Robert Boyle (1627-91): Work-diary XIX ('Philosophicall Entrys & Memorialls of all sorts')

Content: Experimental accounts and observations from the c. 1662-5 (includes the first use of the word 'experiment' found in the work-diaries)

General Information


Work-diary entries

/BP 22, p. 1/

[Authorial heading]:
Philosophicall Entrys
&
Memorialls
(Of all sorts,)
Here confusedly throwne together; to be
Hence transferr'd to the Severall Trea-
tises whereto they belong. [blank space in MS, 6-8 lines]

Entry 1: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

The Velocity of an Iron Ball about 2 Inches Diameter being let fall, was found by an accurate Instrument to move 15 ½ foot in a 2d minute of time. ['And 38 foot' deleted]

This Experiment was made & repeated at
the Turret in Chelsy [blank space in MS, 3 lines]


Entry 2: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

We went to the Schooles <at Oxford> [in Boyle hand] & with an exact Instrument where single Vibrations were half seconds, we measur'd the encrease of [altered from '&'] velocity of a descending Ball of Iron fastend by a string to the Instrument, & for the most part our Observations agreed in this That in 4 single Vibrations & ['e' deleted] very little more, the Iron fell the height between the Battlements of the Schoole ['& the' deleted] & the Pavement amounting to ['35 feet, & letting fall the Iron' deleted] 56, then we shorten'd the String & made it sometimes 36, sometimes 35 feet, & leting fall the Iron we found as we expected, that it fell downe that length in 3 single Vibrations, & when the length was 36 the Pendulum seem'd to begin to be upon the returne. The same Ball let fall from the Tower [of] [supplied, tear at edge of page] the Schooles where it is 80 foot high appeard to fal [l] [supplied, tear at edge of page] somewhat less than 5 semiseconds <or perhaps in 4 ['half &' deleted] > & a half. And by [the] [supplied, tear at edge of page]/BP 22, p. 2/ Pendulum that vibrated half seconds, but is thought to have its string strechd too long, I at the bottome reckond 4 semivibrations before the Bullet was come as I could guesse, within some yards of me.


Entry 3: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A weather glasse with Aire at the bottome was, when the water stood at about 8 Inches, let downe 2 or 3 times, & drawne up again not to the top of the <tower> [ in Boyle hand, replacing 'water' deleted] but of the forementiond Battlements and at the <bottom> [in Boyle hand] it seemd each time to have its water depressd at least ⅜, if not ½ of an Inch in comparison to the hight at which the Liquor Stood while the Thermometer was upon the Battlements.


Entry 4: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A Brasse valve of about an Inch Diameter was with Cæment well fastend to the shorter Legge (which was but of very few Inches in length) of a long Glasse Cyphon left open at the end of the other Legge; this valve being let downe to the Bottome of a tall Glasse Body full of water, soe that 'twas (as near as we could measure) beneath the surface of the water when there was let in as much water into the Pipe as reachd in that as high as the surface of the externall water, then about {ounce} i weight in the opposite Scale of a Ballance to whose neighbouring Scale one end of String was tyd, whose other end was ['some' deleted] fasten'd to the said valve. But when the water was emptyd out of the Pipe, & the valve was let downe to the former depth, there was requisite about 8 ounces, that is 4 ounces more then formerly to disjoyne the part of the valve, & let the water get in between, & when the Syphon being freed from water, the valve was lifted higher and higher with the pipe, there needed lesse & lesse weight to make a disjunction, 2 ounces of additionall weight ([blank space in MS, 8-10 letters] requisite to counterpoise the valve it selfe) in water sufficeing to lift up the cover when the valve /BP 22, p. 3/ was held about half way betwixt its lowest [fall] [supplied, ink faded at edge of page] and the top of the water, an ounce sufficeing afterward and half an ounce of additionall weight prov'd enough to disjoyne the parts when the valve was held a little beneath the surface of the Liquor.


Entry 5: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Early in the morning there was weighd in a paire of new Gold Scales a Cutting of Mint, which had bin put into a Single viall two months before without root & leaves, and thô it had bin nourished only with fair water, yet it had now acquird both of them, & was growne by estimate 6 or 8 times its first length. The 11 of Aprill when it was put in it weighd 14 Gr. & now being taken out of the water & carefully wip'd with a Linen Cloth to make the root dry, it weighs 58 Gr. downe weight besides 2 or 3 withered leaves that are fallen off; soe that in about 2 months space it is become 4 times as heavy as when it was put in.


