Robert Boyle (1627-91): Work-diary XXII ('Promiscuous Addenda to my severall Treatises')

Content: Transcribed extracts on geographical and natural phenomena from natural philosophical and travel books, from the late 1660s and early 1670s; authors include Samuel Purchas, Marin Mersenne, Julius Caesar Scaliger, Izaak Walton, Isbrand van Diemerbroeck and many others

General Information


Work-diary entries

/BP 8, fol. 65/

[Authorial heading]:
Promiscuous Addenda
to my severall Treatises

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Famulum habui qui a Scorpione ictus tam subito actam frigido sudore toto corpore perfusus est, ut algentissimâ nive ac glacie se se opprimi quereretur. Verum cum algenti illi solam Theriacam ex vino potentiore exhibuissem illico curatusem. Benivenius Cap. 56 abditor.


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Vir qui a Scorpione in manus digito punctus fuit, multum dolebat [d] refrigeratus totus contremebat, et per corpus dolores, cute totâ quasi acu punctâ formicantes patiebatur. Cæterum hic a Scorpione punctus, ilicò eum interfecit, & contudit, et contusum puncto digito superposuit, et brevi a dolore liber fuit et quasi ab Igne exustus, redditus et ex toto Curatus. Lusit: Cent. 6. curat 31: Schenck.


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Tanta huius (Aranei) vis (speciem in memoria non habeo) ut calcatus calceorum soleas transmiserit cuiusdam Vincentini Scal. Exer: 186


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Bout it was first a poore fisher towne, from whence it <had> the name it yet retaynes, afterwards the conveniencie of the road, made it a fit residence for Marchants and so continueth (with increase of trade) since our, and the Dutch nation frequented this coast; the climate is very healthfull and the yeere devided in their account into three different seasons, whereof March Aprill May, and June they call the hote season; and not without good cause; for the sunne being returned into ther hemisphere, doth not alone scortch the earth with his piercing beames, but even the winde which should asswage his fury; addes grea/BP 8, fol. 65v/ter fire, and yeerely about may with a strong westerly gale, brings off the land a sensible heat; as when a house is on fire, such as are neere to leeward can hardly endure; and this so penetrateth the doores and windowes being shut, the houses are not withstanding so warmed, that the chaires and stooles admit hardly the uses they were made for, without cooling them, and the place where we abide, by often sprinkling of water; but the extremity hereof neyther lasteth long, nor commeth often, onely five or seven dayes in a yeere, and then but from nine or ten a clocke in the forenoone untill foure or five in the afternoone, at which time a coole breeze from of the sea, qualifies againe this intollerable heat; wherein many of the natives are in their travell suffocated and perish, and of Christians a Dutchman as he was carried in his palamkeene, and an Englishman walking but from the towne to the <bridge> little above an English mile dyed both in the way. the rest of these foure moneths are very hot farre exceeding the hottest day in our climate, and would so continue but that in July August September, and october the raines are predominant, which with their frequent violent, and long continuing showres cooles the Earth, and revives the partcht roots of the sun burnt plants of the earth, sometimes rayning so long together, and /BP 8, fol. 66/ with such fiercenesse, that houses loose their foundations in their currants, and fall to the ground; from whence also followes great landflouds, to this countrey no lesse commodious, then the inundation of nilus to the Egiptians by receiving the flouds <in> their rice grounds, and then retayning it untill the earth drinking it in, becomes the better enabled to endure an eight moneths abstinence; for in eight moneths it never rayneth November December, January, and february, they account their cooler times, and are so indeed compared to the former, yet as hot as it is here <in> ingland in May


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Distinctions, which some christians find out to coozen themselves withall, onely once a yeere on their anniversary day, they keep their festivials, and to some of them repaire many thousands of people (as I my selfe have seene) some for devotion, and they fast 24 houres, wash their bodies, and burne lamps within or as neere the pagode as they can get, some to see their friends, children, or kindred, which will not faile to meet /BP 8, fol. 66v/ them in such a generall liberty, others for profit (as pedlers to a great faire the whoores to dance, players and tumblers with their exquisite tricks, one where of I will mention with the admiration of such as saw it or understanding shall reade it; a tumbler fetching his run, did the double sommerset without touching the ground with any part of his body, until he fel againe on his feet keeping his body in the aire until hee turned twice round, a strange activity and with me and others which saw it shall not loose the wonder it caried with it.


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Being children they are taught to dance and their bodies then tender and flexible, screwed into such strange postures that it is admirable, impossible to expresse in words, as for a child of eight yeeres of age, to stand upon one legge, raysing the other upright as I can my arme, then bringing it down, and laying her heele upon her head, yet all this while /BP 8, fol. 67/ standing looses the wonder in my imperfect relation, but, to behold is truly strange; the like for their dancing and tumbling, which doth as farre in activity exceed our mercenary <skip-jacks> , as the ropedancing woman doth a capring curtezan, or an usher of a dancing schoole a cuntry plough jogger.


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d'un, plumage gris sur le dos & blanc souz le ventre, estans de la grosseur et grandeur d'une poulle ains un pied [d] comme la serre d'un oiseau de proye, duquel il prend le poisson; l'autre est comme celuy d'un canard, qui luy sert anger dans l'eau lors qu'il sy' plonge pour prendre les poisson oiseau qu'on croit ne s'estre veu œilleurs qu'en la Novelle France.


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Si trova anco Pesce di fliume, ma è la maggior parte Barbi, e Squali, che e Pesce molle assai et al tempe del fiorire de gli Arbori, detto pesce Mangia del la fiori di Albucci e per questo è cattivissimo, perche fa movere il Corpo, et e difficile a stagnarto.


/BP 8, fol. 67v/

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I have seen in the beginning of July, in a river not far from Canterbury, some parts of it covered over with young Eeles, about the thickness of a straw; and these Eeles did lie on the top of that water, as thick as motes are said to be in the sun: and I have heard the like of other Rivers, as namely in Severn, (where they are call'd yelvers,) and in a pond or mere near unto Staffordshire, where about a set time in summer, such small Eeles abound so much, that many of the poorer sort of people, that inhabit near to it, take such Eeles out of this mere, with sieves or sheets, and make a kind of Eele-cake of them, and eat it like as bread.


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as other fish do, ask, if any man ever saw an Eele to have a spawn or melt: and they are answred that they may be as certain of their breeding, as if they had seen Spawn: for they say, that they are certain that Eeles have all parts fit for generation like other fish, but so small as not to be easily discerned, by reason of their fatness; but that discerned they may be, and that the he and the she Eele may be distinguished by their fins, and Roandelitius saies, he has seen Eeles cling together like Dew-worms.


/BP 8, fol. 68/

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These several kinds of Eeles are (say som) diversly bred, as namely, out of the corruption of the earth, and by dew, and other waies ([d] as I have said to you:) and yet it is affirmed by some for a certain, that the silver Eele by generation, but not by spawning as other fish do, but that her brood come alive from her, little live Eeles no bigger nor longer than a pin; and I have had too many testimonies of this to doubt the truth of it my self, and if I thought it needful I might prove it, but I think it is needlesse.


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You are also to know, that there be divers kinds of cadis or case-worms, that are to be found in this nation in severall distinct countries and in sevrall little brooks that relate to bigger rivers, as namely, one cadis called a piper, whose husk or case is a piece of reed about an inch long or longer, and as big about as the compass of a twopence, these worms being kept three of four days in a woolen bag with sand at the bottom of it, and the bag wet once a day, will in three or four days turn to be yellow, and these be a choice bait for the chub or chavender, or indeed for any great fish, for it is a large bait: /BP 8, fol. 68v/ there is also a lesser cadis-worm, called a cock-spur, being in fashion like the spur of <a> cock sharp at one end, and the case or house in which this dwells is made of small husks and gravel, and slime, most curiously made of these even so as to be wondered at but not to be made by man no more then a kingsfishers nest can which is made of little fishes bones, and have such a geometricall interweaving and connexion, as the like is not to be done by the art of man: this kind of cadis is a choice bait for any flote fish, it is much less then the piper cadis, and to be so ordered, and these may be so preserved ten fifteen, or twenty days, [d] or it may be longer: there is also another cadis called by som a straw-worm, and by some a ruffe-coat, whose house or case is made of little pieces of bents and rushes, and strawes, and water-weeds, and I know not what, which are so knit together with condensed slime, that they stick about her husk or case, not unlike the bristles of a hedg-hog these three cadis are commonly taken [d] in the beginning of summer, and are good indeed to take /BP 8, fol. 69/ any kind of fish with flote or otherwise: I might tell you of many more, which as these do early, so those have their time of turning to be flies later in summer; but I might lose my self, and tire you by such a discourse I shall therefore but remember you, that to know these, and their several kinds, and to what flies every particular [d] cadis turnes, and then how to use them first as they be cadis:


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and he especially loves the mayflie which is bred of the Cod-worm or caddis; and these make the trout bold and lustie,


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and for dying of your hairs doe it thus: tak a pint of strong ale, halfe a pound of soot, and a little quantity of the juice of walnut tree leaves and an equal quantity of allome put these together into a pot, or pan, or pipkin and boile half an hour, and having so done let it cool, and being cold put your hair into it and there let it lie; it will turn your hair to be a kind of water or glass colour, or greenish, and the longer you let it lye, the deeper coloured it will be; you might be taught to make many other colors, but it is to little purpose; for doubtlesse the water or glass-coloured haire is the most choice and most useful for an angler; but let it not be too green /BP 8, fol. 69v/ but if you desire to colour haire greener, then do it thus: take a quart of small ale, halfe a pound of allome then put these in to a pan or pipkin, and your haire into it with them , then put it [d] upon a fire and let it boil softly for half an hour, and then take out your hair, and let it dry, and having so done then take a pottle of water and put into it two handfull of marygolds and cover it with a tile ([d] or what you think fit;) and set it againe on the fire where it is to boile softly for half an hour, about which time the scum will [d] turn yellow, then put into it half a pound of coperas beaten small, and with it the hair that you [d] intend to colour, then let the hair be boiled till half the liquor be wasted, and then let it cool three of four hours with your hair in it; and you are to observe, that the more copperas you put into it the greener it will be, but doubtlesse the pale green is best; but if you desire yellow hair (which is onely good when the weeds rot) then put in the more mary-golds, and abate most of the copperas or leave it out, and take a little verdigreece instead of it:


/BP 8, fol. 70/

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It is granted by all or most men, that Eeles for about six moneths (that is to say, the six cold moneths of the year) stir not up and down nither in the rivers nor in the pools in which they usually are but get into the soft earth or mud and there many of them together bed themselves and live without feeding upon any thing (as I have told you some swallowes have been observed to do in hollow-trees for those six cold moneths;) and this the Eele and swallow do, as not being able to endure winter weather for Gesner quotes Albertus to say, that in the year 1125 (that years winter being more cold then usually) Eeles did by natures instinct get out of the water into a stack of hay in a meadow upon drie ground, and there bedded themselves, but yet at last a frost kil'd them. and our cambden relates that that in Lancashire fishes are dig'd out of the earth with spades where no water is near to the place I shall say little more of the Eele, but, that as it is observed, that in warm weather an Eele has been known to live five daies out of the water.


/BP 8, fol. 70v/

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Lib. I. Machab c. 6. ita legitur: Elephantis ostenderunt sanguinem vuæ, et mori, ad acuendos eos in prœlium.

Certè multarum gentium opinione constat, pugnaces feras intuitu rerum rubrarum irritari.

Utcunque verò de causa sentias, res certè ipsa multis neque inevidentibus constat experimentis. Novi quendam qui oculos in rem quampiam cum rubore splendentem aliquantisper attentius intendens, non aliter oculis afficiebatur ac toto Vultu, ac si Vino æstuaret aut erysipelate corripi incieret. id vero quoniam non <æque> accidit omnibus, constat accidere magis, quibus sint cum sanguine spiritus agiliores (ob hæc symptomata dicit Vulgus esse quibusdam sanguinem leviorem) aliquantisper verò accidere omnibus, nam et qui faciei erysipelate, et qui ophthalmia, vel suffusione cruenta, splendoris rubei conspectu plurimum læduntur.


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Viscum. An huius fruticis semen (perfectum cum sit et maturum) aliquando sui generis plantam producat sedulis naturæ indagatoribus inquirendum proponimus. affirmativam partem tuentur Aristoteles, Plinius, et universus antiquorum cætus: negativam Julius Schalinger, J. Bauhinus, et plerique recentiorum.


/BP 8, fol. 71/

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Sicut autem satis certum nobis videtur, Viscum non raro sine semine nasci, precipuè in ea quæ terram spectat rami parte: ita vix credibile est, naturam semen perfectum creasse in tota specie, ad generandum inutile et infæcundum.


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Insita prunus in Sambucum, quamvis ut expertus sum non facile comprehendat fructus fert purgantes.


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Ingenuè fateor, quæ tot Botanici prodidêre de Tithymalo helioscopio, decalendulâ, et pluribus aliis, quotidie cum sole circumactis, me nulla uspiam <in> regione, nullo tempore, etiam studiosissimè observare gestientem deprehendere potuisse P. Lauremberg Horticult. lib. 1 cap 11 num. 7


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Prunus sylvestris. In Sylvestri pruno hoc peculiare est, quod deflorescens simul atque imbues contigerint, conversatur fructus in oblongum quoddam et inane corpus, quod in Italia Turcas vocant. Cam. in hort. verum hoc et aliis quibusdam prunorum specibus commune est.


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Prunus sylvestris transplantatione diligentique cultura evadit hortensis. fructusque fert grandiores. quos Germani vocant grosse garden schele, i. great garden sloes. Schroder Pharmac. Medicochym. l. 4 c. 6.


/BP 8, fol. 71v/

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Pisum arvense flore albo aut roseo, fructu albido cinerisceo. Pisa vulgaria parva alba sive arvensia J. B. et aliorum. field pease. tres apud nos Pisorum species vulgò in agris seruntur 1. Pisum parvum [d] flore et semine albis. Common White Pease. 2. Pisum flore roseo, semine subnigro aut fusco. common gray Pease. 3. Pisum flore roseo semine variegato: Maple Pease N. i. Leguminum omnium flores papilionacei dicuntur, quod papilionem volantem quodammodo æmulentur. Spigel. Isag. l. 1 c. 12.


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Nostrates agricolæ experientia edocti studiose cavent ne pisa seminent spirantibus a Septentrione ventis, alioqui quæ candida fuerant in cinerea plerumque degenerare, aut certe a vermibus erodi. P. Lauremb. horticult. l. 1 cap. 4 num. 4.


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Pisa sale addito dura manere, nec ulla coctione mollescere, etiamsi, ut [d] ita dicam, per triduum coquantur, experientia didici, inquit. Jo. Bodæ in theophr. hist. Experti sumus et nos salem aquæ copiose immissum Pisorum veterum sine maturitate et tempore exiccatorum emollitionem plurimum retardare, non autem omnino prohibere: viridium vero coctioni nihil omnino obesse.


/BP 8, fol. 72/

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Pisa Ultra triennum bona manent aptaque seminationi. Lauremb. horticult. l. 1 c. 17 n. 8.


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Dr A. informes mee That if he eat Bread & Butter, or Butter in sauce, (unlesse it be much diluted with water [d] or Vinegar) & drink Beere after, it tasts to him as perfectly bitter as any Gall, & that Pye crust that has much Butter in It, & of late Creame Tarts also, & Creame Cheeses <seeme> in the formentiond case very bitter, though not Soe bitter to him & yet he loves Bread & Butter well & relishes it with pleasure when he eats it, & when I askd him whether he finds this Inconvenience upon the drinking of other Liquors, then Beere after having eaten Butter, he answerd that if he drunk either Wine or water no Bitternes was produc'd, & this has been his condition for severall years. [d]


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Quantò verò debeat globus esse maior, quam uncialis, ut prædicta pondera, aut etiam in data ratione maiora levet; vel tandem quid sit futurum, si globus idem ex centum, mille, vel pluribus suis diametris cadens eandem lanciam percutiat, non ausim absque experimento, quod propemodum vires humanos superat, asserere: tot enim in aiere, et aliis circumstanciis spectanda veniunt, vix &c ullus indicio præditus, tam in hoc quam in sexcentis huiusmodi, quidpiam definire velit, aut possit. Quod facile fatebuntur quicunque non solâ Geometriâ freti, sed phisica considerantes, quæ nunquam fortè perpetuò eandem rationem, vel anologiam servant, experti fuerint non idem sequi cum experimur in magnis ac [d] in parvis.


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Quapropter cum dicimus momenta velocitatum /BP 8, fol. 72v/ Hoc est ictus, esse in subduplicata ratione altitudinum, ex quibus cadit malleus globus, aut aliud corpus percutiens, omnes corporis percussi & medii, per quos fit illa percussio, circumstancia considerandæ sunt, antequam quidpiam concludatur.


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Collections for the Addenda to the Booke of Cold.

Dr Stubbs assured me that haveing at Jamaica taken a Bolthead about two foot & a half in length, he usually found that betwixt 7 and 8 in the morning which they there [d] call the faint time (of the day) [d] because for want of the dayly Brizes the excessive heat maks them to faint away) the water was wont to rise in the neck but a quarter of an Inch & a half, though at that time by reason of the winds, men found the heat very supportable, & after noone was past, the water would subside by degrees till toward the above mencioned time the next morning, this happend in a South window, where the Fresh Wind come fully and freely in to beat upon the Bolthead with <out> any glasse to skreene the vessell from the wind.


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He added that though the Bolthead were not Stopt, yet the water did not even in that hot Cuntry decrease sensibly in 8 or ten months.


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Addenda to the Booke of Colours,

Dr Stubbs being inquired of by me concerning &c: told me that in Jamaica the Silken Stuffs that were brought thether /BP 8, fol. 73/ will not even whilst they keep their Colour if they be showen to the Air, though if they be not showd thereto but kept up close they were not observed to rott or be discolourd.


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Salt petre in pouder is white when melted in a Crucible transparent, & when cold, white again.


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Dr Stubbs affermed to me that usually it happened to him that rowing at Jamaica betwixt the passage port & the Point, he saw the water shine, when he happend to be out of the Currant (but never in the Currant) & that the light remaned visible like that of a Gloa worme, a pretty while after the stroake soe as to be manifestly discernable, the length of an Ordinary [d] Chamber. But this water did not thus shine at all times, nor with every wind (as frequently passing that way he had occasion to observe) but when the Wind was South or East.


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Il y a une sorte de bois rouge, qui est si dur que la coignee se rompt plutost que de le couper. La mal heureuse guerre, que nous avons crie contra les Sauvages est cause que ton n'a fait aucune experience. . . .


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6. Narrabo nunc tibi jocosam Sympathiam Reguli Vasconis equitis. Is dum viveret, audito plormingis sono, urinam illico facere cogebatur. Igitur e turma quidam, quem levis ac civilis joci offensiuncula aspersisset: ridiculam illi paravit Ultionem. Ponè discumbentem adduxit cæcum quendam cum plormigine. Cuius, ut solet, sono permotus, ibi sub mensam inter clarissimorum /BP 8, fol. 73v/ continarum pedes quin mieret continere sese non potuit.


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Porrò tametsi in Monochordo, motus chordarum intactarum non appareat semper, quando faciunt tertiam et quartam minorem, est tamen valdè sensibilis in fidibus Testu <dinis> tres pedes longæ, in qua decima maior validissimè concutit. Hinc fit ut experientiæ sint eò certiores, et illustriores, quo maiora, melioraque fuerint instrumenta.


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Sed ut audaci Mathematico faciam satis (postquam emendarit quod dixeram 36 Prop. lib. 2 vibrationum, tempora non differre sensibilitèr, juxta caputibus reflectionum, ex quo discet non esse canendum miraculum p. 56, & 57 audacioris, quam par sit, matheseos, ubi nullum est, nisi falsum pro miraculo habeat, quemadmodum verum habet pro falso, dum pag 7.


