it self. This deep colour made by <the> Alkaly was upon the affusion of a little sp. {salt} destroyed, and ['succe' deleted] the yellow colour restored. To shew also the difference betwixt astringent particles of Rhubarb and the more stiptic ones of galls pomgranet flowers &c we put to a portion of this filtrated infusion a little {vitriol} abounding with iron, which did not with that infusion as it would ['it' deleted] have done with an infusion of <galls and pomgranets &c> [ replacing 'these' deleted] afford an incky mixture, but of only a curdled substance very differing from that. And lastly dropping into another portion of our ['the' deleted] tincture or infusion of Rhubarb ['some' deleted] a ['A of saturate solution of {mercury} made in {aqua fortis} till the former' deleted] some Aq. For. fully satiated with {mercury} we had after a while <at the bottom of the glass a pretty deal of> a præcipitated substance, wherein the colour of the Rhubarb ['seem'd' deleted] appear'd to be well highten'd.


    Entry 276: Editorial notes:
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    To satisfy myself ['otherwise then by smell and tast' deleted] whether a fine yellow tincture made with high Rectifyed <Spirit of> wine digested upon salt of {tartar} did really ['imbibe' deleted] contain any of the substance of the Alcaly or owed its change as to colour smell and Tast only to digestion without any true dissolution, I dropt some of it upon Syrup of Violets but found not, that the mixture became green, as ['wh' deleted] presently it does when oil of {tartar} or [altered from '&'] other ['stro' deleted] Alkalisate liquors are imploy'd. /BP 27, p.242//BP 27, p.243/ And since volatile salts reddily produce the ['liquo' deleted] like colour in that syrrup, our Tincture not produceing it, seeme to discover that if it <had acquir'd> [ replacing 'contained' deleted] any salt 'twas not volatile.


    Entry 277: Editorial notes:
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    And after this I putt together some of our tincture with some good <spt> sea salt, but could not perceive any conflict or effervescence made between them; which seem'd further to argue there was very little Alkaly in the tincture, but yet that it was not alltogether destitute of such Salt appear'd by <these> two other more favourable tryalls;


    Entry 278: Editorial notes:
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    One that haveing by ['a very littl' deleted] one drop or two of sp {salt} deprived some Tincture of Lignum Nephiticum of its ['blewne' deleted] Cæruleous colour so warily, that in probability a drop or two <of spt of urin or {oil} {tartar}> might have restored it, I did, thô not <till> after the addition of many drops <of our yellow tincture> at length restore a blewness to the liquor.Although numbered as a separate entry, this observation continues in the same paragraph as the preceding entry (no. 277) and is obviously one of the 'two more favourable tryalls' mentioned there


    Entry 279: Editorial notes:
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    The other Tryall was that haveing drop'd upon some strong solution of sublimate in fair water some of our Tincture of {tartar} there presently insued a kind of præcipitation of a pale yellowish colour. Although numbered as a separate entry, this observation continues in the same paragraph as the preceding entries (nos. 277 and 278) and is obviously the second of the 'two more favourable tryalls' mentioned in 277


    Entry 280: Editorial notes:
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    For the further examination of Lapis Armenus, we tooke the fine green solution of <it in> ['the' deleted] strong sp of salt, and putting a drop or two of it upon the blade of a well whetted knife, it did, as we expected, <presently> stain the steele, with a spot of the colour of Copper.


    Entry 281: Editorial notes:
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    On an other portion of lapis Armenus we poured Sp. {sal ammoniac} which in the cold quickly drew from it, (as we look'd it should) a lovely and deepe blew Tincture, but this upon the same knife blade would not leave any cupreous stain.


    /BP 27, p.244/

    /BP 27, p.245/

    Entry 281a: Editorial notes:
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    1 Eight ounces of good Nitre being calcin'd wih Coal, afforded of blewish and well compacted fix'd Nitre, but {ounce} ii ; and {ounce} i of that strong Alkaly tooke up about {ounce} iii of Sp. of {nitre} before it was so far satiated, as that the mixture would hiss no more. and in very few hours, thô no water had been used to dissolve the Alkaly, yet the fluid part of the mixture being decanted, there shot at the Bottom good store of Chrystalline Salt.


    Entry 281b: Editorial notes:
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    Crude {nitre} barely dissolved in Sp. of Sea Salt made of it a Mm which did, tho not very readily, dissolve leafe-gold.