Entry 6: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A quarter of a common hundred weight of Tartar (amounting to 28 pound) being calcind at the Glasshouse to a pretty degree of Whitnesse yeelded 10 pound wanting three ounces of Calx.

Black flints (thô others of that colour had bin in vain indeavord to be ['wrought upon' deleted] calcind by other meanes) being plac'd in the gutter through which the flame passes in the Potters Furnace, were turn'd into good Strong Lime.


Entry 7: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Mr. Gr. assur'd me that at Warsworth [altered from 'Wasworth'] neer the Darbysheir Lead mines, he found 2 Springs within about 20 yards one of another, whereof the one was very <cold> [ replacing 'hot' deleted] & the other a <hot> [ replacing 'cold' deleted] Spring & being askd by me whether the ['ho' deleted] water of that hot Spring like that of the Bath or any other Thermæ would ['Sil' deleted] give Silver a yellow colour (which I have found most Sulphurious Solutions to doe) he answer'd me that he tryd, but could not at all gild the Silver Coines he put in it he told me of another hot Spring which he nam'd to me whose water (he found) would not colour Silver no more then this.


/BP 22, p. 4/

[Authorial heading]:
September the 11th

Entry 8: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

1 I found by Tryall that good spirit of salt being distilld from crude salt petre, was thereby soe alterd & invigorated. That it did, though not very readily, dissolve crude Gold, first foliated finely, & like aqua Regis præcipitate christals of sylver made with A. F. & dissolvd in faire water.


Entry 9: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

2 To examine whether the Liquor that I obtaind from sea salt dissolved in faire water by committing it to distillation with an æ weight of Oleum Sulphuris per Campanam in reference to the sea salt before dissolution, to examine I say whether this Liquor had some other of the Quality of common spirit of salt as well as the smell of it. I causd alitle of it to be mixd with spirit of nitre, & found that the mixture dissolvd leafe=Gold almost like Aqua Regis.


Entry 10: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

3 Crude nitre dissolvd in spirit of sea salt did tho not very readily dissolve Leafe Gold

Faire water having been powred on dantzick vitriol calcind by having been distilld for many days & nights together, two pound of the Calx haveing had faire water powred & sufferd to rest upon it, yeilded not in the first extraction 2 drachmes of salt, which also did not looke like vitrioll, nor give a staine of Copper to the Blade of a whetted Knife . The Caput Mortuum of this dulcifyd Colcathar after it had been strongly sublim'd, with an æquall weight of sal Armoniack appeard throughout all full of glistering particles almost like Letharge of Gold.


Entry 11: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Take a peice of Iron & haveing heated it well but not red hot immerse it in Tarr, or rubb it over therewith that the Tarr may smoake well but not take fire, & then lay it by for use.

Take a peece of Iron & heat it red hot & whilst it is soe, rub it over very well with Goat's horne that the unctuous & saline part thereof may be well imbib'd by the pores of the Metall, & sanguine it durably, this was found by a skilfull Artificer, who as he assurd me tryd them both to be a yet better way then the former.


/BP 22, p. 5/

Entry 12: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Take 2 parts of good Tarris Stone reduc'd to fine powder, & one part of good Quicklime, put to them as much water as will serve to encorporate them & make the mixture after it has bin long & very well beaten (which it out to be) of a consistence lightly ['ight' altered from 'ate'] cohærent, but <somewhat> moist & apt to be crumbl'd between ones fingers, then cover it over with a Cloth to keep it from the Aire & let it remaine soe for ['2' deleted] 3 or 4 days or longer, & haveing beaten it again, incorporate with it as much new, strong & very thick Ale wort as will serve when they are exquisitely mixt to bring the whole to such a Consistence as will make it fit to be driven with a Truell with which it is to be <evenly> spread upon what you line or cose to the thicknesse of betwen a quarter & half an Inch, weting it now & than with a Brush dipt in the wort to make it Spread the better, and if you please you may when tis almost dry, brush it over 2 or 3 times one after another with wort alone.