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In huius regionis (scil. Traverstiâ Finlandiæ parte) Boreali <parte> lacus diversi sunt, admodum profundi, ex quibus incolæ retibus massas ferri informes extrahunt ferri optimi turgidas, quod facili fusione ex iis elicitur.


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In relatione Autumnali Francofurtana anno 1646 pag. 15. legitur, eiusdem anni mense Februario prope Marstrandi locum 4 Milliaribus Gotteburgo distantem, Balænam captam esse 88. pedes longam <&> 14 Ulnas Holmias altam.


/BP 8, fol. 74/

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The Guaver growes on a Tree, bodied & leav'd like a Cherrytree, but the leaves somewhat larger & stiffer; the fruit of the bignesse of a small Limon, & neer that colour, only the upper end somewhat blunter then the Limon; the rinde about the thicknesse of the rinde of a Limon, but soft, and of a delicate taste; it holds within a pulpie substance, full of small seeds, like a fig, some of them white within, & some of a stammell colour. These seeds have this property, that when they have past through the body, wheresoever they are laid downe, they grow. These fruites have different tastes, some rank, some sweet; soe that one would give a reason of this variety, which was, according to the severall constitutions they had past through, some haveing a milder, some a stronger savour.


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The Mangrave is a tree of such note, as she must not be forgotten; for, though she be not of the tall & lusty sort of Trees, yet, she is of great extent; for there drops from her limbs a kind of Gum, which hangs together one drop after another, till it touch the ground, and then takes root, and makes an additio to the tree.


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Iron wood is [d] called so, for the extream hardnesse; & with that hardnesse it hath such a heavyenesse, as they seldome use <it> in building; besides, the workmen complain that it breaks all their tools. Tis good for any use without doores, for neither Sun nor Rain can any waies mollifie it. Tis very much used for Coggs to the Rollers.


/BP 8, fol. 74v/

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And the reason I have given before; the land in the highest part of the Iland being very rich mould, & that neer the Sea, being a Sandy light earth. And in the partings or Twists of the branches of those trees (which I have not named) such excrescences grow out, as are strange for their formes, and noe doubt medicinable in their natures; such as is our Misleto, or Colypodium, & much larger, and more frequent; but we want skilfull men, to find out their vertues.


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They are of a popinjay colour, the blossome a pure scarlet. when tis ripe we dig up the roots (cutting of the blades) and put them in to the hands of an Overseer, who setts man of the young Negres to scrape them, with little knives, or small iron spuds, ground to an edge. They are to scrape all the outward skin off; to kill the Spirit; for, without that it will perpetually grow. Those that have Ginger & not hands to dresse it thus, are compeld to scald it, to kill the Spirit; and that Ginger is nothing soe good as the other, for it will be hard as wood, and black, whereas the scrapt Ginger is white and soft, and has a cleaner, and quicker taste.


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The people that have lived long there, say, tis not wholesome to be under the shade of of this tree, The Fellers, as they cut them downe, are very carefull of their eyes, & those that have Cipers, put it over their faces, for if any of the sap fall in to their eyes, they become blinde for a month. /BP 8, fol. 75/ A Negre had two horses to walk, which were left him by two Gentlemen; & the horses beginning to fight, the Neagre was afraid, and let them goe; & they running in to the wood together, struck at one another, & their heeles hitting some young tree of this kind, struck some poisonous juice in to one anothers eyes, and soe their blindnesse parted the fray, and they ware both led home stone blinde, and continued soe a month, all the hair and skin pilling off their faces. Yet, of this timber we make all, or the most part, of the Pots we cure our Sugar in; for, being [d] sawed, and the boards dried in the Sun the Poison vapours out.


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We will put in a plant among the trees, and that is soe like a Sugar Cane as hardly to be discerned, the one from the other; and this plant hath this quality, that whatsoever chues it, and sucks in any of the juice, will have his tongue, mouth, and throat, soe sweld as to take away the faculty of speech for two dayes, and noe remedy that I know but patience.


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Substantia mineræ Imensis ferri ditissima est perhibetur: cum eius centum libræ, sexaginta optimi, et puri ferri reddant, quod aliis ferri mineris raro contingit. In partibus Orientis reperitur genus ferri, quod vulgò Alidema vocatur, et huius substantia tanquam Cuprum facile funditur, nec non /BP 8, fol. 75v/ cœlaturis est idonea, et instar ferri aliorum regionum, nentiquam duci, et dilatori potest. Non discrepabit, forte hæc ferri species ab illa, quam Redoneus memorat, ex qua lebetes conflantur: quapropter narrat nonnullos esse Lutetiæ, qui ollarum ferrearum fragmenta quærentes emunt, et ad fornaces denuo liquanda convehant. Aliquando ferrum suam mutat sustantiam, dum in Magnetem convertitur, et hoc experientia constat, nam Arimini supra turrim templi S. Johannis erat Crux a baculo ferreo ponderis centum librarum sustentata, quod tractu temporis adeo naturam Magnetis est adeptum ut, illius istar, ferrum traheret; hinc magna admiratione multi tenentur, qua ratione ferrum, quod est metallum, in Magnetem, qui est lapis, transmutari possit: Animadvertendum est, id a maxima familiaritate, et Sympathia ferri, et magnetis dimanare: cum Aristotoles in habentibus symbolum facilem transitum semper admiserit. Hoc in loco damus imaginem frusti ferrei in Magnetem transmutati, quod clarissimo viro Ulyssi Aldrovando Julius Cæsar Moderatus diligens rerum naturalium, inquisitor communicavit: erat hoc frustum ferri colore nigro, et ferrugineo, crusta exteriori quodammodo albicante


/BP 8, fol. 76/

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Le General m'envoya apres a des Isles qui sont entre Bantan & Batavia pour y aller querir des pierres qui se trouvent au fonds de la mer. Il me donna quarante Laskaris; ces Laskaris se plongent dans l'eau; ils lient les pierres, [d] avec des cordes qu'on tire apres [d] dans un Batteau: ce sont de grosses pierres, qu'on taille en suite a Batavia, pour en revestir le fort que nous y avons: Certe pierre dure de Hollande. Le Fort est quasi tout basty de ces pierres, depuis la superficie de l'eau de ses fossez jusques au cordon du Parapet, & fait une fort belle perspective. Nous fismes trois voiages pour charger de ces pierres.


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Constat experientiâ nervos in violis, et testudinibus eadem vi tensos sicco tempore gravius humido verò acutius sonare: notetur ergò sonus aliquis fixus in organis, vel fistulis, vel etiam in chordis æneis, quæ non eandem mutationem patiantur, unde iudicium feratur de intervallo, ad quod ascendit nervus, ob humidiorem aëris temperiem: si enim acutius tertia maiore ascenderit, aëris istius humiditas ad præcedentis humiditatem erit ut 5 ad 45 quod de cæteris intervallis dicendum est.

Ratio autem huiusce maioris acuminis ex eo petenda, quod nervus infletur, et fiat humidior: eâque ratione magis quam antea tendatur: quæ quidem observatio suas habet utilitates in Mechanicis, ut insignis ille Architectus ostendit Constantinopoli, qui cum obeliscum, qui est in Hippodromo, dejectum suæ basi restituendum suscepisset, funesque /BP 8, fol. 76v/ Trociearum breviores repertæ fuissent, adeo ut lapis ille ingens in sublime evectus uno digito abesset a dorso astragalorum, quibus imponi debeat; cumque iam a populo spectante irrideretur, immensam aquæ vim injecit in funes quibus obeliscus librabatur, qui sensim madefacti ita se contraxerunt, ut obeliscum altius sublatum in astralagis statuerit magnâ cum admiratione, et plausu vulgi, ut refert Busbequius epistolâ primâ legationis Turciæ. hinc etiam elici possit quâ ratione quodvis pondus beneficio funis elavari possit juxta contractiones illius, ut iam alibi dictum est: hinc Mechanici possunt ingentia pondera sursum elevare, licet nullo vecte, nullisque rotis, timpanis, axibus in peritrochio, ergastis polypastis, cocleis, et aliis id genus instrumentis utantur, Phœbo videl icet cœlestem mechanicum agere, ut alio loco fusius dicturi sumus.


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In templis maioribus quorum fornices altissimæ sunt, idem observatur in funibus, quibus lampades sustinentur, quippe qui sex pedibus ad minimum hieme, quam æstate breviores sunt in templo Parisiensi beatæ virginis: sed quanto ad summum chorda cannabina, vel nervus ex integris contrahi possint humiditate, vix dici potest. audivi a Practicis nervos in violâ nonnunquam integrâ quartâ altius, quam antea ascendere: at vero cum unicuique facillimum sit hæc omnia in instrumentis observare, plura non addam.


/BP 8, fol. 77/

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Unisonum autem aliud unisonum commotat, quoniam quæ similitèr tensæ sunt cordæ, consimiles aëris undationes & facere, & recipere natæ sunt, quæ vero dissimiliter sunt tensæ, non eisdem circulationibus aptæ sunt moveri, sed una circulatio aliam impedit: ictus enim cordæ, motus est compositus, <e duobus> motibus, uno quidem, quo corda pellitur ante, hoc est versus aëris circulationes, alio vero qui retro fit, corda reducente sese ad situm proprium: si igitur mota una corda debet et alia moveri, oportet, ut in secunda talis proportio sit, ut undationes et circulationes aëris, quæ impellunt, et faciunt motum ante, non impediant motum, qui retro fit a corda: quam proportionem solum eæ cordæ habent, quæ etiam consimilem tensionem habent: quæ vero dissimilem sortitæ sunt tensionem, non sese commotant, quoniam dum secundus fit motus, id est reditus cordæ retro, circulatio secunda illi obviat, et sese impediunt: unde nec motus fit ullus præter primam impulsionem quæ insensibilis est.

Vidi ipse in Ecclesia quadam, ubi statuæ multa cereæ circa sacellum loco alto dispositæ stabant, pulsante tintinnabulo quodam unam illarum tremere reliquis immotis permanentibus, quod quum quibusdam, qui propre aderant <,> indicassem, admiratio multa eos cepit. causa non alia erat, nisi quæ in unisonis accidit.


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Observandum est etiam metalla eò solidius et perfectius typum implere, quò magis mixta fuerint; hinc fit ut campana ex argento mixto facta ponderosior eâ fuerit, quæ est argento puro, qua etiam crassior evasit, levior /BP 8, fol. 77v/ alioqui futura, si æqualis ac argentea pura crassitudinis fuisset. quod etaimsi vestrum est, nec ulla superesse videatur humana industria, qua campanæ ex his omnibus metallis ex eodem typo magnitudine penitus æquales egrediantur, neque etiam tornus aut circinus ad rotunda corpora metienda compositus satis fidel ia sunt, ut æqualitati credamus, attamen proportiones ponderum, quibus in aëre, et aqua examinantur, certæ sunt, ex quibus notis certo concludimus cum Archimede lib. i. de insidentibus humido, prop. 7. solidas magnitudines humido graviores, demessas in humidum tanto leviores esse in eo, quanta est gravitas humidi molem habentis solidæ magnitudini æqualem: atque adeo quamlibet ex nostris campanis eo leviorem esse in aquâ, quam in aëre, pondere aquæ æqualis magnitudini campanæ cuiuslibet. Exempli gratiâ, campanæ aureæ pondus in aëre fuit duarum unciarum, granorumque 27 10">20 in aquâ vero unius unciæ, scrupilorum septem, et granorum 50 ¾; igitur pondus aquæ æqualis aureæ campanæ fuit granorum 21 ¼.


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Porro metallorum mixtorum [d] compositiones observandæ sunt, quorum pretia subiicientur, qualia sunt in usu Lutetiæ. Aurum mixtum habet 22 partes auri puri, cui nempe duo denarii miscentur, unus cupreus, alter argenteus; istius auri uncia emitur libris 32. Argentum mixtum habet granea cuprea in duodecem unciis, valetque libras 22.

Stannum sonorum componitur ex centum libris stanni puri, et una libra cupri, ac una libra stanni glacialis, quod Bismuthum vocant: illius vero libra 14 assibus emitur. Stannum commune pro centum libris stanni puri habet 14 libras plumbi; cuius libra decem assibus emitur.


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Metallum vero ex quo fiunt horologiorum campanulæ, quæ Gallicè Timbres appellantur, componitur ex cupro, cui ⅓ Stanni puri miscetur. /BP 8, fol. 78/ Reliqua metalla, ære excepto, (quod ex cupro & ⅕ Calaminæ lapidis componitur) pura sunt


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Ne vero quis in ponderibus decipiatur, libra communi mercatorum, quam vocamus poids de mare, usi sumus, quæ a libra medicorum, qua utuntur Pharmacopolæ, non in eo solum differt, quod sexdecem uncias, hæc vero duodecem solummodo habeat, sed in eo etiam, quod decem unciæ mercatroum æquales sunt duodecem unciis Medicorum. Enimvero mercatoria uncia Parisiensis complectitur octo scrupulos, quos vocant gros, quorum unusquisque est granorum 72, adeo ut uncia contineat grana 576, libra vero 9216: cum Medica 5760 duntaxat complectatur: scrupulus enim qui est ⅛ unciæ Medicæ, continet solummodo grana 60, at scrupulus mercatorius 72 habet.

Hic fit ut tam uncia, quam scrupulus mercatorum sunt sesquiginta unciæ, et serupuli Medicorum, quorum libra minor sex unciis, seu 3456 granis, libra mercatoriâ: Quibus addo in vicinarum Regionum gratiam, antiquam Romanorum libram superare Medicorum libram ½ unciâ mercatoriâ: illa enim est 6048 granorum. Hispana vero libra mercatoria est 6342 granorum, Medica 6030.


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Quoniam campanæ corpus componitur ex una parte stanni, et quinque partibus æris, ut iam suppono ex optima praxi; huiusmodi autem corpus, cuius magnitudo est uncia cubica, ponderat, ex præcedenti Lemmate 2740 grana, & ut 2740 granorum pondus ad datum pondus in granis enunciatis, ita uncia cubica pedis Romani ad magnitudinem quæsitam in eisdem unciis taxatam vel quod in idem recidit. -.


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Dr: R. usd precipitate per se (severall times) in the Dose of 3 4 or 5 grains, and found it commonly to vomit & purge & sometims <also> to incline to salivation: sometim's to sweat strongly; & most commonly to work churlisly enough.


/BP 8, fol. 78v/

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Quod si non est, quâ ratione alia ab assumpto pharmaco, quod pigram [d] adhuc alvum non commovit, liberalior aquæ potus efficaciter deiectat? quemadmodum e D. Mesuæo, et ab interprite Mundino lib: Canonum theorem. 3. & a Philippo Ingrassia siculo lib. huic rei dicato monstratum comprotatumque est. Similiter et qua ratione conceptum frigus per detectum ventrem, per nudos incedentes pedes, proritare alvum queat? Porro narrat Brosavolus cap. 6 libelli de medic. purg. Borsium Ducem Ferrariensium pertinacem remediis solventibus alvum non alia via Savanarola proponente, deposuisset. Aliud quoque in hanc rem faciens refert ibidem, Johannem Manardum virum, ut ipse appellat, excellentissimum ovo sorbili sumpto quinquies et sexties alvum egessisse, multosque alios molliorem ventrem ex hoc sorbili habuisse. Fæminæ quoque illustri ex sorptis sæpe ovis alvum identidem provacatam testificatur Marcellus Donatus in lib. de Mechioranna: & quod admirabilius est, ex ova durato decies citatam Dionoræ civi prodidit Alexander Benedictus lib. 19. cap. 33. de cur Morb. Hæc igitur communis est ratio eiusdem permovendæ.


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Whilst in my vine=yard, that is at Meudon, I caus'd certain huge stones to be broken to peices, a Toad was found in the midst of one of them. When as I much admird thereat, because there was no space wherein this creature could be generated, increase, or live; the stone-cutter wishd me <not> to marvell thereat, for it was a common thing, & that he saw it almost every day; Certainly it may come to passe. &c.


/BP 8, fol. 79/

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Puer septemdicem annorum Phthisi triennio oppressus, consumptus obiit. In thoracis dissecta regione, pulmones non sunt inventi, quoniam fortè picæ tabo, laceri, suppurati, a purisque acrimonia laniati, et ab adurenti calore absumpti sunt, ita ut præter mucilaginem quandam asperæ arteriæ adnatam, nihil amplius pulmonum loco conspiceretur.


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Doctor Ludovicus Nonnius Medicus Antuerpiensis celeberrimus, hanc historiam, aliâ non ineleganti mihi communicatâ confirmavit. Puella trium annorum diuturnâ quartanâ laborans, subito exstincta. aperto corpore, visi sunt pulmones adeo contabuisse, ut nullum illorum vestigium appareret, sed tantum membrana plena purulentâ materiâ, cum tamen nunquam vel de tussi (mirabile dictu) conquesta fuisset, nec plus expuisset.


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Dr Gilbert writeth that some Iron Mine, will affect a Magneticall Needle, as it is of its self, being unprepar'd by fire: but as yet I never could find any such, but this I have often try'd, that it being of no maner of Magneticall Vertue, of it self noe more then a flint stone unprepared by fire, being made red hott, and coold, is presently impregnated with very apparent Magneticall Vertue according to the scituation he is coold in, & although you heat & coole him often, and diverse wayes, he will still keep his vertue, according to the scituation of his cooling. And some Iron Mines I have found which being but in this sort prepar'd, have had as strong force, as some naturall Magnet's have had.


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It is also well knowne, that the Magnet is a stone most commonly of invincible hardnesse, nothing inferiour to any Iron, or Steel of the excellentest sort, notwithstanding sometimes we see of them that are nothing, but <a> dry lump of Earth, and yet, of those also some stronger in Vertue, then diverse of the hard stony ones are: Which Earthly Magnets, if a man assay to bring it into a fashion by grinding on a grinding=stone (according to the Common Use) they will consume in to very Mudd in the Water. Now (to draw towards an end of this matter) albeit the Magneticall /BP 8, fol. 79v/ Vertue be most eminent in the Magnet, as in the precise, & perfect subject thereof; yet is the self same quality, in a meaner degree, evidently to be discernd in every peice of Earth, prepar'd and orderd (as is aforesaid) yea although it be not coold with its ends North & South, that it may take his Magneticall force from the [d] Vertue of the Earth, for if you cool it with his Ends but East & West, and set two Loadstones in the cooling the one at one End, and the other at the other end, it will receive a sensible & apparent Magneticall Vertue according to those points of the Loadstone that were apply'd unto it, namely that end which was next the South point of the Loadstone will have a North property, and that end that was next the <North> point will have a South property: yea if you set the North part of two Load=stones unto each end, both ends of this new made Magnet will have a South property: And contrariwise if you apply the South ends of two Magnet's, both his ends will have a North property: And those propertyes before mencioned will shew themselves to be Magneticall, because whether end of this new Magnet drawes any one end of a Magneticall needle, the same will chase away the other: which is propper only <un> to Magnetts and Magneticall Bodies. After the [d] like sort, only by application of two strong Load=stones by the space of 24 houres, you may alter the points of any base loadstone, which you would, and make them both North and South as you please: so that the loadstone which you would alter be but base in quality, and not great in substance, and that the other be but of a reasonable bignesse, and good strength. And this Vertue by such application of two loadstones I have often found effectuall in new brick lately taken from the kill, without any farther puting in to the fire at all: And although it be against the nature of a loadstone to have both his ends naturally of one Vertue, that is to say, both of them of a North property, or both of them of a South property: yet here is to be understood, that it is the forcible violence of the strong ones, being apply'd joyntly unto each end of the weak one in to the middle thereof: And therefore if you divide this weak one in the middle, /BP 8, fol. 80/ then both those ends, which being joyn'd together were the middle, (where no loadstone can shew any Vertue) being now disjoyn'd, and becomes ends, will presently shew a contrary property (according unto Magneticall nature) unto the other two ends.