    /BP 27, p.246/

    Entry 282: Editorial notes:
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    2 The Velocity of an Iron Ball that was about 2 Inches in Diameter, & let fall from the top of one turret at Chelsey, was found to amount [altered from 'have amounted' by deletion of 'have' and 'ed' at end of 'amount'] to 15 foot & a halfe in a second minute of time, as far as we were able to determine it by a diligent & repeated Observation made with an accurate Instrument in so small a height. But in regard of the Lowness of the Tower, 'twill be fit to repeat the Experiment from some much higher Building when Opportunity shall serve.


    Entry 283: Editorial notes:
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    3 To observe the relation between some acid Spirits & Oyls, we poured some very fine & clear Oyl of Amber upon rectifyed spirit of Salt, and haveing digested them in a glass egg for 2 or 3 dayes, we found the Oyl to be growne so opacous, that it appeared almost black.


    Entry 284: Editorial notes:
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    4 Haveing dissolv'd <in> [in pencil] a weak Sp. of Salt < ['in' deleted] > [in pencil] a 4th part of its weight of fine Crystalls of {nitre}, we found that it would (not in the cold at least in a good while dissolve Leaf {gold} but when the Menstruum was a little heated the solution succeeded readily enough.


    Entry 285: Editorial notes:
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    5 To try whether Gold would retain some particles of sylver, which I guessd might possibly <lye> [ replacing 'lay' deleted] hid in the Lead I imployd to Couple; we put <to> 10 gr. of very fine gold (such as refiners call water-Gold) because made by the help of {aqua fortis} 6 times its weight of Lead, and letting it worke upon the Cuppell there ['wad' deleted] was added by ['guess' deleted] the Laborants guess between 2 or 3 drams more, the button of gold which came off very clear and bright being the second time weighd in the same scales (with graines and a division of a grain, weigh'd 10 gr ¾ or somewhat better and consequently gain'd about <a> 13th part of additional weight.


    /BP 27, p.247/

    Entry 286: Editorial notes:
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    6 To convince some Ingenious men, that to the makeing of such a substance <as butyrum Antimonii> [in pencil] there is no [altered from 'not' by deletion of final 't'] necessity to imploy either <as chymists call Mercurius vitæ> [insertion in margin] {mercury} (sublimat) or Glaubers mixture of Vitriol ['&c.' deleted] [blank space in MS, 7-8 characters] &c I did (as I remember about the year 1660) divers times make such a butter <as yields {mercury} vitæ> [insertion in margin] with crude {mercury} and common sp. {salt}. The experiment I since taught some others and reiterated my self. And because the last tryall is freshest in my memory I shall set down that insteed of all.


    Entry 287: Editorial notes:
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    7 We took then {ounce} vi of very good {antimony} in pouder, and {ounce} viii of pretty strong sp {salt}, and committed them to destillation in a sand furnace capable of giveing a very intens heat. Most of the Phlegm being judged to be separated by an ['slow' deleted] easy fire, The Rr, was ['shifted' deleted] taken off and then being carefully fastend to the Retort the fire was gradually increased. Obviusly a continuation of entry 286, i.e. the 'last tryall' mentioned there


    Entry 288: Editorial notes:
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    8 To the experiments elswhere mentiond to have been made som yearrs a goe with the statical Hygroscope we then devis'd, I we shall now to confirm the considerableness of the Aires operation upon this instrument add what ['I' deleted] we try'd with it this weeke: [We took a piece of very fine spunge, which formerly had weighd just a dram, but haveing been many months kept in a very warm room where fires were ['kept' deleted] made every day it was grown much lighter, for removeing it into an upper chamber in a neighboring house and weighing it in tender scales, in the evening it was found to want of {drachm} i 4 gr + ¾ and thô there was a fire in the room and the scales stood not far from it, yet in a short time (the day being foggy and rainy) the ['scale' deleted] spunge visibly depressd <its> [ replacing 'the' deleted] scale ⅜ and [' <in> about 2 howers gaind above half a grain' deleted] in the next morning 'twas found to want but 1 gr + ½ of a dram, so /BP 27, p.248/ that it had gaind about ['4' deleted] 3 gr. ¼ and the following evening (being the 2d January) it weighd {drachm} i 1 gr and allmost a half so that in about one natural day the spunge had acquird 6 gr from the moisture of the Air, that is 1/10 part of its first weight (I mean {drachm} i) and a greater proportion in reference to the weight it had the day before, ['a day or two of' deleted] the 3d January the weather being yet moist the weight exceeded 2 gr, but about 3 or 4 of the clock in the afternoon it began to lose of that great weight which diminishd more by the next morning the weather haveing chang'd that night, and becom ['near' deleted] somwhat frosty.