Entry 13: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A Solution of common Silver in Aq: Fortis put to about as much of the Solution of Gold, the Mixture <was> immediatly turn'd into an opacous præcipitate, of a dark durty colour, which by shakeing the Glasse that contain'd it, quickly grew to be almost blackish, but puting to it a pretty good quantity of Strong Spirit of Salt & shakeing them well together, the præcipitated Powder soon appeard of a white (thô not a fair white) colour, & soe continu'd as long as I left it in the Glasse, the Spirit of Salt Swiming on the top of the Powder without seeming to be alter'd in point of colour or much point of strength (upon the tongue).

At the same time the like Solution of Gold being mixt with a limpid solution of common Sublimate the mixture became only of a pale yellow but made /BP 22, p. 6/ no præcipitate nor lose its fluidnesse.


Entry 13a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Spirit of Sheep's Blood being satiated with Spirit of Salt, dropt into it till the mixture would hisse noe more, being very gently evaporated, afforded me not a <kind of> Sal Aroniack as Spirit of Urine would have done, but a salt that shot into graines of an almost Cubicall figure not unlike those of Sea Salt, which these graines resembled in another property that many of them coagulated upon the very surface of the Liquor & floated there for divers houres before their weight would sink them.


Entry 14: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

I took coin'd silver (English) dissolv'd it in Aq: Fortis till <in> the ['e' altered from 'eir'] cold there began to shoot graines of Salt at the bottome to secure me that the Menstruum had its full charge of the Metall, then I pour'd off a pretty quantity of it & dropt on it as much Oyle of Tartar per deliquium as serv'd to ['satiat' deleted] make it cease to yeeld any more froth upon the affusion (which must be warily done it being strange to see how great & viscous bubbles will be exci7ed) at the beginning of the Operation there seem'd to præcipitat a little whitish Powder, but afterwards the silver fell to the bottome in the forme of a yellowish powder almost (dry) of the colour of yellow Oker or Aurum fulminans, the supernatant Liquor was betwixt blue & green, which colour it seem'd to have from the Copper alloy of the silver, & from the Saline Liquors; ['the' deleted] with this Liquor decanted off, I prosecuted the maine part of my experiment, which was to see whether by this ['meanes' deleted] Operation I could not soe free the ['Salts' deleted] Nitrous particles of the Aq: Fortis from the Silver they had dissolv'd, <as to> [ replacing '&' deleted] make Saltpetre of them again /BP 22, p. 7/ and accordingly haveing evaporated the Liquor very warily in a Digestive Furnace till some Saline particles began to fasten themselves to the sides of the Glasse, I forthwith remov'd it into cool place where these quickly shot store of Isickles after the maner of Saltpetre, & poureing the remaining Liquor into a smaller Glasse & proceeding with it as I had done with the former, I had ['a' deleted] a pretty deal more of the same little Christalls, & haveing taken some of those I first obtain'd, I found that this recover'd Salt would flow in the flame of a Candle like Saltpetre, & flash away like it upon a quick coale, but by reason of some adhæreing particles of Copper I could not well judge of it by the tast.


Entry 15: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Spirit of fresh Urine drawne from Quicklime a pint from half a pound, came over again by destillation, in a moderate fire, soe far as to leave by guesse but a tenth part behind, the Receiver was taken off, when about half or a little more had bin drawne off, & the two Parcells seemd of almost æquall strength both of them being biteing enough upon the tongue, the (unrectify'd) Spirit turnd Syrup of Violets green, & Solution of Sublimate white, but did not hisse either with Strong Spirit of Salt nor Oyle of Vitrioll.


Entry 16: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Spiritus Veneris thô drawne from an Alcaly did notwithstanding the mortification come off soe strong that one part of it did almost presently make with Minium a very fine Saccarum /BP 22, p. 8/ Saturni, and another part of it being mixt with Spirit of Sal Armoniack, drawne from an Alkalizate Salt, did immediatly make a great ebullition with it.


Entry 17: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A præcipitat of Gold & Mercury presented me for a rarity by an eminent Chymist, being lookd upon with the best Microscope in a South window ['in' deleted] at which the Sun Shone <in> [in Boyle hand], show'd me here & there, as I expected, severall little parcells of <naked> Quicksilver, & looking attentively I could descry many more that were thinly powderd <or> as it were ['or' deleted] dusted over with very minute red particles.