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For the generall form of a stone being good, every <con> cavitie is a diminishing of his force, and every bunch is but a superfluous burden: Insomuch that my self have made experience of a stone that of substance was very good, and of weight was upon a three and twenty ounces, but of a disorderd form, I therefore tooke away twelve ounces from him, and yet diminished not one iote of his force. And this did I in a stone that was all of like substance.

Rectè Clemens Alexandrinus: Philosophia non est Stoica, aut Platonica, aut Epicurea, aut Aristotelica, sed quæcunque ab his sectis rectè dicta sunt.


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By three wayes you may prove whether a Magnet be good or not, the one is, by takeing up Iron with the bare stone: The other by giveing more or lesse Vertue unto a knife, or any such thing to lift Iron. The third if it will with good strength move a Magneticall needle a pretty good distance of, & readily alter the ends of the needle without touching of them, makeing the North South, and the South North: The two latter of theese doe never faile, but the first doth diverse times. And very certain it is, that whatsoever stone doth most strongly impart his force unto a knife, or move a needle with quicknesse, the power of lifting up Iron in such a one will mightily be increasd with a Cap. For this is generally the Nature of all Magnets, that if there be two of different quantities, and æquall strength in lifting up Iron, the greater will give the stronger touch, and move a Magneticall needle farther off, although the lesser will take up as much Iron, and somewhat more then the greater. And again suppose there be a Magnet of a pound weight, that being fitly armd, will take up four pounds of Iron, /BP 8, fol. 80v/ and not above, if you divide him into very small peices, you shall find of them being orderly us'd that will lif up twenty times yea fourty times his owne weight, and a great deale more, if they be made very small, as of 3 or 4 graines weight: And yet where the great one will give a touch unto a knife for to take up foure ounces of Iron, and will move a Magneticall needle three foot of, this little one will not give a touch unto a knife to take up a needle, nor move a Magneticall needle foure inches off.

Take a Magnet of a round or an extended ovall form, and set markes on the two Poles, take a fine needle, or any straight small Wier and set it on the æquinoctiall, (I meane thereby the middle between the two end's of the stone) then will it point directly towards each Pole, if the stone be sound without any flawes, or any other grosse substance (as may be) intermingled with it: and if you thrust this needle toward'e either end, according to his owne directions, he will trace you a circle right over both of theese marked Poles, which is the true Meridian of the stone. But if this stone hath in either of the sides any imperfection, when the needle cometh to the edge or brink thereof, it will suarve somewhat towards the sounder side, and will point to neither of the true [d] Poles. And if a circle be drawne according to his pointing, as he standeth still in that place, this shall be a respective Meridian of that stone, proper unto that place: and the Poles. the respective Poles, differing from the true Meridian of the stone and his Poles. Now if you thrust the needle farther towards the end, upon the brink of this imperfection, it will not point (as before) but either further off, or neerer towards the true Poles, and will give his directions for a new respective Meridian; and new respective Poles, and in such maner infinitely, if you place the needle in the middle of this imperfection, equally distant from the sound parts, then will it indeed point towards the true Poles of the stone, and the consequence hereof is the main reason, that toward the middle of the Ocean; and likewise of any great continent there is no <variation> /BP 8, fol. 81/ Thus you may especially in a round loadstone (as in a lively example) see the true causes of all the variations that are in the whole world, reckoning as much space as the Ocean covereth, to be some imperfection in the body of the whole, in respect of the Horizontall motion of the compasse. And on the East Coast unto the Cape of Bona Speranza and he shall perceive the like agreement: But in sailing from the Cape of Bona Speranza, farther Eastward, that sometimes they doe find it otherwise, the cause is the different maner of the scituation of the South, as yet undiscoverd Continent. And whereas in the midst of the Atlantick Ocean, about 30 leagues westwards from the Azores, they find noe variation at all, no marvell thereof: for it is about the middle distance betweene the two great Continents of America and our's.


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All those which did write before Dr: Gilbert did name that end of a Magnet which being plac'd in a wooden dish, and set to swim in water, would turne and settle its self towards the North, the North end of the Magnet: and the other the South end. And even soe did they of all Diall needles, compasses & Magneticall Bodies. But Dr: Gilbert, not for any new-fangled innovation, or self conceit, but upon a good reason, and firm demonstration avoucheth and prooveth the contrary, and clearly sheweth, that the former vulgar assertion seriously defended tendeth unto the overthrow of all Magneticall Philosophie, by underminding (as it were) the whole frame thereof; and yet in Common speech the ould rule may hold, loquendum cum vulgo, sentiendum cum sapientibus. For it would seem a strainge speech unto a Marriner to tell him that his flower de luce were become the South point of his Compasse and yet this assertion is most true, and certain that it is the North end of every Magnet & Magneticall Bodie, that being plac'd in a thin wooden dish in water, or any Magneticall Needle upon his Pin, which setteth its self, and pointeth unto the South, and it is the South end which pointeth unto the North. For proof hereof take theese words of North and South, in whether of the two former significations you please, and make tryall thereof in any two Magnets, or any two Magneticall Bodies, so placd that they may freely turne according to their natures, and you shall alwayes see a naturall /BP 8, fol. 81v/ inclination of the contrary ends of the one, unto the contrary ends of the other, as of the North end of the one, unto the South end of the other, & reciprocated of the South of the one to the North of the other: But the ends in the one and the other will alwayes fly from those of the like denomination, as the North end of the one from the North end of the other, and the South end of the one from the South end of the other. For as much then as all Magnets them-selves, and all Magneticall Bodies (being soe placd as they may have their free motion) compose themselves Magnetically towards the Poles of the Earth, it must needs be that it is the true naturall South end of the Magnet or magneticall needle that pointeth towards the South of the Earth, because the [d] contrary ends doe affect one another, and each of them doe naturally fly, the one end of the one, from that end of the other, which is of like denomination unto its self: as for example, in this following Diagram of the whole Magnet, E, A, is supposed to note the true naturall North end thereof, & B: the South end. This Magnet being plac'd in a wooden dish, swiming in water, freely must, and will, of Magneticall necessity, with his true North end, A. settle himself so, that A. must point towards the South of the Earth. And the South end, B. towards the North of of the earth: Because all Magnets and all Magneticall Bodies, doe naturally effect the one the contrary end of the other, and doe avoid and fly from their ends of like denomination.


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If a Magnet will lift at one end a pound of Yron, fasten you half an ounce of Iron unto foure ounces of wood, or any other substance saveing Iron, and he will never take it up, because his Vertue can peirce but only that half ounce, and hath no power to enter in to the other substance; and that small portion of vertue containd in the half ounce cannot hold up the other strange substance; But this very same Magnet by the meanes of dubble caps laying hold of a peice of Iron fitted for the purpose, and of this fashon being but half an ounce, may very well =
[Non-literal figure: Two drawings of unknown figures are at bottom of the page. One resembles a screw with threads and the other an implement with wires. They could be related to this entry, but in general it is impossible to determine what they are meant to represent.]
/BP 8, fol. 82/ and readily take up three pounds of any other substance whatsoever that is fastened unto it, because that the whole force of the stone being employ'd in the strife of the contrary ends, in the Yron paralell wise, unto the Axis of the stone, each end apprehendeth, and lifteth up this peece of Iron and a great portion of any other substance that is fastened unto it, and his whole force being employd herein, all his former vigour, upward downeward; or endlong, is as it were fetter'd, & imprison'd that untill you loose him of theese fetters, he is not able at either end to take up one quarter of that which he did before.


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Sir.

I have had no letter since I wrot by my Brother to you, but choose your owne time in Gods name. I thought to have made you rich and my self both, but I fear I shall make a cold voyage of it this year, for all the great word of the Spanish [d] Armado.

About the 10th of July last I, with my company came hither, where we now ryde at Anchor above the wrack ship of 88: We have not as yet had foure working dayes, for <ill> weather since that time, and in those I had work enough, and some pretty devices I never had before, the wrack lyes all like a great confusd Magasine of great timber, and we have spyde out 7 Gunns as yet in all (one here another there) all below the timber, nothing is whole of the wrack, but some or most of her ribbs' stands up; She lyes from 12 to 15 Fadome deep. I have tooke up only two brasse or Copper Guns about 1500 weight a Peece at which I much strainge, being of soe great a boare, for their ball is neare 9 Inches in the Diameter, or 27 of Circumference, in each of them was a ball to look on, like a white graysh odd stone, but I rather incline that it is some composd thing, being it is both harder and heavier then stone, and glitters a little within, After this I took up a great Iron Gunn of about 5000 weight which when I saugh made me hartilie curse both Pope & Inquisition, but this Gun made all our people yet beleive that the first two stone bullets was once Iron, As for my self I know not what to think, but shall write you as I finde it. I pick't off with a Crow Iron almost the half off the Gun, which appear'd in some /BP 8, fol. 82v/ parts, and in other parts white-grayish and gritted almost like the stone ball. What is yet left off her is soe brittle that I can almost put a bodkin through her, and shee I think altogether uselesse, the best Monthes for this place is gone, so that this year I am a great looser in every thing except reputation, What the next will produce shall be trulie and timely given account of by

Yours &c

Tobermories Road

in the Ile of Mull

August 22: 1665.


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La figure du miroir est ronde, du Diametre de 30 pouces et quelque chose de plus. il' est borde d'un cercle d'acier, afinqu'il demeure dans sa just mesure Il est acise de le remuer quoiq qu'il pose plus que [nital] & l'on la met aisement en toutes sortes de scituations Le point brulant est distant de le centre du miroir d'environ tres peids. Le focus est large, comme d'un demis Louys d'or. On y peut passer la main, pourveu que ce soit avec præcipitation, car si elle y demuere le temps [d] d'un seconde, on seroit en danger de se faire Beaucoup de mal. Le bois vert prend feu en un instant, come plusieurs autres corps. Un petit morceau de fer de marmite s'est mis en goute prest a Tomber a Terre, en 40 seconds, la peice de 15 sols a este [perue] en 24 seconds. Le clou de paysan s'est mis en goute en 3 seconds - Un bout de lame d'espee d'Olinde s'est brus le en 43 sec un jetton de letton a este perce en 6 sec. un merceau de cuivre rouge s'est mis en goute prest a Tomber [d] en [d] 42 sec., Un morceau de quareau de cambre s'est Vitrifié et mis en boutelle en 45 seconds l'acier, dont les Horologeos font leur ressorts s'est trouvue fanide en 9 sec. La pierre de mine que l'on met aut arque buses à rouet, s'est calcine & Vitrifié en un minute et un morceau de mortiez s'est Vitrifié en [d] 52 seconds. En fin il n'y a point de corps, qui par ce fan le ne se consumme. Si l'on vouloit faire fondre quelque grosse quantite de metall il faudroit beaucoup plus <de> temps outre que l'action ne se fait /BP 8, fol. 83/ que dans le grandeur de focus de sorte qu'on n'y expose ordinairement, que de petit merceaux un toinne Mr d'alibert l'achepte, et en donne 1500 livres


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What we have bin delivering about Glasse, may be confirmd by what sometimes happens in Diamonds, for thô the writers about Gem's are soe far from reckoning them for Poyson, that they ascribe to them great Vertues in resisting poysons, thô that either Monardes, or Garcias ab Horto (for I remember the story better then the Authors name where I read it) relates that some slaves haveing stolen diverse Diamonds from their Masters, to conceale the theft, swallow'd them whole without receiveing any præjudice thereby: yet not only the Vulgar reckons Diamonds among poisons, (probably upon the observation of some ill effect that hath been produc'd) [d] & diverse Chymists will needs have it that Paracelsus was made away by Pouder of Diamonds given him by his Enemy's, but I remember I have mett with in Zacutus Lusitanus <a> memorable Example of the Servant of a Merchaunt, who likewise haveing stolen & swallow'd 3 unpolishd Diamonds, the very next day fell into torments of the bowells, & was by them cast into a slow feaver & a Dissentery which could by no remedies be cur'd, but <the Man> dy'd Tabid.


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But haveing the opportunity of sending by Mr Musgrave I shall present your Ladyship with a rarity, I think the tooth of an Oxe, which was eaten in our house, & in the jaw bone found in the yard where dog's had left it, all the teeth thus gilded, as your Ladyship shall see, and it came soe by feeding upon some of our rich Mountaines which are full of gold and silver as ti's thought, thô we about them have little enough, not soe much as to enable us to dig into their bowells, to fetch out that treasure which lies hid in them. &c. Eliz. R.


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Here happened a pretty odd Experiment to me since I came in to the Country. My Lanlord would needs call me out one night, to see a large quantity of wood, which his servants had cleft out for the fire; and which being together, gave a very wonderfull light, as being very rotten in many parts of it.

One stick that I judged the lightest, I tooke which was about /BP 8, fol. 83v/ a foot long, and about an Inch and halfe in some places broad/ with the helpe of this stick, I did in a very darke night, see in a small Studdy every thing in it distinctly, by moveing from one place to another (and which was much more, could see to read the Tytles of the severall Bookes of the Bible as they stood on the tops of the Pages, in a large folio, English Bible,/ this I did the more wonder at, because I had curiously observ'd a Glow-worme, and could not, discerne any Rayes of light, that it did emit that were considerable: Whereas this wood was not only very Lucent & bright, Objectively; but Communicably; so as that I <could> make a shift to read severall words very distinctly and plainly.

But being therefore possessd, as I judged, of a great Jewell, I carefully preservd my sticke, expecting to have frequent entertainment by it. But after a very few dayes, I cannot directly say how many, I found my sticke: thô every way untouchd, to have quite lost its lucid parts, & yet without any diminution of substance, or any parts of it, being Crumbled that I could discerne/ I wondring at this, exposd it to the Sunne and after that to moisture and change of Aire; But it remaind darke, & is as darke as any other wood that is found.

I made strict inquiry what wood this was, and was assurd it was Crab. I again made enquiry what wood did most shine; and whether all did shine alike, and my Lanlord did informe me, he never rememberd to have seene Oake or Elme to shine, and did principally commend Horne Beame. &c.

B Worsley

Theobalds

October 30th

1665


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That the disposition of Bodies to run per Deliqium (ie) to be dissolvd by the moisture of the Aire, dos not as Chimists imagine proceed precisely from their Alkalizate nature <but their texture> may appear first because Sea Salt <coagulated or granulated without fire> will relent in moist weather, next that some Acid liquors thô of a quite contrary nature to Alkalizate <ones> will never the lesse strongly attract or rather imbibe the moisture of the Aire; <as I have elsewhere shown particular Examples> thirdly that almost all bodies <perticulary Zink> sublimd with Sal Armoniack, will /BP 8, fol. 84/ relent as well that part which is sublimd, as the Caput Mortuum, as may appeare from Ens Veneris, thô the <fixd> Colcother it is made of, <[d]> be exactly dulcifyd, before hand; fourthly Bodies [d] from which sublimate is drawne will severall of them relent: < 5thy diverse volatile salts as <of> Urine Sal Armonicack &c. would run per Del iqium thô some what slowly (Q) whether salt of fermented urine will doe the like which has never endurd any violent heat.> 6thy: <not only> vitrioll made of Iron and Spirit of Salt will run exceeding readily, but that <also> which is made with Aqua fortis, and Copper; and that it may appear that tis not the Spirits of the Nitre as such <doth> gives the Vitrioll this disposition, I add 7thly that Spirit of Nitre [d] mixt with <deliquated> Salt of Tartar per Deliqium <will> concoagulate therewith into [d] Salt Petre, which we know is not apt to run per Del iqium, soe <as> of two Bodies whereof one is exceedingly [d] disposd to relent, and the other is pretended to make Copper it self relent, there emerges upon the change of texture a compounded body that dos not run per Del iqium


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[...] cassia lignum Can the [...]

Cassia looseth its Leave; & hath a greater thing appropriated to itselfe only, which is that where as all other Trees & plant in India spread their roots noe deeper into the Earth then the depth of a man height or some what more, not descending a further into the ground by reason of the great heat, which is found beneath that depth; yet doth Cassia pierle into the ground till it find water. &c.


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Oviedus occasione huius Manati & alterum piscem describit ore huius Insula perfamiliarem: palmum longum, aspectu fædum: squemmas quippe graduum instar dispositas, tenuissimis quidem sed validis et acutis spinis præditas, quæ per totum superius corpus sparguntur, presertim a capite per dorsum ad mediam corporis partem, ventre glabro: et quia dorso se aliis piscibus affigit dum illis venatur, Reversum sive Inversum vocant: boni est saporis, et inter optimos qui in hoc mari /BP 8, fol. 84v/ sicca et firma carne præditus, minimèque viscosam. Scribit porro Insulanos solitos fuisse huius generis pisces seponere atque nutrire, eisque ad alios pisces capiendos uti in hanc modum: Inversum tenui sed valido finiculo alligatum e cymba in manatos aut alios pisces opportune emittunt, ille summa celeritate in pisces, quantumvis se longè majores, facit impetum, eorumque lateri aut ventis ita sese affigit, ut una cum ipso sensim in siccum attrahantur.


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Here hath fallen out a thing which is lookd upon little lesse then a Miracle: The Sea in one night forsooke this Towne soe much that the great Ships lay all dry in the Harbour: & the next morning the waters were higher then ever knowne to be before: whereof <I confesse I> want Philosophy to give the reason: for there was noe wind in those parts that could effect it.


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About the 10th of July last I with my Company came hither, where we rode at Anchor about the wrackd ship of 88. We have not yet had 4 working days for ill weather, in those I had worke enough & some pretty devices I never had before. The wrack lyes all like a great confusd magazine of <great> timber & we have spyed out but 7 Guns as yet in all (one here another there) all below the Timber nothing is whole of the Wrack, but some of her Ribs shee lyes from 12 to 15 fathome deepe. I have took up only two brasse or Copper Guns about 1500 weight a peice, at which I must strang being of soe great a bore for their Ball is near 9 Inches in Diameter or 27 of Circumference. In each of them was a Ball to looke on like a white grayish free stone, but I rather incline that it is some compos'd thing being it is both harder & heavier then stone & glitters a little within. After this I tooke up a great Iron Gun of about 5000 weight. This Gun made all our people yet beleive that the first two stone=bullets were once Iron. As for myselfe I know not what to thinke but shall write you as I find. I pickd of with a crow of Iron /BP 8, fol. 85/ almost halfe the Gun, which appeard sometimes like rusted Iron in some parts, & in other parts white, grayish, & gritted almost like the stone Balls. what is yet left of her is soe brickle that I can almost put a Bodkin throw her.


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The day before yesterday I was visited by Mr [blank space in MS, 4 characters] King a very Ingenious & Learned Gentleman of the Temple, who affirm'd to me in the presence of a couple of very knowing persons of his acquaintance & mine, That it was true (which I had heard concerning him) that near two years agoe he had oftentimes a faculty of discerning things in the darke when they were altogether invisible to other men, where upon having put him divers questions the substance of his answers was this, That he tooke not notice of his haveing that peculiarity, till about 2 years agoe that he has almost totally lost it for above a year, That when he had it t'was in the Winter <season> that he had about that time an Indisposition & weaknes in his Eys < (which he supposes to have been occasiond by over much reading late by candlelight) &> which by degrees left him, though not totally, That his Eyes at this time have a pretty odd Conformation in regard that thô he cannot see a man distinctly at any ordinary distance, & yet when I askd him <whether> whether when he reads he holds the booke near his Eyes, as such persons usually doe, especially whilst [d] young, he answerd The is faine to hold what he reads at a considarable distance from his Eyes as old men are wont to doe. That his <peculiarity &> faculty cheifely consisted in these two things. The one that when ever he first awoke in the night he seemd to see a white light all about him as if the Roome had been on fire which would sometimes fright him, & was ordinarily very troublesome to him, The other Principle thing was That oftentimes thô not constantly he could for about a couple of minutes by his ghesse very plainely see & distinguish colours, not only those of the Pictures that hung in the Roome (where his memory might occasion a mistake) but of other objects as blew, greene, white, yellow &c, which being to try him pinndd by his Bedfellow in the darke on the inside of the drawne curtaines, [d] Mr King would readily /BP 8, fol. 85v/ distinguish [d] the severall colourd objects & name them to [d] the party that had place them theire; who by privates <marks> that might be felt or by the order wherein he had placed them in reference to the parts of the Bed, easly knew that the discover <ver> twas not mistaken. But this <discerning> faculty [d] did not usually out last 2 or 3 minutes at a time, after which this gentleman (who seemes to be 26 or 27 years of age <&> has [d] black curdled haire) could for that bout see noe better then another man.