    Entry 289: Editorial notes:
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    9 To shew some friendes the truth of an Argument I have elswhere propos'd to confirm that in the Torricellian experiment the {mercury} is sustained by the counterpoise of the external Air, we made an amalgam with 1 lb {mercury} and ['or' deleted] a quarter its weight of Tinn finding that much to thick we did to one half of it (setting the other aside) add 1 lb of fresh {mercury}, which made it of a consistence, thô ['scarce thin' deleted] not of the thinnest yet <not un> fitt for use, and haveing with this mixture made the Torricellian Experiment in a new and pretty long Tube we found the first time that the Amalgam fell <was> somewhat too low which was not to be wonderd at because being much less fluid ['heavy' deleted] then meer {mercury} it could not so well as it ajest it self to the sides of the tube, but sufferd divers bubles of Air to be intercepted, which getting to the top did by their spring somewhat depress the mixture. Wherefore inverting the Tube more then once to clear it of bubles as much as we could we did (tho not without trouble) free it ['not' deleted] /BP 27, p.249/ tollerably well from Air, and then compareing it with an exellent baroscope, which was long made use of, we found that <in> [ replacing 'that which' deleted] This the {mercury} stood at 29 inches ['and about' deleted] ⅝ (if not near 1/10 higher) And in the new baroscope the Amalgam stood at about 30 inches, so that this mixture being specifically lighter then meer {mercury} was sustain'd by the counterpoise of the outward Air, at a greater hight then it, by about 5/10 and better.


    Entry 290: Editorial notes:
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    10 In pursuance of the tryalls about the affinity between ['Chi' deleted] the salts and sulphurs of Chymists we tooke {ounce} ii of good sp. of {salt} and as much of common sp. or oil of Turpentine: and haveing digested them both together, we found, as we expected, that the oil had obtain'd a colour, which in the mass was ['of' deleted] too dark to <be> [ replacing 'have its colour' deleted] well judg'd of ['of' deleted] , but some of it being poured in to a slender pipe appear'd of a reddish yellow. Both these liquors being committed to destillation that which came over separated it self in the Rr into two distinct Liquors, and the oil appear'd very high color'd as before, The spirit of salt it self being also grown somwhat reddish, almost of the colour of a strong lixivium, though there were left behind a Cap. Mort. black as a coal, which ['seem'd copious but weighs' deleted] appear'd copious <to> [ in pencil, replacing 'upon' deleted] the eye but not upon the ballance. 'Twas exceeding light and friable, and round about the upper edge of it, for about the breadth of ones little finger the inside of the glass was adorn'd with a thin film as 'twere of black matter, so curiously ['shap'd' deleted] figur'd with branches and divers pritty shapes, as made the sight ['both' deleted] pleaseing.


    Entry 291: Editorial notes:
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    11 To confirm what I have delivered in the History of Fluidity and firmness about the change of the consistence of Camphire and to shew how acid spirits may mix with bodies, ['th' deleted] indow'd with the form of oil, ['I' deleted] we put some Camphere to liquify upon A. For after the usuall /BP 27, p.250/ way of Chimists, then haveing parted the two Liquors, I put the oil of Camphire upon some filings of Copper in a small glass-egg with a small neck, whose orifice was not carefully stopt, haveing set it for some howers in hot sand it answer'd my ['expe des' deleted] expectation, which was to shew that the <Liquid Camphire had> [ replacing 'oil did' deleted] conceal'd ['al'd' altered from 'rned'] in it store of the nitrous spirit of the A.F. which serv'd to give it the form of fluid oil, and yet retain'd their ['former' deleted] Corrosive nature. First, when the Glass was exposd to a pretty heat, the Nitrous spirits began to disclose themselves in the upper part of the bale and neck to be of a red colour: Next the liquor wrought upon the fileings of Copper after the manner of a Menstruum and dissolv'd the greatest part of them, whereby the mixture ['was made' deleted] became of a colour deepe enough betwixt green and blew <not> unlike some solutions of Copper in A. Fort. And lastly the nitrous spirits being partly by their operation on the metal, and partly by dissipation, unable to contribute sufficiently to the fluidity of the Camphire, the whole mixture would not only in the cold <but> [ replacing 'but' deleted] in a moderate heat be coagulated into a high colour'd substance which appear'd of a consistence like butter.