/BP 22, p. 9/

Entry 18: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Two or three peeces of one of these Stoney Stiriæ being put into a Crucible & kept in a pretty Strong fire (in the melting Furnace) were in a short time turn'd white like Lime, & though being suffer'd to coole, one of them had <no> [ replacing 'a' deleted] biteing tast upon the tongue, yet a couple of them being put into cold water, did like good Lime keep their figure for a pretty while, & afterwards fall to powder & slake, & haveing sufferd it to stand all night in the Glasse ['till the' deleted] it had the next morning ['in the Glasse' deleted] a thin Icie flake on the top of it, & not only had a strong tast like calcind Coralls, but did readily turne Syrup of Violets green, & a Solution of Sublimate Orange tawny.

Another fragment of this calcin'd Stone was put into a small Glasse with a convenient quantity of moderate Spirit of Salt, in which it lay <quietly> a pretty while, but then suddenly Swell'd & broke to peeces with soe much violence that it made a good noise, & ['the great ebullition' deleted] a Strange expansion & ebullition of the Liquor, which thô by the manner of it seem'd plainly to be due rather to the slaking then to the meer corrosion of the Lime, yet by that little quantity which seem'd not to exceed a ['Hazell' deleted] Hasle nut, the glasse was made soe hot /BP 22, p. 10/ that I could not conveniently hold it in my hand, & after this was over, the <Liquor> [ replacing 'menstruum' deleted] began farther to work upon it & dissolve it slowly like a Menstruum.


Entry 19: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A litle oxe gall fetchd yesterday fresh from the Butchers being put into a cleane glasse a litle oyle of Vitrioll being Dropd into it immediately turnd it into a somewhat muddy yellowish substance. Another halfe spoonefull of gall being put into another glasse, some rectifyd spirit of fermented urine being dropd into it, seemd only to dilute both the colour & consistence of it. Some well ['rect' deleted] rectifyd spirit of wine being drop into another, ['ap' deleted] seemd to curdle [altered from 'curdled'] ['d' deleted] it a litle &, [' [barely] [unclear]' deleted] but a litle. & lastly some strong spirit of salt being put into a cleane glasse did at first wherever it diffused itselfe curdled the gall into a substance very like the yolk of an Egge broken into the white or faire water; but this colour continued not very long, For haveing sufferd the mixture to stand for about 2 howers & coming then to look upon it, I found it, (what for so ought I knew it was sooner during my absence), ['turn' deleted] turnd to a considerably deep greene.


Entry 20: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Wee tooke of sublimate & Copper ana {ounce} viii & ['haveing' deleted] distilld them out of a Retort placd in sand, but by the mistake of the Laborant the fire being made soe great that the operation proceeded not soe well as usually, there remaind about {ounce} iiii which was halfe of the Copper Plates ['unwrought' deleted] undissolvd. Of the Resin or Gumlike substance made by the union of the saline particles with the metall [altered from 'metall'] we had about {ounce} v & a halfe & of reviv'd running mercury about {ounce} v.


/BP 22, p. 11/

Entry 20a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

I causd a weake Loadstone to be heated red hot to make the more easy to be powderd, & haveing causd it to be beaten very fine I digested good spirit of salt upon it (I afterwards found that ordinary spirit would serve the turne. This in a few howers acquird a Tincture not greenish [second 'e' altered from 'n'] , but almost like that of a troubled solution of Gold. It strongly relishd of Iron & a litle of it being dropd into infusion of galls it turnd it immediaty into an Incky Liquor, part of this solution being gently evaporated; grew thick like an extract, but did not seeme disposed to shut into Christall; yet another part of it did præcipitate with ['a' deleted] salt of Tartar, much like a solution of vitrioll; & <ano> other with spirit of fermentd <urine> gave a plentifull ['but' deleted] but yellowish red præcipitate.


Entry 21: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A peice of rock Christall weighd in the aire 257 gr: 15/16
In raine water once distilld 159 gr 11/16
The Proportion of rock Christall to raine water distilld is as 2 625/1000, to 1.