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In Bohemia are found Rubies, which are drawne from the middle of certaine flints after they have been broken these flints [d] are like the stones usd in snaphances inclining towards rednesse about the bignes of ones [d] fist more or lesse. but one must breake many of them before one shall meet with one Ruby.


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There is at 30 days Journy from Lahor towards the northeast in the Territory of Araja (or duke) who is subject neither to the great mogul, nor the Tartar, amounting whose southerne part produces Gold. That which lookes northward produces Granates, & the Easterne side affords Lapis Lazuli.


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The third & last mine, <is> calld Gazerpoli <its> stones are very clear & of good water, but they cannot <be> egrezos but with stones of the same Mine. For if one should imploy for that purpose the stones of another mine, those of Gazerpoli se briseroient. They doe also easily breake upon [d] the wheelle, & those that are not versd in the knowledge of stones may easily be deceiv'd (in them) of which our Author adds the Example of a portugez who refusing 1200 Crownes for one of them at Legorne, when he went to have it cut at Venice it broke upon the wheele into 15 or 20 peices.


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Speakeing of the second mine calld Gane or Coloner, which breeds the greatest [d] Diamonds immediately after haveing spoken of those found in marrish ground vor red soyle he subjoynes these words Et sur la pluspart de ces pierres apres qu'elles sont taillees, il parest toÛjours comme une espece de graisse qui vous fait sans cesse porter la main au mouchoir pour l'essuyer.


/BP 8, fol. 86/

/BP 8, fol. 86v/

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Hac argenti rudis species plumbercoloris reperitur quoque variis modis: scilicet primum, reperitur veluti massa informa miræ magnitudinis, ipsis in canalibus venarii, tanquam in nido quodam, secundo reperiuntur massæ eius in forma ut arbrum gemmæ, interdum admiranda rotunditate adhærescunt ad saxa, & in ipsis comprehenduntur interdum etiam massæ eius virgulae exprimunt, autalias quasdam figura ut agricola ligones et malleolos instruæ mèta metallica ex illo conflata et effossa sese vidisse testatur. ego in quodam pisciculos vidi, item e vestiga leonina vel lupi. adeò non ociosa est naturo ipsis in terræ visceribus, ipsis in tenebris.


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Aptissimus autem est lapis ille fissilis impressionibus subterraneis, nam in illo vidimus aliquando pisces, serpentes, scorpiones cicadas: gallum aliquando pulcherrimum, ornatum in curvatis pennis, & corona duplici item & alia in illo mirabiliter impressa sæpe conspiciuntur.


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Succi, ex quibus pyrites & argentum fiunt, videntur coireuisse in unum corpus, atque ita id natum, quod vocant cobaltum sunt, qui idem cum pyrite esse censent, quia eadem illi ferè in sunt quæ pyritè, sunt qui specie distinguant, nam, insignè sæpe corrodendi vim habet. ut manus & pedes ea pereriorum exedat quod minimè facit pyrites.


/BP 8, fol. 87v/

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Certis & fide dignis authoribus se comperisse, in citeriore germania intra danubium vites existere, quæ claviculos & plerunque candi cantia folia ex puro auro germinent, quæ regibus & summis ducibus dono sint data. causam addit, cum ibi aurifodine sint, [subtus] coalescere in radicibus aurum, & una ingenitum & condensatum occulta vi & origine, dum germina emittunt vites, mirabili natura costituto, aut decreto stellarum aurum simul erumpere hæceius & sentetia & verba sunt.


/BP 8, fol. 88/

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[largely illegible due to damage caused by purple stain]Omnes autem, extævenæ terræ varii generis fodinar præbent, de nigrâ illud affirmaret passim, eius paululum mihi ad conficiendum atramentum missum in aquam aut vinum conjectium optimi atramenti vicem præbuisse et queman non nihil cætules ad mixtum habubat [...] aqua per [atiam] atramento addidisse Paulatim [...] [llatiroinciis] dites metallicæ odin et raro alius deteguntur [d] imo sam neversius [atorarum] martem et aluminii unquam qui fodinas manerunt


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[largely illegible due to damage caused by purple stain]Inveni nutin et candicantes staliier pur [...] candiscantes vel at verus cream colore data mutimacens epurentes [...] qui media [[?]pa rulent], autem asude[?]ant telis media [...]


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[largely illegible due to damage caused by purple stain]Dtutus nanetated causam fieri [pt] ab ipsa Rubim origine Citu immo atramus in suâ rupes aut [fainans] generitus est, candicat da[?] aturescens ruboram requirit qui ruber in temporis diuturitate conalietur fit, ut qui ante maturitatem etati sunt nunc candicantes [...] deinde ex rubro languscentes conspiciant


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[largely illegible due to damage caused by purple stain]Onona vero Rubinus et seipmirus in eadem fodinâ nasci credunt mait interdum, ut alterâ parte saphirum representat, altera Rubinum, qui cum elegans est et cæruleum colorem cum rubro æqualiter permixtum habet vocatur a quibusdem Insulis Nila candi, quasi dicas Saphiro Rubinum


/BP 8, fol. 88v/

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Quod ad colores attinet nullos alios quos assumeret observare mihi lienit quam nigrescentum Cinertium albumque, et aliquando ex his omnibus mixtum, modo maculis nigris albisque punctatum, modo iisdem in Lineas transversas non longas diductas.


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Chamæleontem ex aere vivere autumant Quod equidem ut absolutè non est verum cum et serenissimus princeps meus et ipse ago multique mecum alii magno sæpiusculè cum risu venationis illius muscarum spectato res fuerimus: sic consideratione dignissimum Judico quomodo hac animal ex unica musca tanto temporis tractu plurium non solum dierum, se unius atque alterius mensis spatio sufficiens haurire nutrimentum potuerit.


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Hoc quoque idem Nydermayer referebat, quod cum Chæmælion hic aliquando pilum cum musca firmè deglutivisset, in ipsaque deglutitione tantum pateretur, ut saltem non suffocaretur, se aperto Bestiolæ ore digitum insernisse, pilumque extracisseos autem tam amplum reperiisse, ut primorem pollicis Articulum capere facile potuerit. Altestari hoc ipsum, et ago valeo colores ipsi dicto chamæleonti eosdam fuisse qui supra memorati fuerunt, ubi enim pellicillæ alba ni sed et albicantem, ubi panno nigro impositus fuit, nigricantem absumpsit colorem, minime autem rubrum aut vindem licet hi ipsi supponenentur. &


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Out of the Voyages of Monsieur De Feynes made <by land> from Paris to China
Printed in the year 1630

Ce qu'il a de fort remarkquable en ceste comtreè c'est qu'entre [d] Nane et Babgline se voit un grand Lac, qui se deborde dedans l'Eufrate, le lac que l'on nomme vulgairement mer de la paix, est d'autant plus merveilleux; que il produit ceste maniere de resine en si grande abundance /BP 8, fol. 89/ que ceux du pais ont accouptumé [d] en user en leiu de chaux pour y bastir leurs maisons. Je fus voir le leieu d'ou vient ceste poix, et remarquay pour une grande merveille qu'il y a cinq sources, l'une aupres du l'autre, toutes de la grosseur d'un homme, qui sortans d'un mesme rocher s'espandent par le pais à dixhuict lieues d Estendue.


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As often as those of this Country are to crosse [d] a River they make use both men & women of [d] certaine ondres (or Leatherne foot Ball, upon which they place themseles as t'were a horse back having upon their heads their cloaths & the Burden <or merchandise> they would transport, & being arrivd where they [d] intend, they unswelld them, [d] take their cloaths againe & goe about their businesse which dispatchd, they swell their ondres againe againe & repasse the River. But this Ingenious invention they can make use of only in crosseing or goeing downe the River not in makeing way against the streame, & many of them are soe dexetrous at it, that besides their double burden of cloaths & ware, they will whilst they are on the water play upon some Instrument for Diversion.


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The same Author mentions that waiting upon the king of Persia he observd their Hawking, & haveing commend the Hawkes for excellent in their kind, adds as a remarkable thing that they lure <(reclaimare)> them by the sound of a Drum


/BP 8, fol. 89v/

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He says that the people of Persia are great Lovers of Horseflesh & keepe open shambles of it.


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He relates that in the Persian Gulfe there is in an Island which he names not a place calld Barrin, very famous for a pearle Fishery [d] exceeding beneficiall to the Persian King, & that the Pearles there, which are the properly calld Orientall ones are found in certaine oysters of the breadth of a large plate, & that they have this peculiar & Ingenious way in their fishing, that after the Divers have brought up the oysters in their hand they chaw them warily & by that meanes find what pearles they have in them.


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Speaking of Dion he says that [d] there is litle peculiar to be met with their about their marchandize or Fruites except certaine figtrees that may be counted among Prodigies haveing Leaves about 3 yards long The natives use the halfe of one of them insteed of a Table cloath at their meales


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He adds that <as to> the figgs though they be not ripe; yet if one Cuts off the Trunck <(I suppose he means the branch> whereon they grow they will ripen as if they were on the figtree itselfe. which says he I can averr for truth [d] because I made use of them when I came back by sea. They will keepe <good> upon that part of the Tree that is cut off with them a month or there abouts & are ordinarily made use of by the Inhabitants for refreshments in their voyages.


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Speakeing of the Kingdom Zeilan, whether he went from Bengala, he says among /BP 8, fol. 90/ other thing that in this Kingdome there are divers mountaines of Christall & store of Pearles, of saphires, of Rubies, & of that kind of Gems that are commonly calld Cats-Eye where of there is a great trade driven in China for the wonderfull Esteeme they have of them.


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Speakeing of his voyage to the moluca's he says there are porcupine stones soe highly valued that he saw one of them of the bignesse of a nutmeg a seize which they seldone exceed sold for three hundred Crownes. He says the natives make use of it indifferently against all Diseases & against poison too adding there is noe distemper to which they bring not some kind of Releife by this stone, when they would administer the medicine to infuse for 2 houres in a Porcelaine Cup full of water, which they drink fasting like a Potion & find as bitter as Gall. The stone says he is of the colour of white soape, & tho they use it as I have been saying, neverthelesse it is not thereby spoilt, nor looses its virtue.


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He says that in the Molucos they use <insteed of glasse> in their Windows Nacre or mother of Pearle with they fit very neatly


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Our Author says that from Conchin he went by Land to Bisnegat, otherwise calld by the Portugalls Bellygat, that is distant but 2 leagues from the <mine of> Diamonds, belonging to the King of that City of which the Author bought severall. He says that there were ordinarily 25000 men that wrought /BP 8, fol. 90v/ naked, breaking the rock in which the Diamonds were found. Those Diamonds that are calld Lasques & flat are found betwixt 2 rocks but those that are round & are calld naturall in litle holes of the Rock which must be broken with maine force to tear them thence


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Speakeing of the East Indian natives he says that insteed of pens they use certaine reeds growing upon the brinks of their Lakes.


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And that they use a Paper made of Cotton knowing noe other in that Country.


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An the seas near Masambique he says that [d] a certaine fish strangely monstrous which they vulgarly call Pesce monture, ie woman fish; because contrary to the Syren from the navell downewards t'is like a woman, & has the naturall <resembling> parts & the Leggs, which are fastned together by a kind of Cartilage or rather Membrane This fish has its head like a Tun, & his Teeth that have that virtue to stanch blood serve to make Chaplets & Beads.


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Gravis est Testis, nos autem auctoritas non cogit Has mutationes non alio modo accipimus nisi ut quandum congenerum degenerando similitudinem primâ facie ostendant, nec ne credimus herbas cultu antineglectu, loci mutatione in alias transire plantas. Sicuti asseritur Lolium e tritico Hoc <enim> non affirmat Theophrastus, nasci vero solitum inter Triticum et hordeum nulli est dubium. Transire sisimbriam in mentham ob alimenti inopiam, similiorem [scio] fieri vel alias ob alimenti copiam adolescere ut fruticare et arborescere quod per Anatonomasiam dicitur noti autem frutices vel arbores fieri Hoc Experimento affirmare possumus ex Indices plantis semine /BP 8, fol. 91//BP 8, fol. 91v/ aut radice ad nos translatis; in quibus huc usque vix aliquis mutationem aliquam observasse similem, referre audebit. Degenerare in magis ac minus adultam, foliorum incisuris, hirsutie levitate, hilaritate et similibus concedimus non autem in aliam <transire> plantam vel speciem omnibus notum putamus.


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Habet hic <Romæ> nobilis Botanicus Franciscus Corvinus in suo horto, omni quæ desiderari possunt, plantarum grem instructissimo Plantam, quæ violam nocturnam vocant quæ diversos pro solis ascensu et descensu colores ad sensum mutat, et quæ inter diu nullo odere pollet, illa noctu nobilissimum et gratissimum odorem exspirat: de quibus <vide> fusum actum in nostra Plinælib: xii mundi subterranei inserta


/BP 8, fol. 92/

[Authorial heading]:
A
Continuation
of
(Printed) Addenda
To my severall Treatises.
[d] Begun [d]
[d].
September the 29th.

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L'Isle d'Ainan

Outre qu'il y a des mines d'or on y pesche encore des grosses, et petities perles; et ou trove des écrevisses en la mer, qui se remnent qui mangent, et mordent, en l'eau comme les nostres mais qui meurent incontinent qu'elles en sont tirées et s'endurcissent en pierre Estant pillees et reduites en poudre, il' nen faut meler qu'un peu avec du vinaigre et l'avaller, pour Experimenter un puissant Remede contre le chancre, la meme poudre sert ancore contre le flux de sang et toutes sortes de fievres, et Inflammations de Corps


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Lon m'a assuré qu'on a trové aux bords des rivieres un grain d'or valent trois mille trois cens dix escus. Tout c'et or est pareillement mos et maniable et par ansi le plus estimè l'estant de sa nature de telle sorte qu'une once tirelle en fil del ié comme les cheveux, s'etend plus de mille pas


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There is store of Mullett and other fish; Amongst other wee tooke one like an English Breme, but of great thickness, which one of our Saylors putting his hand to, presently cryed out that he had lost the use of his hands and armes; Another bare legg'd, putting thereto his foot, lost the sense of his legg: theire sense being seene to return, the Cook was call'd up, and bidd to dress it whoe laying both his hands thereon, sunke presently on his hinder partes, makeing greivious moane, that he felt not his hands. Sandy a black comeing with his Canoe laughed, and told us that they much feared this fish in the water; for he benumed whatsoever he touch'd which he used to doe stroaking himselfe on other fish and then devoureing them, but being dead he was good meat.


/BP 8, fol. 92v/

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Voila comme se fait le sang de Dragon, duquel les Droguistes et les arboristes parlent tout autrement. J'en ay souvent usé tres utilliment à retancher le sang et suivant l'experience que j'en ay veu faire aux Machicores, j'ay arresté les flux de sang, par fumigations mettant de ceste drogue sur le feu, et en faisant recevoir aux malades la fumée d'icelle par le fondement.


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Ad Thrasybulum C. 8 negat Galenus ubi scribit Eorum quaelig; contraria Qualitate sunt methodus est; eorum vero quaelig; totâ substantiâ sunt adversa methodus, non est, sed omnia per Experientiam sunt inventa.


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Julius Caelig;s. Scaliger Exerc. 152 sect. 11 ut et Hieronymus Merculialis lib i de venendi Cap. 6. scribunt.


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In Nubiâ et quæ est Æthiopia sub Ægypto venenum esse cui grani unius decima pars hominem, vel unum granum decem homines intra horæ quadrantem enecet, aut unum uni homini propinatum illum statim interimat.


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Nam Caro Ostrearum, cancrorum et omnium Conchiliorum; qui Et ossium Medulla Est pinguior, succulentior, copiosiorsque tam novâ lunâ quam plenâ, et cerebrum ipsum humanum in morbidis post quadraturas cum luna augetur, et catarrhis aggravatur quin hominem vidi, cui pars cranii exempte erat ob vulnus, et lamina argentea, emplastro superinducto firmata, defendebat piam matrem ab incursantibus injuriis, et animadverti, cum peritissimis Chirurgis et medicis, incrementa cerebri tanta, ut lunâ novâ et plenâ protuberaret, laminâ amotâ; et luna quadrata dehisceret; neque hoc in uno solo, sed omnino in tribus recentissimæ Memoriæ vulneratis, meis et aliorum ut dixi, fidel ibus oculis habeo comprobatum, quo quid illustrius et palpabilius liceat experiri:


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Toutes ces raretez ne sont rien au regard de le goutte, qui tombe ordinairement du douziesme au quinziesme de Juin. Ils la cognoissent (car ce n'est qu une rosée) a du coton mis dans une boëtte sur une fenestre qui est humide apres la goutte, et avant non. Ausi tost tombée toutes sortes de maladies contongieuses cessent: mesmes l'on peut librement communiquer avec les pestiferez atteints du jour precedent sans courre fortune de prendre le mal. Ce que j'ay esprouvé & veu diverses fois.


/BP 8, fol. 93/

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Aux deserts d'allentour croist le sel de la rosée blanc, mais fort leger, et tient on qu'il c'est naturel ny bon comme l'autre.


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Entre ce monastere & ce lac il y a une plaine d'environ quatre heures de chemin sable et pierres, lesquelles representent toutes sortes de pieces de bois, de fer, cordages, voiles, & [d] autres qu'un navire naufragé de la tempeste peut faire voir: chose adimirable, car cela est distant plus de vingt lieuës de la mer, et y en a tel nombre, qu'on se le peut imaginer en un si long espace


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Mais comme un malheur est d'ordinaire suivi d'un autre, il arriva que nostre navire se trouva en tres mauvais estat, & jugé inhabile au voiage, la mer estant en ces lieux toute couverte de vers qui brillent la nuict, comme de petites chandel les, il arriva, que ceste maudite engeance se prit á nostre vaisseau, & se fourra si avant en tous les endroits qui estoient dans l'eau, depuis la quelle jusques á sa premiere ceinture, ou nuaison, c'est á dire, jusques au lieu où l'eau moüille, lors que le vaisseu est chargè qui n'eust estè le ploc ou poil qui tombe des cuirs des bœufs et vaches, lors qu'on le veut mettre dans le pleins, qui estoit entre les bors des doublages, nostre vaisseau eust coulé a fond


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Annotandum hic merito naturæ facultatem ad pestis preservationem momenti esse maximi. Observavi in me ipso contaminatos invisente statim inguen dolere vel axillas: afficiebantur aliquando caput nocta inde sudor; et secessus tres quaterve. Hoc et aliis accidit, qui fidel iter mihi retulerant.


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Rem gestam dabo. ægrotum primum arne descriptum crebrius inviserem vomitus excrementas sanguinis fluxum, et carbones intuebar adfueram filiis uxori familiæque toti: sole subsequent[er] nauseabundus eram et capite gravis, in [inquia] dolor, tumor exiguus, noctu aluus fit lubrica sudore diffluo, indusia quatuor immutata, toties[que] calidum vinum cum [...] sumptum. evanerit tumor, capitis cesset dolor, nucum avellanaram appetitus venit insatiabilis, abunde eas sumo urinæ profluunt sextuplo potu abundantiores


/BP 8, fol. 93v/

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Deus me sanavit ab illo periculo ad contagiosos mihi appropinquanti in emunctorus successit dolor, vix fallax pestis Indicium.