    Entry 292: Editorial notes:
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    12 Wee tooke {ounce} i of very strong and smoakeing sp {nitre} (made <with> [ replacing 'of' deleted] oil of {vitriol}) and puting <with> [altered from 'put into' by inline insertion of 'ing' after 'put' and replacement of 'into' by 'with'] it in a bolt-glass an æqual weight of cold <{spirit of wine}> we shook them together to mix them thoroughly, and heedfully observeing what alteration would insue thereuppon as to heat and cold, we found the former coldness of both the liquors presently succeeded by a very manifest heat <in> [ replacing 'of' deleted] the mixture.


    Entry 293: Editorial notes:
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    13 A piece of match such as Muskoteers ['ko' altered from 'ca'] use being very well lighted, was suspended with the burning end downwards in the cavity of a Rr capable of containing 2 gallons of water, and then the Rr being carefully cemented on to the Engine that no Air nor smoak might get in or out (which we tryed by pumpeing out a little of the Air and letting it in again) the fire in the match continued visible to me as well as others for 7 minutes after which the Candle <that had been> [ replacing 'being' deleted] removed was brought back again when younger Eyes then mine did just cease from perceiveing the match to continue lighted, and shew'd me that 2 minutes more were efflux'd since I had seen the match. And lastly /BP 27, p.251/ haveing staid a minute or two longer the Receiver was taken off (whence issued great store of smoak) the <contact ['tact' altered from 'corse'] > of the fresh air quickly made the match kindle again.


    Entry 294: Editorial notes:
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    14 Two Ounces of {oil} {vitriol} being poured in, (but not all at once) into {ounce} iiii of distilld rain water made & kept it manifestly warm for a pritty deal above an hour and during no small part of that time kept it so hot as was troublesom to be handled.


    Entry 295: Editorial notes:
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    The two flat Leadden weights were put on the plugg that leaned on the wooll which sunke the Plugg <within> [ replacing 'beneath' deleted] the Cylinder ['two Inches and one a fifth an eigth' deleted] one inch & five eights being deprest by the force of one that leaned on it sunke the plugg 2 inches ⅛ & recoverd the former station when the hands were removed that prest it downe.


    Entry 296: Editorial notes:
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    The wooll that filld the Cylinder being suffer'd to expand the contracted parts, there was 5 drams which by its expansion fell off from the Heap that raisd it self 5 inches from the upper part of the Cylinder & the rest that lifted it self above the brass Cylinder weighd {ounce} i + 1 dram, the remainder in the Cylinder weigh'd {ounce} ii & 6 drams.


    Entry 297: Editorial notes:
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    Four ounces of {sal ammoniac} being dissolved in faire water the dewe condensed in the outside of the bottle increasd the weight of the counterpoysed seale {ounce} i + 28 gr.


    Entry 298: Editorial notes:
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    Some long solid pieces of Mr Greatrexes Vitriol were put up Febr. 25 weighed {ounce} ii & 6 drams, being weigh'd 25 March it came to {ounce} iii minus 5 gr Sept 3 it weighd {ounce} iii + 22 gr.


    Entry 299: Editorial notes:
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    The Cylinder of wood weighd after it had been taken out of water {ounce} i + 29 gr it lost 11 gr by lying about 3 howers in the Aire /BP 27, p.252/ being weighd a day after, it weighd {drachm} vii + 35 gr the day following in the morning it weighd {drachm} vii + 3 gr.


    Entry 300: Editorial notes:
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    The Cylinder with a ring weighd July the first at three quarters past eight in the morning {ounce} 1 + {drachm} vii + 3/10 gr. Being weighd July the second about eight in morning it weighd {ounce} i + {drachm} vi + 49 gr. July 4th hor. 9 ['it' deleted] the Cylinder & ring weighd {ounce} i + {drachm} iv + 44 gr.