Entry 22: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The quantity of Rock that <Sir> [ in Boyle hand, in red, in Boyle hand, in red, replacing 'serve' deleted] H. C. blew up at Tangier, was by his æstimate as himself told me when I enquird it of him, about ten thousand Tun; the masse of Rock above the Powder he guessd to be in perpendicular height about 15 or 16 <yards> [ replacing 'feet,' deleted], the bredth of the rock heav'd up was 30, the ['Perforation' deleted] winding passage he dugge into it to place the powder was about 17 foot directd and the quantity of powder he usd was 7 Barrells of a hundred pound a peece.


/BP 22, p. 12/

Entry 23: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} v ; of sacc: Saturni being distilld by degrees of fire out of a Retort placd in sand afforded a Liquor, wherein appeard noe Oyle upon which <the> Receiver that had been taken off was the next morning luted on againe & a strong fire was continued for divers hours but nothing more was perceivd to come over, wherefore the Caput Mortuum was taken out & weighd amounting to [blank space in MS, 7-9 letters] the colour was somewhat blackish, the smell was not imperceptible, but neither fragrant nor unpleasant the matter though it seemd cohærent to the Eye would upon the least touch crumble into fine powder, in which as I expected soe I found a multitude of very minute beads <or> [ in Boyle hand, replacing 'of' deleted] globules ['of Lead' deleted] , which the violence of the heat had e'vn in glasse without the assistance of any fluxing additament reducd into true Lead. For such I found these Globules to be <as well as to appear> , having easily flatted severall of the biggest of them, with the <blade of> a knife like ordinary Lead.


Entry 24: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

There was taken ½ <a pound> of good verdigreese & as much common Sulphur, which being driven through a Retort in sand afforded {ounce} iiii and above {drachm} v of a Liquor that seemd not to have any oyle on it, but was soe extreemely strong sented that <it> [in Boyle hand] almost struck downe the Laborant. that tooke off the Receiver. Some of <the> sulphur sublimd into the neck of the Retort (& a litle passd [over] [unclear] into the Recipient.)


Entry 25: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Plant that an Ingenius Freind of mine made many observations off, & which smells exceeding fragrant in the night putting out flowers one after another for a month together is called Hyacinthus Bulbosa. Another virtuoso that was present agreeing with him about the fragrancy told me that having sowd some seed of the ['flow' deleted] flowers, which flowers were blew, those seeds produc'd him flowers that were white.


/BP 22, p. 13/

Entry 26: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The same virtuoso told me that he had a sort of peas sent him out of Italy Grey of colour like our ordinary pease, which not only producd greater store of Cods above ground then ours, but produc'd also many large Cod, about the Roots underground the Pease of those Cods being but few in Number about 5 in each, but, being larger then those that grew above ground.


Entry 26a: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Three or four days agoe a peice of fine Spunge being taken out of a Cabinet & clipd till it came to weigh just halfe a Drachme, in a nice paire of scales & a warme roome was afterwards removd into a neighbouring roome distitute of a Chimny (& yet within 3 or 4 yards of a Chimny seldome without fire) this Staticall Hygroscope consisting of the scales & the frame they hung on, was yesterday night removd into the former Roome, & <the spunge> was found to have gaind 3 graines & ½ or better [altered from 'betters'] & consequently more then a tenth part in reference to it first weight, ['but' deleted] being sufferd to stand in this warme Roome in lesse then 12 howers it loste a graine & above ⅛ of it former weight, thô ['it gre' deleted] the time it stood in this Roome were for the most part night & that ['of' deleted] rainy weather.


Entry 27: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A fine clear peice of Isicle of Petrifyd water
weighd in the aire {drachm} iiii gr. vii
In the water {drachm} ii ; gr iii (+ ⅙)
{drachm} i + gr. 34
<calcin'd white it weigh'd but {drachm} ii; + 2 gr.> [insertion in margin]
[Non-literal figure: Mathematical calculations involving long division]


Entry 28: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A peice of red Transparent flaky Minerall that looked almost like fine sanguis Draconis
weighd in the aire {drachm} i, gr. 26. ¾
In the water {drachm} i, gr. v. -


Entry 29: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A transparent but somewhat whitish fluor found among stones, & examind by the same scales & at the
same time
weighd in the aire {drachm} iiii ; + gr. iii ½ +
In the water {drachm} ii + 50 gr. + 11/16


/BP 22, p. 14/

Entry 30: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Apples being well beaten & put in a Barrell they almost filld & sufferd to lye there somewhat above 24 howers, (now & then ['&' deleted] 2 nights & <a> day) the two Spickets were placd the one about a foot beneath the upper part of the mixture & the other about a quarter of a yard or somewhat more above the bottom of the vessell, the Experiment was tryd, betweene thursday night or fryday morning & the following Munday at noone.