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In Templis majoribus quorum formices [d] altissimæ sunt, idem observatur in funibus quibus Lampades sustinentur; quippe qui sex pedibus ad minimum hyeme quam æstate breviores sunt in Templo Parisiensi beatæ Virginis: sed quanto ad summum chorda cannabina, vel nervus ex Intestinis contrahi possint humiditate, vix dici potest. Audivi a Practicis nervos in Violâ nonnunquam integrâ Quartâ altius quam antea ascendere: at vero cum unicuique facillimum sit hæc omnia in Instrumentis observare, plura non addam.


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Cum autem siliceum calculum ne ab ipse Philosophico Lapide solvi potuisse existiem, nedum a sale calcis vivæ quanquam constet Authoritate Basilii Valentini aliorumque nihil in calculo profligando utilius spritiu calcis vivæ; mihique iterum iterumque compertum aquam calcis vivæ ostreorum, mitylorumque solvere calculos ordinariè ab ægris exsertos in mucilaginem, si aliquot dierum leni fotu in calido simul detineantur.


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Dell historia naturale di Ferrante Imperato libro vigesimo settimo cap. v. Tartufi


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Sono altri tartufi che altrovi nascono di superficie Piscia, pallidi più piccoli ma al gusto sciappiti alcuni seneritrovano che contengono dentro di se avena e breccivole o altra materia: il che loro avviene perche il prencipio del la lor generatione e l'humore che pigliando consistenza sopra di tal materia dopo discio cresce. cognoscensi gli luoghi ove siano concreati li tartufi, dalle rimi che /BP 8, fol. 94/ ivi fa la superficie del la Terra.


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Item deant varia [d] & quotidianæ experientiæ, quarum nonnullas adducit dictus. P. Fonerus Num. 8. nam Musculorum [iecuscula], brumâ dicuntur augeri, & pulegium florescere die solstitii æstivi, & semina malorum in contrarias partes se vertere. Sunt quibus crescente Lunâ crescunt enormiter quædam corporis membra, decrescente verò decrescunt, & Fonerus testatur vidisse se cum admiratione, Ingolstadii Germanum Iuvenem cuius superius oris labrum quot mensibus magnâ cum deformitate vultus ad variam Lunam variè intumescebat, quamvis citra dolorem. Aliqui accepti vulneris, vel cruris olim facti, indubiè admonentur quoties Luna nova vel plena est, vel aliqua aëris mutatio ex alio & alio astrorum concursu futura imminet, ut quasi Calendarium quoddam naturale tales in corpore suo circumferre videantur. Novi ego magnum belli Ducem, cui acceptorum olim in bello vulnerum & cicatricum dolor mensibus singulis renovatur.


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Est quoddam genus Mustelæ majoris, quæ quod martia sit, & pugnax, (Gallinas <enim> etiam grandiores enecal.) quibusdam Martes, aliis Martorella, vulgo Fovina dicitur, cuius excrementa Mosetum redolent, ut sæpe observavi.


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Addam ego me observasse parva quædam Insecta vaginipennsa à me Pictalibro de Insectis quæ contratata suavissimum spirabant odorem qualis in floribus Dipcadi, seu Muschi Græci dicti percipitur. Deinde iterum recrementa detrahat de catino: quæ minister nunquam aqua affusâ restinguat, ut alia recrementa restingui solent, sed eis pauca in aquam inspergat, & sinat refrigerari: si æs bullaverit, bullas spathâ deprimat tum aquam muro & fistualæ affundat, ut tepida defluat in catinum. Etenim æs, si frigida in ipsum calidum statim fuerit infusa, dissipatur. Certè si tunc Lapillus vel lutum vel lignum vel carbo inadidus in id inciderit, catinus æs omne magno cum sonitu, qualis est tonitro, evomit, & quidquid tetigerit, lædit & incedit.


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Numb. 360: Legorne, April 16. Letters from Messina in Sicily, confirm to us the great consternation of the Inhabitants near Catania & the Adjacent places at the terrible Flames which lately issued out of the Ætna; affirming that on the 11th of March last there happened an extraordinary Thunder & Lightning, which was immediately followed with such violent tremblings of the Earth, that many Buildings were thrown down by its violence, & the Mountaine above Malpasso opening at the same, threw up such Quantities of Brimstone, Fire, Smoke, /BP 8, fol. 94v/ and Ashes as infinitely terrifyed the Neighbourhood, & seemed to threaten the whole Island with destruction. This great body of Fire in little Time divided it selfe into three parts, one branch of it falling upon the Lands of the Anunciata di Buonpiteri, di Massa Lucia, and di Santo Pietro; every where destroying all things its way, with severall of the people who had not timely conveyed themselves to a great distance The second drove with as much fury upon La Guardia di Putielli, the Tower of Malpassa, and Campo Rotundo, & the white Monastery within three miles of Catania, warmly alaruming the City which had immediately their recourse to Heaven, exposing their most sacred Relicks as in a time of the greatest danger & extremity; & to adde to their Calamity, & to drive them farther into despair, some few nights after this first Eruption, the Mountain above Buonpeteri sent forth as great a flame as the other, with such a prodigious quantity of Ashes as coverd the whole Countrey; Then & the following dayes so filling the Air that the Day could scarcely be distinguisht from the Night; & all this accompanied with Terrible Thunders & Earthquakes the Sea near Catania during all this time waring & beating the shoars with extraordinary violence. The Bishop of Catania, with the Magistrates, fearing the Ruine of that City, had sent to Messina & other Neighbour Ports, for all the Teluca's, Barks & other Vessels that could be gotten, to take in such Goods as were brought in thither from the Countrey; The Monkes & Religious Persons, as well as others, being ready to imbark themselves upon any nearer approach of danger; but by letters of March 17 from these parts, they write, that the Flames were much abated, 'twas hoped the danger of them was over.


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Tales novi & antea incogniti morbi sunt: Sudor Anglicus seu Britannicus, qui primo visus est anno 1436. Lues venerea, quæ anno 1494 in obsidione Neapolis primum initium in Christianismo sumpsit. Scorbutus, qui anno 1556 in nostris oris maritimis primo observatus fuit. Morbus Ungaricus, qui anno 1556 mundum intrasse dicitur. Bruno Gallicus, sive Nova Moraœviæ lues, quem annus 1577 peperit. Morbus Novus Lunæburgensis qui anno 1581 primo spargi cœpit. Febris castrensis insolita & contagiosa, quæ non ante multos annos visa est: aliique plures. Si aliorum venenatorum morborum (quales sunt Sudor Anglicus, Lues Venerea &c) venenum de novo a Deo genitum sit quis venenum pestilens de novo a deo generari posse negabit


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Idem quoque intelligendum de puteo illo Guainerii, in Campania aperto, cuius halitus tantum proxime adstantes interemit, non alios, neque contagio diffusum fuit virus. Qui post terræ motus ex terræ hiatibus exspirant halitus venenati illi venenositatem suam non habent ex putredine sed a profundissimus maximeque exitiosis /BP 8, fol. 95/ mineris (antimonialibus, arsenicalibus mercurialibus vel aliis) e quibus sæpe emergunt: quod ex eo manifestum est, quia cum ex talibus mineris non prorumpunt, etiam nulla eorum venenositas percipitur. Sic anno 1640. 4. Aprilis stylo novo, seu 25 Martii stylo veteris, nocte circa diluculum magnus terræ. motus totum Belgium & magnam Germaniæ partem concussit; hinc in Geldria non longe a Civitate Venloo, montem [aranaœum] disruptum, magnum hiatum fecisse intelleximus: sed a spiritu inde prodeunte vel exhalante nulla pestis aliusve morbus contagiosus vel venenatus excitatas fuit, imò nemo male habuit, propterea quod in illo & vicinis montibus nullæ latebant exitiosæ mineræ. Et posito ab exitiosis mineris huiusmodi venenatos halitus exspirari, illorum tamen venenositas non erit a putredine neque etiam inducet pestem, sed forte alios quosdam morbos venen <en> atos ac malignos. Nam teste Seneca, lib. 6. quest. nat. cap. 28 varia Italiæ loca pestilentialem (id est venenatum) halitum exhalant, sed absque ullâ peste. Et mercurialis testatur se plurimos & venenatos spiritus exhalantes cryptas prope Romam vidisse, quæ tamen nullas pestes inducebant.


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Prope antiquissimam arcem Noviomagensem & in variis territorii Noviomagensis partibus, plurimæ inventæ sunt & adhuc quotidiè inveniuntur urnæ ferales, calce exactissime occlusæ, profunde in terra sepultæ ante mille & quingentos vel sexcentos forte annos (quo tempore Romani ibi sedem fixerant, & imperium tenebant, quibus moserat cadavera comburere, & cineres urnis exceptos sepelire) acrem tamen ex illis urnus tot seculis exactissimè conclusis prodeuntem, ne minimam quidem noxam ulli hominum intulisse animadversum est; ego ipse met earum quinquaginta noviter inventas, & mihi dono datas, horæ spatio aperui, sine ullo damno. Præterea etiam sepulchra profundissima exactissimè clausa in eodem territorio multa inventa sunt, in quibus cadavera non concremata ab iisdem Romanis deposita fuisse, ex adjacentibus mummorum aliorumque indiciorum signis inventum ac perceptum est e quibus tamen sepulchris apertis exiens spiritus nulli unquam noxius fuit, cum tamen ille aer (si unquam alius) in talibus sepulchris tot seculis conclusus, non tantum à sicâ ipsius, sed etiam a cadaverum putredine, malignam venenositatem acquirere debuisset. Cryptæ quoque subterraneæ variæ, aliisdem Romanis olim fabricatæ, nunc casu inventæ & apertæ, nulli damnum intulerunt. Ante paucos quoque annos Arnhemii, in angulo quodam templi sepulchrum valde antiquum, & in eo arca argentea exacte clausa inventa est alicuius Magni Ducis /BP 8, fol. 95v/ Geldriæ Cor inclusum continens, verum neque ex sepulchro, neque ex arca illa exspirans aer ulli noxius fuit. Ultrajecti anno 1648, tria antiquissima Romanorum sepulchra prope ædes Papales casu eruta vidimus, quæ (quantum ex adjacentibus colligi poterat) per mille & quadringentos annos conclusa fuerant: item paucis annis post, in templo D. Petri casu erutum vidimus sepulchrum Bernulphi Episcopi, ultra quadringentos annos lapideæ ustæ inclusi; equibus sepulchris exspirans aër nemini obfuit: certissimum signum, aërem diu conclusum non putrescere, multo minus a putredine venenositatem pestilentem contrahere. Huic nostræ sententiæ, procul dubio in contrarium objicientur testimonia aliorum auctorum, qui scribunt, non tantum a recenti, verum etiam ab antiquissimo contagio, quod plurimis annis in fomite delituit furiosissimas epidemias maximeque perniciosas & generales pestes fuisse excitatas. Quale est testimonium Ammiani Marcellini (huius mentionem fecimus supra, cap. 8. annot. 1. probl. 4.) qui scribit ex antiquissima arca aurea, in templo Apollinis reperta tam virulentum pestilens contagium erupisse, quod magnam mundi partem infecerit. Ut & aliud Trincavellæ, qui lib. 3. Consil. 17, refert Justinopoli pestilens venenum per viginti annos latuisse in chordis illis, quibus mortui tempore pestis ad sepulchra dimissi fuerant, quibus post tantum tum temporis e scrinio quodam de promptis, contagiosam malignitatem primò proximè adstantes, ac deinde totam civitatem in vasisse, ita ut ex hac occasione decem hominum millia interierint. Item illud Sennerti, qui libr. 4. de febr. cap. 3. scribit, Laubani à contagio, quod quatuordecem annis in linteo latuerat, pestem magnam excitatam, & vicinis quoque civitatibus communicatam fuisse.


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Secundo, requirit hæc dispositio aliquam occultam specificam similitudinem inter corpora inficienda & infecta, cuius ratione pestilens venenio ipsis æqualiter magis infestum ac perniciosum existat, quam aliis qui illam specificam qualitatem non habent. Atque hæc causa est, quod interdum integræ familiæ, in quibus omnes, ratione originis, istam similem qualitatem habent, peste extinguatur (exempla vide supra, cap. 4. annot. 6.) aliis plurimis illæsis. Hinc etiam est quod interdum una natio magis peste inficiatur, quam alia, quemadmodum Cardanus, lib.: 8. de rer. varietat cap. 40, meminit pestis cuiusudam Basiliensis, in quâ soli Helvetis, non Itali, non Galli, non Germani affecti sunt. Et Johannes Utenhovius, peregrinat. Eccles. Anglicæ cap. 4, meminit sævissimæ /BP 8, fol. 96/ pestis Hasniæ in Dania, à quâ omnes advenæ, Angli, Belgæ, Germani, immunes erant, quamvis etiam promiscuè inter infectos in ædibus infectis versarentur


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Duobus tribusve diebus ante & post Novilunuim, ut & (1) plenilunium, hæc dira lues semper exacerbata fuit, eoque tempore, & plurimos morbus corripiebat, & quos tunc invadebat, illi fere omnes moriebantur, idque valde citò; nam multi antequam vix ægrotare viderentur, nescio quâ virium labefactatione oppressi intra paucas horas extinguebantur, multi secunda aut tertia die deficiebant, iis præcipuè mensibus quibus Morbus in vigore erat.


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Quemadmocum in hac peste circa Novilunium & Plenilunium morbum valde exacerbatum fuisse observavimus, sic etiam Jonbertus suo tempore in plena atque silente Lunâ id ipsum notavit. Hinc quoque monet Johannes Morellus, lib. de febr. purp. ut unusquisque sibi caveat circa Novilunium & plenilunium, quia, inquit, tunc fortiter aëreum venenum movetur. Hoc ipsum quoque animadvertit Johanes Heurnius, de Peste cap. 8. qui adhuc aliam observationem addit: Cave tibi, inquit, circa novilunium & plenilunium, tunc enim aereum venenum movetur violentius. Vis, addit aliquid secretioris in Natura? cave tibi cum singulis mensibus luna venit in eum locum cæli, in quo erat Saturnus cum nascereris: idem de Marte dictum puta quod tamen vix millesimus observat. E contra vero Gemma scribit in peste anni 1575, lunæ decrescentis quadraturam fuisse officaciorem. Paræus, lib. de pest ait Lunam decrescentem peste correptis sæpe fatalem esse ad interitum. Illud ipsum quoque affirmat Duncamus Liddel ius, lib. 3 de febr. cap. 4. Luna decrescens, inquit, peste laborantibus lethalis esse solet, plures enim Luna crescente, quam decrescente restituuntur. Quercetanus, lib. 1. Alex. cap. 7. Dicit senes & fæminas peste laborantes frequentius luna decrescente, plethoricos verò in plenilunio plerumque interire. Alii particulatim de quolibet subjecto annotarunt, in nova luna natis circa novilunium maximum pestiferæ infectionis periculum impendere, & in plena Lunâ natis circa plenilunium: idque observavit Goclenius, de peste quæst 8. De Lunæ in corpora sublunaira viribus, diversissimæ sunt opiniones, quas hic examinare nimis longum foret: inter has tamen verior videtur illa, quæ statuit, ad motum aquarum, humorum, sincorum, &c. Lunam nihil facere, sed illa sponte naturæ moveri eodem modo & tempore quo Luna, atque Lunam istius motus tantum signum esse, non verò causam efficientem.


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Famulus Antonii de Fricht, Pharmacopœi, mense Julio /BP 8, fol. 96v/ peste laborans in horto decumbebat, in domuncuta incurvis quidem lateribus sursum contecta, sed absque parietibus, & undique circumcirca aperta, quam tamen velis tunc undique investierant. ægro sanato lectus vela, reliquaque supellex inde [irersus] ablata fuit. Anno sequenti mense Martio ipse Pharmacopœus instrumentum aliquod hortulanum in eadem domunculâ casu quærens cum stramen, cui ægri quondam lectus impositus fuerat (quod ibi adhuc relictum, & autumno totaque hyeme, vento, pluviis nivibus ac frigori expositum fuerat) dextro pede ab uno saltem ad alterum latus dimoveret, statim situosum quendam fœterem naribus percepit, & paulo post acrem ac pungentem dolorem in inferiore cruris parte prope pedem sensit, haud secus ac si aquâ fervidâ se cmbuisset. Sequenti die magna vesica ibidem excitata visa fuit, quâ pertusa effluxit aliquantum aquæ nigricantis, & sub illa vesica carbunculus pestilens latens inventus est, qui vix duabus septimanis postea sanari potuit. Patiens tamen nec febricitavit, nec reliquo corpore malè valuit.


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Huiusmodi plura exempla Noviomagi visa sunt quod scilicet pestilens inquinamentum per aliquot menses fomiti inhærens, postea aliquibus adhuc communicatum sit. Sed observandum quod ab illo contagio silente alioqui peste inducto, nulla illius ulterior alicuius momenti propagatio facta fuerit Interim hoc exemplo Medicorum doctrina de contagio in fomite latente satis confirmatur. Mirum tamen est, hoc contagium tanto tempore in prædicto stramine potuisse subsistere ut pote quod totâ hyeme ventis & pluviis <(he [blank space in MS, ]> expositum fuisset. Concordans enim est Marsilii [d] Ficini, Mercurialis, aliorumque variorum Medicorum opinio, fomitem spatio viginti vel plurimum dierum, a ventis perflatum, durare non posse, sed imminui & deleri necesse esse: attamen contrarium interdum contingere ex prædicta historia liquet. Fomitem vero conelusum, aliove modo quietum manentem, diutissimè pestilentem vaporem continere, & integris viribus servare posse, communis est opinio. Sic Forestus, lib. 6. observat. 22. refert exemplum contagii pestilentis in tela aranei diu asservati Alexander Benedictus scribit, in urbe Veneta culcitram quandam multis annis perstiferam malignitatem retinuisse, eâque tandem excussâ, servos adstantes protinus subite peste correptos fuisse. Sennertus, lib. 4 de Febr: cap. 3 refert anno 1542 spatio viginti duarum septimanarum [Uratissaviæ] 5900 homines. peste mortuos fuisse, absque tempore pestilens contagium in linteo circiter annis quatuordecem conclusum hæsisse quo tandem anno 1555 Laubani explicato, pestis excitata fuit, quæ per contagiam vicinis etiam urbibus, & locis communicata est.


/BP 8, fol. 97/

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Secunda die vomitus sequebatur, qui tertiâ die valde violentus evasit viresque adhuc multo magis dejecit, quo multa fœtidissima turbida & varii coloris ejecit. Quarta die multo molestior & fere continuus evasit vomitus: tandem cum difficillimo conatu inter alia excrementa evomuit animalculum quoddam parvum instar Draconis vivi, quo ejecto non diu post obiit [d] Mater ægra <ti> illud animalculum Francisco [Patien] Chirurgo spectandum obtulit, (cum ego forte ad manus non essem) qui mihi retulit, fuisse bestiolam vivam horribilem visu oblongam, sed parvam circiter longitudinis minimi digiti, quadrupedem lacertæ non multum absimilem excepto quod sanguinei coloris esset, & comdam tenuiorem ac parvas auriculas haberet.


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Leur nature change de Province à autre, les bons & pleux del icieux de Languedoc, & de Provence sont oranges. On se sert en Boheme & Hongroie de ceux de pareille couleur pour tuer les mouches Quelques Gascons y estans lors que Monsieur de Mercœur commandoit à l'armée, & qu'il fit cette belle retraite de Canise, les voyans tels qu'en leur pays en mangerent, aussi tost ils se sentirent saisis d'une violente fiebvre accompagnée d'assoupissement & de resuerie estrange. Le mesme escheut à plusieurs qui en gousterent en trois divers temps & lieux; Tous, apres leurs acces, disoient avoir veu Dieu en son throsne, ainsi que l'on represente son advenement en la vallée de Josaphat, aucun n'en mourut, ils guerirent apres un long vomissement, puis de là les nommerent les Champignons qui font voir Dieu. Nous remarquons qu'en general il y a de trois sortes de Champignons: bons a manger, venimeux & medicinaux tels que les Agarics; & de ces trois conditions il y en a de diverses especes, soit qu'ils croissent naturellement, ou par artifice; soit, qu'ils soient produits és bois, es friches és prez, es campanges cultivées es vergers, & es [d] jardins; car dedans les bois croissent les morilles, les Mousserons, & celuy que les Champenois appellent Privas, de goust tres-excellent; celuy encor des paysans nomme vesse de Loup, sans oublier cet orangé du quel nous avons parlé, qui est aussi venimeux icy qu'en Boheme, & croist volontiers à l'orée des bois; jen ay veu en la vallee d'Haillan proche Chanvalon, lesquels ont produit pareil effect; & plusieurs autres differentes especes qui n'ont point de nom.


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Ex plumbo itaque, vas quoddam campanæ similimum, cui ob id Campanæ nomen, fundit, figuram habens pyramidatam, triginta sex plus minus digitorum in altitudine, in orificii latitudine totidem. Ex Campanæ labro ex æquo quadripartito, quatuor funiculi, tres circiter pedes longi, in unum scabellum rotundum, ex plumbo satis ponderosum [d] coeunt, quod tum campanæ /BP 8, fol. 97v/ demergendæ, tum urinatoris pedum suffulciendi caussâ appenditur. Ex eodem labro quatuor similiter ascendunt ad Campanæ verticem, qui ibidem ut videtur, ope annuli ferrei coadunantur eidemque summâ curâ annectuntur. Hinc [fuius] nauticus non exigui roberis ad maris altitudunem dimensus, Campanæ cum ipso urinatore ad Oceani imum demittendæ, atque eiusdem ad summum rursus attellendæ gratiâ, porrigitur. Franc. Quis obsecro tale quid, aut vidit, aut audivit unquam? Alex. cum subit animum aut seriò ex maris imo aliquid allevare, jocove periculum solummodo facere, Campanam subintrat, pedibus scabelli ope suffultis; atque uno funiculo dextrâ, & altero sinistra manu prehenso, absque omni periculo, molestiâ damnove, Campanâ fune nautico demissâ, imum securè petit. Quod si peracto negotio, illi revertendi animus sit, ea, dato signo, statim attollitur. Hactenus ea, quæ ingeniosissimus ille vir, mihi à cœnâ elapsâ nocte, narravit. Ego inde, novitate rei aliquantulum captus, multa hodierno mane, super laudatissimo hoc expertimento, animo agitavi, quorum potissima, sigillatim in medium afferre non gravabor. Primo utaque scitete, demissam Campanam, non suâ sponte descendere, tametsi ultra ducentas sexaginta pendeat libras. Hac de causâ appenditur scabellum illud plumbeum, cuius superius memini, quod centum circiter & triginta libris grave est quo demergatur. Hoc primum Phænomenon evenit, propter magnam aëris copiam, quæ in Campanæ cavitate eissit. Nam ex Aere in Aquam immissa deorsum vergente orificio, tantum aeris secum defert, quantum cavitatem suam implet.


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Paræus lib: 21 Cap. 40. ad hos fluxus unicè commendat sequens remedium, quod dicit se habere, ex Capellano, Regis Medico primario, qui id a patre acceptum magni secreti loco habebat, & ægris felici ad modum successu præscribere solebat:

{Rx} Boli Arm. terræ sigillatæ, lapidis hæmatitis, ana, drach. 1 picis navalis, drach. 1. [d] Corralli rubri, margaritarum præparatarum, cornu cervi usti, & loti in aquâ plantag. ana scrup. 1 sacchari rosacei unc. 1. fiat pulvis.

Huius pulveris exhibet ægro cochleare unum ante cibum, vel cum vitello ovi./BP 8, fol. 98/

Hoc pestis tempore animadvertimus fœtorem illium qui excitabatur ab aqua saponata, in qua sordida linteamina lavabantur, vel lota erant, & ægris & sanis maxime noxium fuisse. Illud enim notatu dignum sæpissime observavimus nempe in illis ædibus in quibus nulla adhuc pestis erat si linteamina sordida aqua & sapone nostrate (ut in Belgio moris est) illic lavarentur eo ipso die, vel interdum postridie duos tresve simul peste correptos fuisse, ipsique ægri testabantur fœtorem aquæ saponatæ illis primam & maximam alterationem intulisse. Hoc ipsum quoque in meo ipsius hospitio infelix experientia docuit in quo post lota linteamina statim gravem alterationem perceperunt plerique domestici, & proximâ sequenti nocte tres peste correptæ ac brevi post mortuæ fuere, nempe hospitis mei filia, ancilla & alia lotrix forinsecus advocata, quæ etiam omnes conquerebantur mali principium ipsis ab aquæ saponatæ nauseabundo fœtore inductum fuisse. Quinimo interdum integras familias post sordidorum linteaminum lotionem peste infectas fuisse vidimus idque maximè in ædibus angustioribus, in quarum omnia cubicula dictæ calentis aquæ fœtidus vapor facilè penetrabat. Ego ipsemet si aliquas ædes intranem ubi sordida linteamina lavabantur statim sentiebam me ab aquæ saponatæ fœtore ad nauseam & vomitum provitari cum tamen extra pestem huiusmodi fœtor me planè non officiat. Hinc tandem per multijugam eperientiam Noviomagi factum est, ut plurimi hunc fœtorem non minus, imo magis quam ædes infectas fugerent; & multi quoque melioris fortunæ cives aliorum periculis prudentiores redditi, sordida sua linteamina passim foris lavari curarent à lotricibus isti operi ac fœtori assuetis. Quemadmodum autem Saponis fœtor sanis nocebat, ita quoque ægris multum oberat: idque sæpissime animadvertimus in del icatioribus, aliisque quæ sordida linteamina fastidirent; [d] enim post sudores indusia vel alia linteamina renovarent & cum mundis mutarent (licet iis optime calefactis) sempter quatuor aut sex horis post multo pejus se habebant; anxietates, vomitum, febres majores, capitis dolores, aliaque incommoda plura incurrebant; eaque omnia maxime oriebantur a saponis fœtore quem lota, quamvis optime sicca, linteamina plus minus retinent. Non autem hæc mala producebantur a frigore (ut quispiam existimare possit) in hac linteaminum mutatione corpus facillime subeunte, & poros cutis occludente nam usus contrarium docebat; quia si ægris /BP 8, fol. 98v/ induerentur talia indusia quæ ab alio quopiam sano homine prius per tres quatuorve dies gestata tuerant quorum saponis fœtor iam a sani corporis calore discussus erat tunc illa multum nocumentum inferebant, quod alioqui per illud ipsum frigus tunc fieri debuisset. Hanc ob causam ego in meis ægris renovationem seu mutationem indusiorum ante diem septimum vel in aliquibus ante decimum quartum (pro morbi & ægri conditione , sordumque copia) non desiderabam, atque tunc adhuc semisordida, ab aliis sanis per aliquot dies gestata ipsis indui curabam, & immunditiem mundiri in hoc casu præferebam, cum hanc graviter nocere, illam verò prodesse nec ullum unquam incommodum ab indusiorum sudorifero fœtore sequi observarem. Linteaminum renovationes tantopere nocuerunt ægris, ut etiam inperitum vulgus, tristibus pluri morum exemplis edoctum, has cane pejus & angue fugeret, & urgente aliqua necessitate non alia, quam semisordida indusia ab aliis sanis per aliquot dies prægestata induere vellet. Huic nostræ observationi unanimiter obsistunt omnes Medici, qui hactenus de Peste scripserunt; nec quenquam invenias qui non suadeat, post copiosos sudores indusia aliaque linteamina sudore madentia (quibus malignitatem aliquam per sudores expulsam inhærere arbitrantur) abjicere, aliaque nitida induere, quorum opinioni ego ipsemet etiam antehac subscripsi, & si solam speculationem, adhuc forte subscriberem, nisi me ferè nolentem quasi vi, ab illa discedere coegisset multiplex experientia.


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Michael Krieckman, peste cum diarrhœa lethali laborabat, cumque ipsum brevi moriturum prædixissem, cognatus eius Bernhardus Suyderdijck eques fortis, avunculum suum ante mortem ad huc semel in visere voluit, horâ circiter decimâ matutinâ: quapropter cum adhuc jejunus esset prius jentaculum sumpsit, & haustum cerevisiæ superbibit atque ita benesanus, & contra pestem egregie (ut putabat) munitus, avunculi ædes ingressus est: ægri autem cubiculum intrare volens, casu ipsi occurrit ancilla pelvim ferens in qua æger alvum exoneraverat. Ille statim a maligno & contagioso istorum excrementorum fœtore adeo perculsus fuit, ut subitò instar apoplectici in terram conciderit, atque intra horæ quadratem exspiraverit.


/BP 8, fol. 98/

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Le gravissime angustie, & insolite afflittioni nelle quali si rievora hoggidi la Citta di Catania con i suoi Casali. devono muovere ogni cuor Christiano ad intercedere con la maggior caldezza appresso Dio. N. Sig: acciò ricordevole del le sue consuete misericordie, ritiri il braccio del la Giustitia col quale mostra minacciare a quella V. ultimo esterminio. E'dunque dà sapere, come il Venerdi giorno 8. del trascorso mese di Marzo, fù osservato il Sole prima del tramontare, vestito di color così palliao, esmorto, che (come cosa fuor del l'usato) cagionò horrore, e meraviglia a quanti vi fessero reflessione, che furon molti; mentre si vedeva la gente & ogn' altra cosa tintà de quella insolita pallidezza: Quando la seguente notte cominciopotro à sentirsi in questa Città spessissimi Terremoti, conueli horribili, che uscivano dal Mongibello, in maniera che se fessero stati di scosse gagliarde, e segnalate, come apunto erano ne'Casali, saressimo stati necessitati ancor noi ad habitar nelle Campagne, come furono i poveri Casalotti, i quali non potendo dimorar nelle case, nè nelle Chiese, per timore di non restare oppressi da quelle dormivano in campagna, & udivano anché le prediche allo scoperto; che però atterriti cominciorono ad implorare il diurno aiuto, & ad esperre il Santiss Sacramento non già dentro, ma alle porte del le Chiese stando la gente fuori per il sudetto pericolo. Interno alle conditioni del la nuova apertura del fuoco, dirò quello ne testificano i più pratici che vi si ritrovorono vicini, civè che la maggiore del le molte bocche fatte dal monte è dimezzo iniglio di circonferenza di cui non si può veder cosa più portentosa, & e tale, che se non si [vede] con i proprii occhi, nè penna può descriverto ne lingua alcuna esplicatto: poiche, chi potrà mai raffigurarsi un fiume di materia densissima, che in sostanza non e altro, che pietra ferrea liquefatta di altezza di dieci, venti e trenta sessanta, e più palini, e di larghezza di sei, dieci, dodeci, & più iniglia & il fuoco è come solfo, e cammina per terra come l'Argento vivo, & ogn' hora a vanza cammino due canne in circa; & questo [d] và girando con lasciar domingue /BP 8, fol. 99v/ passa, montagne di sassi, ricoprendo Terre, e Castelli, gestando a terra palazzi, e Torri, a cui non vi e riparo, che possa resistere, nè argine sì gagliardo, che l'impedisca; nè acqua, che lo sinorzi anzi, che più l'accende, il quale, dove una volta mette il piede, vi vogliono secoli, finche vi nasca un sol filo d'erba, ò per picciolo, chesia ramoscello. Tanto che le Terre da lui bruggiate, e ricoperte, non solo hora se ne vede vestiggio; mà nè meno si può disegnare il luogo dov'erano situate, solo si vedono montagne di ruvide pietre, e fumiganti che cagionano horrore, e moraviglia. L'interessi cagionati da questo incendio sono maggiori di quanti ne sono stati sin' hora che con l'essersi arsa tutta la pianura del la Città oltre la perdita di 29 Castelli incirca, si calcolava il danno di due milioni; poiche dal trutto del le sole vigne ricoperte dal fuoco, si stimano perdute al numero di venticinque mila salme annuè di Vino, ed'albori fruttiteri giardini, poderi terreni frumentarii & altri da trenta mila: aggiungesi a tutto questo la perdita de' Casali le fabbriche, la robba domestica, & ogn' alta provisione, consumati dal fuoco.


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Et in oltre per quello, che con anvisi di particolari s'intende, che il foco fia rivolto tutto verso le parti di Palermo, che si sia abissato la Città di Ceffalù distante dalla montagna di Mongibello 70 miglia, con perdita di quattro mila persone incirca: Che la Città di Palermo sia stata oltre modo da'terremoti tormentata con la destrutione, (benche inforse) del Molo, con Alcune Galere, che ivi si ritrovava, e' la Galleria del Palazzo del Vicerè, quale dall'una all'altra parte vi è la distanza d'un miglio; e parimente da una lettera de 17 Aprile d'intende che di nuovo in Palermo si sia abbissato un quartieri del la Città, e che sotto di essa ne usciva grandissimo fumo, per il che gli Abitanti procuravavo lo scampo per salvarti. Che Messina ancora sia stata minacciata con terremoti, e percio stavano tutti /BP 8, fol. 100/ in oratione, con il procurare d'ammassare i loro miglioramenti per passarsene alla volta del la Calauria; Il che piaccia all'Altissimo (come da una Barca Ultimamente comparsa in questo Porto, procedente da qu'e Paesi s'intende) che non sia in tutto la verità ciò che di Palermo, e Messina si dice; e che si degni diliberare quella povera Isola, e suoi Abitanti da quel tremendo supplicio, &c.


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Tertiam & universalem inductionem faciunt omnia prope sublunaria, quorum ea præsertim, quæ vitam aliquam sortita sunt, humoribus augentur & intumescunt cum Luna ad Plenilunium & præsertim simul ad Meridianum accedente. Nam Caro Ostrearum Cancrorum & omnium Conchiliorum; quin & ossium Medulla est pinguior, succulentior copiosiorque tam nova Lunâ quam plenâ & Cerebrum ipsum humanum in morbidis post quadraturas cum Luna ugetur & catarrhis aggravatur. Quin hominem vidi, cui pars cranii exempta erat ob vulnus, & lamina argentea, emplastro superinducto firmata defendebat piam Matrem ab incursantibus injuriis, & animadverti cum peritissimis chirurgis & medicis, incrementa Cerebri tanta, ut Lunâ Novâ ac plenâ protuberaret, laminâ amotâ; & Luna quadrata dehisceret; neque hoc in uno solo, sed omnino in tribus recentissimæ memoriæ vulneratis, meis & aliorum, ut dixi, fidelibus oculis habeo comprobatum quo quid illustrius & palpabilius liceat experiri? Hoc est quod dicit Lucilius apud Gellium P. 20. C. 7. Luna alit Astrea & implet Echlinos. Quibus addit Gellius: Felium quoque oculos ad vices Lunæ aut ampliores fieri aut minores. Denique & monstruorum abscessus, & herbarum vigor & fructuum pomorumque tumor & succulentia, & alia innumera in Noviluniis & Pleniluniis observantur; & triticum, quod sub hyemem seminatur in messem sequentis anni, non nisi Lunâ decrescente, & circa quadraturam seminandum esse præcipiunt; & quod tum non tam germinatio in herbam, quam immissio radicis in terram expectetur, ut vere novo maturius expullulet, & generatim Loquendo, omnia illa semina, quorum non herba, sed radix in usu est ac fructu, (quales sunt rapæ & Betæ) seri solent Lunâ decrescente; cum e contrario /BP 8, fol. 100v/ Brassea & Caules & Lactucæ postulent Lunam crescentem, ut citò & copiosè se effundant in herbam, in quam rem multa à Plinio aliisque hortorum cultoribus suggeruntur observata.


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Ipsa quoque Lunæ irradiatio si accedat amplius vehementiusque humectat & inflat. Et observavit non nemo nocturnus vigil qui Lunares radios per fenestram in conclave illapsos conspicatus, in quo plures longo ordine singuli dormiebant, singulos quoque in quietudine, somniis & interlocutione somniantium vexatos fuisse, prout succedentibus horis alios aliosque lunaris illa irradiatio infestabat. Denique experimur, ni fallor, omnes caput a somno humoribus gravari, si nocturna Luna dormientem percusserit. Et Lunatici admirandis, inter dormiendum incessibus & ascensibus celebres sunt ob inconsideratam temeritatem [d] audaciam; & maniaci furore & insaniâ cum Luna [d] crescunt & mutantur; & Plinio Teste, Inmentorum quorundam in oculis morbi nigravescunt cum Luna. Addit etiam Formicas in Interlunio cessare a laboribus, venatores autem aiunt, Lepores sub idem tempus ita indormiscere somno gravatos ut neque in foveis suis, neque in aperto campo ullis latratibus excitari possint, & impelli in cursum ant retia, nisi percutiantur. Certè vidi non rarò venatores in Interluniis gratis insidiatos leporibus, & vacuos prædâ aut exiguâ onustos rediisse, alioquin felices & peritos, nisi Luna dormiens sopiret in suis foveis timidum gregem & cerebrum impleret humoribus somnolentis quod ipsum darent etiam Plenilunia leporibus, nisi lux nocturna invitaret pavidos ad securiorem pabulationem nocturnam.


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Georgius Stengelius, qui (libro de monstris C. 50 § 6.) hæc scribit: nostra inquit, memoria Halæ, in Tiroli, invenis cetera egregius, sed ibidem Patre Judæo natus, nomine Bonaquistus admirabiliter in ventre monstrosus fuit. Quippe crescente Lunâ inde sic illi quoddam taurinum caput excrescebat, non sine cornibus, ut caligæ illius nequaquam satis possunt constringi. Quâ de Causa semper crescente Lunâ domi se continebat; decrescente autem eadem, quia & monstrum decrescens sese intra viscera revocabat, aut /BP 8, fol. 101/ detumescebat potius foras prodibat zona jam arctiore. Quod & in alio Invene hic Ingolstadii fuit videre cui ibidem semper Lunâ Auctiore, altera maxillarum, atque labra oris in immensum turgescebant; Luna autem Lumen amittente, redibat clementior forma.


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Je n'en ay point veu de gros qui enleve sans etre arme plus que son poids & s'en trouve fort peu qui l'enlevent. Pour de petits ils en voit par fois d'admirable. J'en ay veu un qui ne pesoit que trois grains & lequel sans etre arme enlevoit 18 fois son pesant, & un autre qui pesoit 12 grains, & enlevoit 12 fois son pesant.


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Si vous rompez une pierre par l'Equateur, la partie qui estant Equateur ne tiroit que fort peu, & n'avoir point de force, estant separée devient Pole, & a beaucoup de force.


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Dans nostre Hemisphere le Pole Septentrional enleve un peu plus que le Pole Australl, cela toutefois ne se remarque pas constamment vray en toutes sortes d'aymants.


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Une Aiguille posee de son long sur l'axe de la vertu, d'un aimant encor que ses extremités soient également distantes des Poles affecte de demeurer en cet Estat, en sorte que si on la pousse tant soit peu vers l'un des Poles, elle revient en son premier estat.


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On a rompu une pierre d'aimant à Paris en plusieurs parties, entre lesquelles il s'en est trouvé une qui enlevoit plus que ne faisoit la pierre entiere.


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D'autres ayants bien remarqué ou est l'Axe de leur aymant le font percer tout outre, & remplissent le trou d'un bon acier, & assurent que cette armure est la plus parfaicte de toutes, qu'il n'y en a [d] aucune qui enleve tant, & qu'un aymant armé de la sorte enleve dix fois d'avantage que non armé. Sur quoy je diray que lun des miens qui n'est armé que sur l'extremité de son Axe enleve plus de seize fois son poids, & que j'en ay en qui enlevoient cent fois plusque non armees.


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L'armure augmente la vertu retentive sans toutefois augmenter l'attraction: C'est a dire l'armure faict que les choses magnetiques s'y attachent plus fortement, & que l'aymant retient & soustient un poids bien plus grave, pourveu qu'il le touche, sans toutefois /BP 8, fol. 101v/ que pour cela il tire de plus loing: J'ay remarqué cela en touts ceux que j'ay veu Gens d'honneur, & de science m'ont toutefois assuré en avoir veu une à Lion, laquelle armée tiroit si puissamment un fer qu'on [d] luy presentoit à qu' peine un homme le pouvoit empescher de se joindre à l'armure.


Entry 149: Editorial notes:
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La vertu des Poles de l'aymant se peut transporter, & de faict, se transporte aux extremités de l'armure, pour que elle soit mise à Angle droict sur la ligne qui conjoint les deux Poles de vertu, & que le fer où elle se transporte soit Parallele à l'Axe.


Entry 150: Editorial notes:
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Les aymants qui sont armez de la sorte sont ceux qui enlevent les plus grands poids aussi par ce mouyen touts les deux Poles servent & n'y aucun point ny ligne de vertu qui ne se reunisse en telles armures.


Entry 151: Editorial notes:
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Le fer suit tousjours le Pole qui la touché, bien qui de soy, & n'estant proche de la pierre qui la touché, il se tourne au Pole opposé, c'est à dire si la partie d'une pierre, qui de soy se tourne vers le Nord, touché une aiguille, cette aiguille se tournera tousjours vers cette partie de la pierre, toutes & quante fois qu'on la luy presentera, mais incontinent que l'aiguille sera seule, & à sa liberté cette partie touchée se tournera tousjours au Sud, vers la partie contraire à celle qui la touchée.


Entry 152: Editorial notes:
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Quatriemement si vous tenez deux aiguilles retenuës d'un fil, & suspenduës en l'air par la vertu de l'aymant, si vous poussés du bout du doigt l'une de ces aiguilles, l'autre, quoy que distante de celle-cy semblablement se reculera.


Entry 153: Editorial notes:
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J'en ay toutefois un Spherique de trois pouces de Diamettre dont la force s'estend à trois pieds loing, y adjoustant quelque barre de fer un peu plus loing.


Entry 154: Editorial notes:
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Il ya des aymants qui ont beaucoup de force pour attirer & qui enlevent de grands poids, lesquels toutesfois ne peuvent faire ressentir leur vertu magnetique à une aiguille si elle n'est toute proche deux. Et d'autres lesquels ne pouvants à peine enlever un petit clou font ressentir leur vertu à un pied loing deux, & de beaucoup plus loing que ceux qui attirent plus qu'eux. /BP 8, fol. 102/ Mettez vostre doigt sur le Pole d'un bon aymant & une aiguille sur vostre doigt, cette aiguille se tiendra droite comme si elle touchoit le Pole de l'aymant. Mais il faut que l'aymant soit excellent. De quantité que j'ay eu entre mes mains je n'en ay veu que deux qui n'estoient pas armés qui fissent cela, pas un des armés ne le pouvant faire, quoy que les mesme tirassent à travers toute sorte de Metaux. J'en ay eu encore lesquels mis derriere mon dos faisoient tourner une aiguille ou Boussole que je tenois prés de mon estomac.


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James Neccii & his fellows Anno 1602 after their double misfortune & madnes which had befallen them the one in Jest the other in Earnest. This at Macao in China where they were & knew it not, & setting twenty men on shoare never saw them againe, but heard that the Portugals had caused 15 of them to be hanged: The other at Avarella Falca in 11 degrees & a halfe where they found the Tract of Carts, & Footings of Beast, but could not see a man, nor shoot a Beast. They ghessed that the People lived as the Tartars wandring in Carts & Tents without any setled dwelling. The place was by them cald Sotternym by reason that many of their company had lost the use of Reason, & became mad by eating a sort of fruite there growing like <to> Plumbs with a tender stone, which continued till they had slept. Had they knowne then the easynes of the cure, it had been better then any Comædy to have tickled their spleene, & provoked Laughter to see one fighting against the Enemys, which assaulted him at his Cabbin: to hear another with piteous [d] shrikes cry out on the multitude of Devill & Hobgoblins, which affrighted him: a third sees strange sight & crys out, the ship is full of strangers: & whilst on in more pleasing distraction enjoys (& joyeth in that distracted Pleasure) the sight of God & his Angells, another (transported by his humoured Charron) with dreadful & gastly Lookes, & trembles at his supposed /BP 8, fol. 102v/ sights of the Divell, & his Hellish Associates It were a madnes to relate how exceedingly this their madnes was diversifyd & how many Acts this Tragicall Comedy had, till sleepe had dispersed those fumes wherewith that fruite had distracted their Braines.


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Qui singulari harum observationum peritiâ censentur referunt, supra terram, se deprehendisse, quod acus quinque totos gradus deflexerit, eodem vero loce subterrâ in Cavernis et fodinis eandem longè ab ea aberrasse. Sub uno eodemque meridiano, modo ad Orientalem, modo ad Occidentalem cæli regionem secedit. Sub eodem parellelo exiguum huius spatium insignem et grandem deflexionem complectitur: illeic spatiosus et latus tractus exiguum aut fere nullum reclssum sensit


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-- Loca quæ olim omni declinatione destituta erant, eam hodie produnt. multis in locis eâdem hâc nostrâ ætate tanta est quanta superioribus secellis a majoribus nostris observata fuit. Post montis Vesuvii in regno Neapolitano Incendium illud horrendum insigniter Mutatâ, notatu dignissimam observatioem exhibet.


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Amongst those that did visit us while we were at supper a famous Negromancer came in to see us, & bid us be of good chear, & that he desird to show his respect to us by a Dance & Musick. He had under his Arme a long Instrument with a wire insteed of a string upon which he playd most dexterously, he had no sooner begun but in steps an ill shapd Rogue as black as the Devil followd by a furious Goat & a Dog, these 3 began the Dance, the Goat & Dog strikeing the Ground according to the sound of the /BP 8, fol. 103/ Instrument. The Sport had been pleasant had we not been informd by a stander by that these shapes were not reall, but that they were Devils or evil spirits that did thus appear at his Command. This fancy did make us desire that the Pastime would end a litle sooner then otherwise we would have done. The Negromancer perceivd it therefore he concluded, & all these Appearances vanishd to our Eyes - the Doore being then shut, leaving such a horrible stinck as made all rise to seeke the open Air to breath which the Negromancer labourd to excuse telling us we had affronted his Divills by expressing a dislike of their kindnes, & therefore we might thank ourselves if they had left such an ill scent to punish to punish, our Contempt. We told him by our Interpreter that we did not desire such Entertaiment, & that the Divells company was never gratefull to us. we afterward inquird what this fellow was some told us that his name was Zedi Lamed a man highly esteemd among the Moors because of his Art in Negromancy, & his Acquaintance with Familiar Spirits by which he knows the news of all the world, & foretells many things to the People which they are desirous enough to know so that he is consulted as an Oracle in all urgent Occasions.


Entry 158a: Editorial notes:

Regulæ motus

1 Si duo corpora æqualia æquali celeritate mota sibi mutuo occurrant resilient nulla celeritatis parte amissa.
2 Si duo corpora æqualia inæquali celeritate mota sibi mutuo occurrant id quod tardius movetur alteri de sua celeritate nihil largiri potest
3 Sed nec id quod celerius movetur alteri totum suum motum communicare est potens./BP 8, fol. 103v/
4 Si duo corpora æqualia inæquali celeritate mota sibi mutuo occurrant resilient eritque motus quem celerius motum alteri tardieri communicat ad motum suum totum in ratione celeritatis ad celeritatem
5 Si sint duo corpora æqualia quorum alterum infinities celerius moveatur postquam sibi mutuo occurrerunt illud quod celerius movebatur quiescet omnem suum motum alteri communicando
6 Si duo corpora sint inæqualia minus vero celerius moveatur in ratione qua alterum illo est majus post occursum reflectentur nulla parte celeritatis amissa.
7 Si duo corpora sint in quavis ratione data minus autem infinities celerius moveatur si nempe alterum quiescat illud quantumvis ingens impellet.
8 Si ratio fuerit æqualitatis corpus motum quiescet totum suum motum alteri communicando.
9 Si vero id quod movetur minus sit reflectetur parte suæ celeritatis amissa quam alteri largietur
10 Si vero majus in eandem partem movebitur parte quoque sua celeritatis amissa quam alteram in se recipiet.


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For though in sounding the narrow seas they seldom fail of ground. It is otherwise in the ocean and I very weil remember that in the great ocean (in the midway betwixt the 2 great continents of afric and america) wher we wer for severall dayes becalmed the captain of our ship to satisfie his curiosity one time let fall his lead which had all the logline he could possibly make or borrow probably upwards of 3000 fathom and having veered it out to the very end could find no ground so that he wold perswad us it was abyss albeit that tryall gave no such consequence.


/BP 8, fol. 104/

Entry 160: Editorial notes:
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Tandem organum mihi construxi adeo excellens ut res per ipsum visæ millies fere majores apparerent ac plusquam in terdecupla ratione unimores quam si naturali tantum facultate spectentur.


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Ut autem de multiplicatione instrumenti qui libet parvo negotio certior reddatur circulos binos aut quadrata bina chartacea contorvabit quorum alterum quatercenties altero majus existat id autem erit tunc cum majoris diameter ad diametrum alterus longitudine fuerit vigecupla; deinde sum perficies ambas in eodem pariete infixas simul a longe spectabit minore in quidem altero oculo ad perspicillum admoto, majorem vero altero oculo libero commode omni id fieri licet imo eodemque tempore oculus duobus ad apertis tunc enim figuræ ambæ eiusdem apparebunt magnitudinis, si organum secundum optatam proportionem objecta multipli caverit


Entry 162: Editorial notes:
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The 3d of Aprile, being Easterday we wer under 15 degrees 12 minuts at which tyme we have no variation of compass for the needle stood right north & south then the flux began much to trouble our men for at tymes half of them at least had it.


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About Evening at Sunsetting we got to the Land but found no ground, nor no changing of water altho we were so neer the shore that with a musket we might shoot into it


Entry 164: Editorial notes:
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The 11th in the morning we wer neer a high Island & about 2 leagues [d] southward from thenc an other long low Iland that day we sayled over a bank of 14 fathom deep stony ground lying about 2 leagues from the land & assoon as we wer over it we could find no more ground.


Entry 165: Editorial notes:
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Their ship was of a strang fashion. It was made of 2 long fair canoes with a good space betwixt them in Each Canoe about /BP 8, fol. 104v/ the middle therof ther lay 2 whole broad planks of fair red wood to keep out the water & divers planks layd cross over from one Canoe to the other which wer made fast together & hung a good way over on both ends without the Canoes very close above to keep out the water befor at the end of one of the Canoes on starrboord ther stood a mast at the end thereof having a fork wheron the yard lay.


Entry 166: Editorial notes:
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Their ships wer of the fashion aforesaid with good sayles & are of so swift a sayle that few ships in Holland can outsayl them. they steer behind with 2 oars on each canoe a man, & sometimes row with their <oars> befor when they will wind the ship also winds of itself when they pull the oars out of the water or alone with the wind.


Entry 167: Editorial notes:
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We wer of Opinion that the King at that tyme had assembled all his forces for he had at least a 1000 men among them we saw one that was clean white


Entry 168: Editorial notes:
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Thes men (viz the Indians) wer men of good understanding & of great stature for the least man of them was as big as the tallest of & the tallest of them were far higher then any of us


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The 7th in the morning befor day we wound again towards the high hill which was a burning Island casting fire & flame from the top thereof.


/BP 8, fol. 105/

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The 28 & 29 the weather was variable that night we had ane Earthquake which made our men for fear to run out of their Cabbins our ship seeming as if it stroke against the ground but we cast out our lead & found no ground.


Entry 171: Editorial notes:
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That day it thundred so much that our ship shook theirwith & sometime seem'd to be on a light fire


Entry 172: Editorial notes:
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This was done upon Munday the 1st of November after our reckoning but upon Tuesday the 2d of November by our Countrie mens reckoning ther


Entry 173: Editorial notes:
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Ex plumbo itaque vas quoddam campanæ simillimum Cui ob id campanæ nomen fundit figuram habens pyramida tam 36 plus minus digitorum in altitudem in orificu latitudine totidem Ex Campanæ labro ex aquo quadripartito quatuor funiculi 3 circiter pedes longi coeunt quod tum campanæ demergenda tum urinatoris pedum suffalciendi causa appenditur Ex eodem labro quatuor similiter ascendunt ad campanæ verticem qui ibidem ut videtur ope annuli ferrei coadunantur eidemque summa cura annectuntur hinc funis nauticus non exigui roboris ad maris altitudinem dimensus, Campanæ cum ipso urinatore ad oceani unum in demittendæ atque eiusdem ad summum rursus attolendæ gratia porrigitur


/BP 8, fol. 105v/

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Primo itaque scitote demissam campanam non sua sponte descendere tametsi ultra ducentas sexaginta pendeat libras hac de causa appenditur scabellum illud plumbeum cuius superius memini quod centumcirciter & triginta libras grave est quo demergatur


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Il primo inventore del Termoscopio, per mezzo di cui si possa conoscere quando l'aria sia piu, e meno calda, O freda, fu Roberto Fluddo, il qual [d] prese un tuba di vetro com'è A.B. con un palla, O altro vaso C &c


Entry 176: Editorial notes:
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Racconta parimente Adriano Romano, che il Regiomontano famoso Astronomo, e matematico fabricò un aqualia, la quale volò incontro a Carlo. V. mentre faceva la solenne entrata in Norimberga, e con esso carlo ritorno addietro accompagnandolo sin dentro la Città. Boetio fa mentione di certi uccelletti formati di rame, che volavano non solo, ma cantavano ancora, Glica, e Manasse raccontano, ch'altri simili uccelli havesse appreso di se l'Imperatore Leone. E piu modernamente habbiamo dal nostro P Famiano strada che il Turriano ingegnere valorosissimo, faceva volare certi uccelletti per le stazz di carlo quinto, mentre staua ritirato dopo la rinuntia del suo governo fatta al suo figlivolo Filippo.


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Ma per venire al nostro intento, dico, che la materia propria genuina del la nostre Artiglierie, non è altro, che Bronzo, dico (e replico) compostodi Rame finissimo, e purgatissimo, e di stagno finissimo tutti purgatissimi da ogni altro Minerale, o, mezzo Minerale, di val modo, e proportione Legali;


/BP 8, fol. 106/

Entry 178: Editorial notes:
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Che in <ogni cento> Libre di finissimo Rame si metta otto Libre di stagno finissimo: O, al piu dieci (ben che io non vorrei che si passasse le otto) [perhavere] una perfettissima Matteria e Lega.


Entry 179: Editorial notes:
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Quegli che nel Rame, per fondere Artiglierie passeranno le otto, O, le diecilibre, & arrineranno per maneo spesa, & ingordigia di Pandagnosino alle 15. 20, 0, 25. di stagno, per ogni cento Libre di Rame, faranno bene la materia, O, il Metallo piu duro, ma dall'altra parte Lo renderanno tanto frangibile, che La Pezza Artiglieria in pecchi Tirise n'andera in Pezzi.


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che per soccorrere à tal fragilità vitriosa, per ogni cento Libre di Rame, ei aggiungino tante libre di ottone, da questo poco di discorso fatto sì puo chiaramente comprehendere se tengono ragione, o, podi ciò fare.


Entry 181: Editorial notes:
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Noi habbiamo dibisogno nella nostra Artigleria d'una durezza unita, fissa, e resistente, non frangibile come quella del vetro, e non dolce come quella del Rame, ne corrotta, O, alterata, come quella del l'Ottone, ma di tal maniera, che duri nel suo vigore, a molti tiri, O, à infiniti tiri, ne si venga ad indulcire come il Rame, e perciò ad in debolirsi, e fare fiacchi, e di pochissima virtu itiri, ne meno sia come il vetro frangibile, O, come le campane, il che segneria, quando oltre à tal quantità di stagno di otto, O, dieci libre, sene moltesse di piu come nelle campane, che in pochi tiri se no anderia la Pezza dui Artiglieria per Aria in Pezza.


/BP 8, fol. 106v/

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He added to that present twelve horses, esteem'd as much as those of Arabia, and a kind of Little Mule of which I saw the skin, which was <a> very great rarity, there being no Tyger so handsomely speckled, nor silken stuff of India so finely, so variously and so orderly streaked, as that was. Moreover, there were for a part of the present, two Elephants Teeth so prodigious, that they assured it was all that a very able-bodied man could do to lift up on of them from the ground Lastly, an Horn of an Oxe full of Civett; and so big, that the apertura of it being measur'd by me. when it came to Dehli, it had a Diameter of halfe of foot, and somwhat better.


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During the time that the Ambassadors were at Dehli, my Agah, who is more than ordinarily curious, made them often come to him, when I was present, to inform himself of the State and Government of their Country, and prinpally to Learne something of the source of the Nile which they call Abbabile, of which <they> discoursed to us as a think so well known, that nobody doubted of it. Murat him-self, and a Mogol, who was returned out of Ethiopia with him, had been there, and told us very near the same particulars with those I had received of it at Moha; viz.


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That the Nile had its Origine in the Country of Agans that it issued out of the earth by two springs bubling up, near to one another, which did form a Little Lake of about thirty or forty paces Long; that coming out of this Lake, it did make a considerable River; and that from space to space it received small Rivers increasing it. They added, that it went on cirling & making as 'twere a great Isle; and that afterwards it tumbled down from steep Rocks into a great Lake, in which there were divers fruitfull Isles, a store of Crocodiles, and (which would be remarable enough, if true) abundance of Sea-calves that have no other vent for their excrements than that, by which they take in their food;


/BP 8, fol. 107/

Entry 185: Editorial notes:
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this Lake being in the country of Dambea three small daies journey from Gonder, and and four or five dayes journey from the source of the Nile: And Lastly that that River did reach out of this Lake, being augmented with many river-waters, and with several Torrents falling into it, especially in the rainy season (which do regularly begin there, as in the Indies about July, which is very considerable and convenincing for the inundation of the Nile) and so runs away through Sonnar, the capital City of the King of Fungi, Tributary to the King of Ethiopia and from thence passeth to the Plaine of Mesre which is Egypt.


Entry 186: Editorial notes:
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En ceste mesme annee on veid un signe & prodige merveilleux. Le Soleil tout le Long de l'an fut veu jetter sa lumiere sans rayons ainsi que fait la lune, ayant perdu comme une grande partie de sa vive splendeur, tellement que del aissant ceste belle, & vigoroeuse clarté, il sembloit estre de ceste couleur qu'on veoid aux Lions. Ce prodige ne pouvant signifier que du mal, aussi le monde n'eut pas sante de guerres, de famine, de pestilences, & de toutes autres sortes de maux: & fut l'an neusviesme de L'Empire de Justinian.


Entry 187: Editorial notes:
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Del Ferro, è cosi manifesta cosa, che un pezzod acciaio lungo un piede, gia alcuni anni sono nell Accademia del Signor Abbate Sampieri sperimentai io esser cresciuto nell'infiocarlo un sessagesimo di sua lunghezza in circa, che poi freddandosi alla sua prima misua si restituiva.


Entry 188: Editorial notes:
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L'Illustrissima Accademia del Cimento n'hà insegnate molte sperienze in vari Metalli, e nel vetro medesimo, mediante il calore /BP 8, fol. 107v/ del l'acqua tepida, e'l freddo del la neve, & il Dottissimo Signor Gio. Domenico Cassini m'avisò di Parigi il verno passato, che gl'Instromenti Astronomici di Bronzo, ò d'altri mettali facevano sensibile mutazione nel solo passaggio dalla tepidezza d'una stantza al freddo del l'aria aperta: e ne legni l'hò veduto io manifesto, massimamente misurati per traverso alle vene, (poiche secondo la lunghezz di quelle meno si alterano) & ultimamente un bastoncello di vetro sodo men' lungo d'una spanna infocata, mi riusci nel freddarsi scorciarsi piu del la cinquantesima parte.


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Il y a quelque temps, que la femme d'un Tailleur de habits enceinte de trois mois, et quinze ou vingt jours apres avoir senti remüer son infant, alla avec ses voisines voir quelques Batteleurs, où un singe extraordiniarement enjoué faisot, le principal spectacle. Cette femme grosse a son retour trouva son imagination, si remplie de l'idée de ce singe, que durant trois jours entiers, elle fit des efforts inutiles pour se l'oster de devant, trois mois apres elle avorta d'un fœtus mort qui n'a rien de [d] l'homme que la peau, et l'imagination pour en faire un copie exacte, sur l'Embrion de cette femme, avoit commence son ouvrage par le tissu fort industrieux d'une tunique qu'elle avoit étendüe, dépuis les épaules jusques aux lombes, qui est la meilleur maniere dont elle avoit peu representer la jaquette de ce singe, tandis de la face estoit toute penchée en bas, & que la posture de tout le corps estoit tournée a faire de la demarche έπί τό κυρτόν à la facon des autres quadrupedes; et tout au contraire de l'homme qui en marchant measure toutes le figures, έπί τό κοιλον comme le dit Aristote. Cette mesme imagination dans le dessein de depoüller cèt Embrion des livrées et des caracteres, qui luy conviennent le mieux, n'avoit garde de luy laisser la rotule au genoüil parce qu'elle fait, l'articulation la plus importante, et la plus /BP 8, fol. 108/ digne de il homme, puis que, c'est elle qui affermit la figure droit, par laquelle il con [d] temple sans cesse le lieue de son origine es homini sublime dedit &c. et par le moyen de laquelle ses genoux et ses jarets sont rendus souples et soÛmis a la Divini qu'il adore.

Il estoit bien aussi a remarquer que ses bras et ses jambes de devant, n'estoient, pas moins longues, que celles de derriere: mais ce qui estoit encore de plus étrange, c'est que n'ayant, que quatre doigs sans poulu, on prouvoit dire qu'il n'avoit point de main, qui a este donnée à l'homme, si cen'est [d] pas comme la cause de la sagesse, ainsi que le veut Anaxagoras, c'est tout au moins comme son appanage et comme le instrument de sa damnation.


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It is impossible that men should be able to live any long season under water with out takeing breath, the continuall cold piercing them, and so they dye common parbraking of blood at the mouth, and of the bloody flux caused by the cold. There haires which by nature are colblack, alter and become after a branded russet like to the haires of the sea-wolves. The salt peter breaketh our of their shoulders in such sort that they seeme to be a kind of monsters in the shape of men, or els some other kind of men.


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Ita (quod testatur [siglum] Galenus de seipso) expergefactis è somno lux versatur ante oculos. Hæc nihil aliud est quam spiritus per somnum retenti, jamque αθροως effluentes. Eandem ob causam quidam per noctem vident, ut de Tiberio Imperatore Utro Scaligere, M. item Antonio Sabellico, aliisque scribitur Contra autem deficientibus spiritibus, ob scuritas oculorum oboritur, quam Hippocrates άρηάυπωβιν appellat, quamque n moribundis continuè observamus. /BP 8, fol. 108v/ Denique insecta illa sive muscæ quæ in Italia aliisque Regionibus calidis noctu per campos volitant, veritati huic claram facem præferunt. Ex pansis quippe alis, supra omnes Cicindelas splendnet ac scintilant. Credas sydera in terram descendisse. Pars verò tantopere lucida est posterior, ventrem imum, sive ultimam incisuram constituens, ubi in illis cor locatur, quod reliquis insectis commune est; apem enim si melli immerseris videbis juxta caudam palpitare. Illiud autem prædictæ muscæ peculiare habent, quod earum membranulæ cor reliquumque corpus ambientes, tenues ac pellucidæ sint ut lux interna facile transiliat. Quinetiam, quod mireris nostram sententiam magis roborat, non splendent tantum sed etiam [d] ardent, quod ego, digitum parti illi imponens, meo damno expertus sum.


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Je me souviens, dis-je que l'observation de cette éclipse, se faisant en mon logis, en presence de la plus illustre Assemble qui fut dans Paris, il n'y eut personne qui ne s'apperceut tres sensiblement du froid, jusques à demander des manteaux, lors qui l'éclypse fut dans son plus fort, & le Soleil presque tout couvert par la Lune. Au lieu qu'auparavant & peu aprés, la chaleur etoit excessive suivant l'heure de midy & le temps du mois d'Aoust: mesme un miroir [d] bruslant qui allumoit du bois verd & fondoit du plumb aux rayons du soleil, au commencement /BP 8, fol. 109//BP 8, fol. 109v/ & a la fin de l'eclipse ne brusloit point une allumette dans son milieu faute de rayons


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Cette exhalation est tellement subtile qu'on ne la peut voir, elle na aussi aucune qualitè par laquelle on la puisse recognoistre par la attouchment, car mettant la main sur le lieu d'où elle sort vous ne la sentirez point, bien que sorte avec grande violance et impetuosite, comme on peut remarquer en ce quelle fait bouillir l'eau luy passant à travers et en ce que la flame y estant atachée si essance comme en sallie, et tout ainsi comme si elle estoit poussee, et agitee de quelque vent, elle n'a point de mavais odeur, notamment sur le lieu du quell elle sort, bien que quelques pas de là vous resentiez un odeur assez fascheuse, et tirant sur le bitume plustost que sur le soulfre.


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Ce lieu du quel sort l'exhalation est fort peu differant des autres lieux voisins, car estant tout aupres vous auriez peine de la recognoistre lors que la flame est estainte, car il n'y a aucune cavity, ny overture apparente seulement vous voyès quelques petites fentes et entreovertures desquelles la flame sort, lors quelle est allumée.

Et bien que ce feu brusle le bois come nous avons dit, si est ce [d] qu'il ne brusle pas, ny calcine la terre sur la quelle elle est posee; car apres que la flame est, estainte vous truvez bien la terre un peu eschauffee, mais cette chaleur est bientost passée. Quelques uns ont voulu dire que la flame a changé de lieu et qu'il y a quelques annees qu'elle paroissoit plus haut vers la montaign et maintenant qu'elle paroissoit plus haut vers la montaign, et maintenant qu'elle est descendue plus prés du torrent: mais j'estime que cela est arrivé par ce que ceux qui vont visiter ce lieu ont de coustume de creuser sur cest endroict tellement que la terre ayant par ceste longue continuation estè dosouverte il semble que la flame soit descendue mais en effect j estime qu'elle a tousjors gardè et gardè encore son mesme lieu.

Or en ce lieu il en y a aucune source d'eau voire il n'y a aucune eau, si ce n'est celle qu'il resoit quelque fois d'en haut: car en ce champ que nous avons marque estre au pied de la montaign y a une fontaine la quelle se venant rendre dans le Torrent, passe aupres de ce lieu tellement que ce est a nostre choix de la faire passer ou a costè, ou en ce lieu mesme. Et par ce qu'une des principals merviles que nous avons a considerer sur ce subject, est l'accord de ces deux elements si contraires, je m'en vays expliquer la chose comme elle passee. Ceux qui desirent bien considerer cette merveile ont de coustome de creuser sur ce lieu duquel sort l'exhalation, ou relever des mattes de terre a l'entour pour y arrester quelque notable quantitè de cette eau laquelle vient d'en haut. Cette au est un eau commune, laquelle n'est rien differante des autres eaux avant que d'entrer en ce [d] creux, mais aussitost qu'elle y est entree elle commence a bouillir à grosses ondes, comme fait l'eau en une chaudire posee sur un bon feu, et en bouillant elle mene du bruict comme si quelque vent luy passent à travers: comme en effect cette ebullition ne provient que de l'exhalation combustible, laquelle sortant continuellement de terre, passe à travers l'eau pour se guinder en haut. Et bien que le eau soit aussi bouillante à grosses ondes, si est se que par cette ebullition elle n'aquiert aucune chaleur, mais elle demeur tousjours en sa froideur naturelle par-ce-que l'exhalation qui la travers, et cause cette ebullition, n'a aucune chaleur actuelle, comme nous avons ja marque, Mais bien qu'elle n'acquier aucune chaleur, si est ce qu'en peu de temps elle prend une novelle coleur, odeur, et consistance car elle vient trouble, grosse, onctueuse; et acquiert une odeur semblabe à la odeur des branigns bitumineux et farfareux.


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Mais je treuve deux ou trois differens entre nostre fontaine, et le baigns. La premiere est que l'eau de nostre fontaine est trouble, et espaise, et celle des baigns est claire et transparent pour la plupart /2/ La second est que leau des baigns est actuellement [d] chaude, et cetty icy est actuellement froides. /3/ estais ce qui est grandiment considerable, cest que lexhalation fasurente, et bitumineuse, laquelle est messee parmy ces baigns, au sortir de leau ne peut aucunement recevoir la flame mais en nostre fontaine l'exhalation [d] laquelle luy passe a travers est aussi combustible, et disposee a receivor la flame au sortier de l'au, comme ne si elle ne fasoit que sortir de terre. Car la flame se ralume d'ellemesme aussi bien quand le lieu duquell sort l'exhalation est couvert d'eau comme lors quill n'y a point d'eau; et toutes quantes foys que vous presentez un flambeau allume sur cett eau, a mesme instant la flame se r'allume, tellement, qu'en mesme temps vous voyez l'eau toute boüillante a grosses ondes et couverte de flames. Et de la est venu que le vulgaire l'appelle la fontain qui brusle; car la voyant ainsi bouillante, et couverte de flames, on diroit que c'est l'eau laquelle brusle, ou pour le moins que la flame passe tout à travers l'eau mais ce n'est ny [d] l'un ny lautre comme nous deduirons plus amplement en son lieu.


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Cette flame posee sur l'eau a les mesmes vertus et proprietez, qu'elle avoit advant qu' [d] l'eau y fust soit en sa coleur soit en son action d'hauteur et duree. Aristotle en ses Histories merveilleuses raconte qu'en Perse y a certains feux sortans de terre, à l' [d] entour desquels le Roy, de cette country là avoit fait bastir des cuisines sans que le bois luy coustast beaucoup pour apprester les viandes. En ce lieu icy ell en se pour/BP 8, fol. 111v/roit servir de mesme mesnage, car le feu de nostre fontain est fort propre pour apprester les viandes fans leur donner aucun mauvais goust, comme experimentent ceux lesquels allant visiter cette curiosite naturelle font porter une poelle avec du beurre des oeufs du poison ou autre chose semplable, et les font cuire sur ce feu en mesme façon qu'on les puroit apprester sur nostre feu ordinaire des nos cuisines; bien est vray que ce feu icy est un peu plus lent a faire sa function que le nostre ordinaire tellement que si Aristote a mis a feu de Perse entre les merveills de nature celuy cy merite bien aussi d'y estre mis voire à meilleur tiltre, estant accompagny ne beaucoup plus de merveills que [d] celuy la. Car outre cette merveill que nous avons represente de voir un feu pose sur l'eau en voicy un autre laquelle est bien considerable; C'est que bien que ce feu brusle le bois verd cuise les oeufs, et les poisons, et autres viandes, neantmoins il n'eschaufe pas l'eau sur laquelle il est pose. car à mesme temps qu'il cuit de la viande vous pouvez tenir la main dedans leau tant qu'il vous plaira, sans que la chaleur vous offence aucunement, car le froid de l'eau vous fera plustost retirer la main que la chaleur du feu moyennant que vostre main ne sorte pas hors de l'eau.


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Or comme cette flame a dure quelque temps elle disparoir soudain sans qu'il apparoisse aucune cause qui la puisse estaindre, ny vent, ny [endre] semblabe: elle n' es estaint pas encore par son contraire, puis qu'elle demeur aussi paistiblement sur l'eau comme en nostre fouvre, elle nes estaint pas encore à faute de matiere, car el'exhalation combustible sort continuellement de terre et sans aucune interruption, et des- aussitost que la flame paroit estainte si vous presentez un flambeau allumè, tellement qu'[d] j estime que ce n'est pas une moindre merveile de ce qu'elle s'estaint d'elle mesme, ayant suffisamment de matiere, que de ce qu'elle s'allume d'elle mesme sans qu'il nous apparoise aucune cause qui le puisse allumier. Que si vous desirez estaindre cette flame il la faut battre a coup de baston, ou a coup de pierres que vous jetteres dedans [d] l'eau, car agitant et battant fort l'eau, et /BP 8, fol. 112/ la pesse meslant avec le feu a la fin il s'estaint, bien que ce soit avec une grande difficultè; et voila sommairement ce qui est fait de nostre histoirie.


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It is impossible that men should be able to live any long season under the water without takeing breath the continuall cold pierceing them and so they dye commonly parbreakeing of the blood at the mouth and of the bloody flux causd by the stomac. Their hairs which are by nature cole black alter and become afterwards a branded russet like to the Haires of the sea wolves. The salt peter breaketh out of their shoulders in such sort, that they seeme to be a kind of monsters in the shape of men or els some other kind of men.


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All along this coast & so up to Ozaca we found woman Divers, that liv'd with their household family [d] in boats upon the water, as in Holland they doe the like. These women would catch fish by diveing which by net and lines they missd and that in 8 fathom deepth, their eyes by continually diveing grow as red as blood whereby you may know a diveing woman from all other women.


/BP 8, fol. 112v/

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Del Ferro è cosi manifesta cosa, che un pezzod d'acciaio lungo un pied, gia alcuni anni sono nel Academia del Signior Abbat Sampieri sperimentai io esset cresciuto nel in fuocarlo un sessagesimo di sua lunghezza in circa, che poi freddandosi alla sua prima misura si restituitiva.


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L'illustrissima Academia del Cimento n'ha insegnate molte sperienze in vari metalli e nel vetro medesimo, mediante il calore del acqua tepida, e'l freddo de la neve et il dottissimo Signior Gio. Domenico Cassini m'aviso di Parigi il verno passato che gl'instrumenti Astronomici di Bronzo, ò de altri metalli facevano sensibile mutatione nel solo passaggio dalla trepideza d'una stanza, al freddo del l'aria aperta: e ne legni l'ho veduto io manifesto massimamente misurati per traverso alle vene (poiche secundo la lunghezza di quelle meno si alterano) et ultimamente un bastoncello di vetro sodo men lungo d'una spanna in focato mi riusci nel freddarsi siorsiarsi piu del la cinquatesima parte.


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In summum montis verticem cum pervenissem adeò subtilem et tranquillum aerem ibi offendi, ut ne pili quidem motum sentirem cum tamen in depressioribus mentibus ventum vehementem <expertus> sim, unde collegi summam cacumen illius montis Carpathici ad milliare Germanicum à radicibus suis imis ex urgere et ad Supremam usque aeris regionem ad quam venti non ascendunt pertingere. explosi in ea summitate sclepetum, quod non majorem sonitum primò pro se tulit, quam si sigillum vel bacillum fecissem post intervallum autem temporis, murmur prolixum invaluit inferioresque montis partes convalles et sylvas opplevit. Descendendo per nives annosas intra convalles, cum iterum sclopetum exonerarem /BP 8, fol. 113//BP 8, fol. 113v/ major et horribilior fragor, quam ex tormento capacissimo inde exoriebatur; hinc verebar ne totus mons concussus mecum corrueret: duravitque hic sonus per semiquadrantem horæ usque dum abstrusissimas cavernas penetrasset, ad quas aer undique multiplicatas resiliit. Et talia quidem objecta concava in summitate se se non illicò oferebant id circò fere in sensibiliter primum sonus repercutiebatur, donec descendendo an tris et convallibus vicinior factus ad eas fortius impegit.


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And on the other side there are in America Trees, whose shade is believed so wholesom, that it is conducive to men's Health to rest under it; as is particularly affirm'd of the Acajou a vast tree growing in some of the Caribe Islands. Which, if it be true may in likelyhood proceed from the wholesome effluvia wherewith so great a Tree may plentifully impregnate the neighbouring air. But this upon the By.


/BP 8, fol. 114/

/BP 8, fol. 114v/

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The houre of the Limited time aproaching, on a suddain the fatal ship burst with such a horrid crash, as if the very skies had rent asunder, Heaven & Earth had charged one another, & the whole Machine of the Earth it self had quaked. For the storm of stones, chains & bullets, being cast out with thunder & lightning, there followed such a slaughter, as no man but that actualy it happened could have imagined. The Castle on which the infernal ship fell, the pile work of the bridg next to Saint Maries Fort, that part of the naval bridg next the Castle souldiers, mariners, commanders a great number of Canons, armour & armes all these this furious whirlwind swept away together, tos'd in the Air, & dispersd as leaves of Trees. The Scheldt prodigiously gaping was first seen to discover its bottom, then swelling above the banks was even with the Rampires & overflowed Saint Maries Fort above a foot. The motion of the panting Earth extended its force & fear above nine miles. Ther were found stones and that very great ones, as gravestones & the like a mile off the River, struck into the ground in some places four palms. But no loss or destruction was more miserable then of men: some the Hellish violence of the fires, either forthwith consum'd, or furiously & miserably dashd them together or shot them as it were in <to> the Air among stones, & wood, who straitwayes were bruised faling on the Earth, or drownd if lighting in the river. /BP 8, fol. 115/ Others were stifled with the pertiferous vapours not wounded otherwise: Some the swelling river long tormented with hot scalding waters: many were slain in the shour of falling stones, & some the grave stones both kild & entombed; yet direfull infernal fury, omitted not to make some sport in this so lamentable a Tragedy. The Viscount of Bruxels was taken, & darted out of his own ship by this sudden Tempest, but fel overthwart another ship plac'd a good distance off. This devilish whirlwind caried Captain Tuccius heavy armd out of Saint Maries fort like light Chaf in the ayre, & cast him down in the midst of the river, out of which he being well skild in swiming, loosing his armour, & protected by the mother of God whose [d] ayde he implored with great confidence escap'd without any harm. But a yong man of Prince Alexanders life guard dispatchd a far greater journey; for snatchd from the bridg a distance from Flanders side, he was carried over a great part of the River into Brabant being but a little hurt in the shoulder which first [d] light to the ground; and said [d] he seemd like a bullet shot out of a peice of ordinance, he felt behind him such a violence forceing him forward. Indeed there were some of Opinion that survived the slaughter that what man so ever fabricated this exicrable Engine, composd that direfull plague not of natural stuff, but fetchd /BP 8, fol. 115v/ That terrible fire from the infernal furnaces of Hell, that without doubt he provoked that thunder & lightning by Art magick from the skies: attracted the pestiferous vapours from no other place they the black dungeon of Pluto: and derived the very waters burning beyond measure & custome from the Stygian Lake.


/BP 8, fol. 116/

/BP 8, fol. 116v/

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There is also much, & very good wheat, whereof they make very good Bread; which they learn'd of the Portugalls. Their use before were Cakes of the same wheat.


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About the false Opinions that Mines are not good.

See Agricola De Re Metal. Lib. 3°. pag. 154.


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Præstat Terrarum vires potius generi, quam loco, ascribere, et quamcunque ex sua Naturâ æstimare, terrarumque vires Experimentis probare.

Habetur enim Bolus Tockaviensis in Ungaria quem instar Butyri in ore dilabi, & omnes notas veri Boli Armeni habere, atque ad Catarrum valde profuisse, scribit Crato in Epistolis; & longe præfert Bolo Armeno hodierno, etiam illi, qui Imperatori ex Turcia allatus erat. Eundem plurimas in Peste Vienæ profuisse, se reipsa comperisse testatur.

Deinde ex Terra Sigillata Silesiaca Strigoniensis, quæ Terræ Lemniæ & Turciæ hodiernæ præfertur. Experimentis is enim multis jam probatum est eius insignes esse vires contra Pestem, Febres malignas, venenatoram Animalium morsus, Diarrhœam, Dysenteriam. Chymici Axungiam Solis nominant. Inventor eius Johannes Montanus Siles: qui Scriptum de Eâ edidit, conversum esse Aurum &c.