Entry 31: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A vessell being orderd as before the matter that was extorted the common way in the common presse being put to ferment did it soe much more violently then ordinary Liquor of the same kind, that when after a few days the owner came to open the Spicket at the Top, as observing by some signs the fermentation to goe too high, the Liquor ['fly' deleted] flew out after it as high as the ceiling, whereupon he pulling out another spicket placd Lower then the former, it burst out with great violence at the vent also.


Entry 32: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Sept. the 21 {ounce} iiii of oyle of vitriol & as much Alchool vini < ['&' deleted] > were put to digest, & were committed to distillation the 17 of october following.


/BP 22, p. 15/

Entry 33: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Two pound of good Hony being made thinne by heat was incorporated with 3 pound of white sand in a large tall Retort, & being distilld by degrees of fire they afforded a pound & {ounce} ii of Liquor, part of which came over in white fumes, & a <very> small proportion which was last forcd over seemd to be an oyle, the Cap. mortuum was somewhat Spongy of colour Coale=black, in many parts especially near the Top glistering vividly enough, but neither at the Top, nor in the middle where <the Lump being broken> we smelt to it whilst twas hot had it any sensible odour, & whereever we tasted it we found it insipid.


Entry 34: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Mr Hn. Haveing been severall times of late years at St. Wenefreds ['welle' deleted] well in Lanchishir & being by me demanded whether he had really found the water to be as is reported very cold in summer & warme in Winter he answerd me that haveing been to visit that well in december [altered from 'decmber'] & January, the water he drank seemd <to him> to be of the warmth <that> [ replacing 'like' deleted] new milk from the Cow [')' deleted] is at) <in> [ replacing 'no:' deleted] different times of the year, & haveing likewise gone to the same well about Bartholomewtide, or somewhat nearer the begining of 7ber he observed those that went to bath in it to complaine very much of the coldnesse of the water, & when he Drunk of it found it as Cold as he could wish, or could easily have endured without offence. The Reason of this I elswhere offer at.


Entry 35: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

(Remember Capt. Ball in Flintshire & Colney within three or foure mile of Pendle Hill in Lancashire [second 'a' altered from 'hi'] & That the odd ditch is within about a mile & a halfe of Wiggon in the same County.)


/BP 22, p. 16/

Entry 36: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The vegetable flux powder not only melted Sylver but seem'd to have a somewhat more powerfull operation on it, & by the deepe blew colour of the Cinders of the powder, seem'd to have ['a' deleted] made a seperation of parts, if not much of the Copper that alloyd it. The same powder melted not foliated but Laminated Copper of a pretty thicknesse & being <stratifyd> [ replacing 'mixd' deleted] with a 12th part of Lead oar, not only melted it, but turnd part of it into a fine Litharge, & part of it into a metalline Body.


Entry 37: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The first considerable frosty day, the seald weather glasse was at 4 Inches & ¾ at 7 in the morning, & the Quicksylver at 29 ½ +. The same day at noone the Quicksylver being 29 ⅜ +, the glasse Bubble was exactly countepoizd in good paire of Gold scales.


Entry 38: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

We tooke {ounce} i of {mercury} & {ounce} iiii of oyle of vitriol <by> [ in Boyle hand, replacing '& the' deleted] degrees of fire distilld it out of a Retort placd in sand. The oyle of vitriol came over considerably strong, & left at the Bottom a litle above {ounce} ; of the mixture white as snow, consisting of small britle parts almost like the Sicles that compose snow. During the latter part of the Distillation these sublimd up into the neck & upper part of the Retort a great many small Bodys that lookd almost like halfe beads of Amber; & seem'd to be of very fine sulphur, but were afterward soe confounded with the other ascending Corpuscles, that whole made a somewhat copious sublimate which was almost snow white, & corrosive enough upon the Tongue, not apt to relent in the aire, easily fusible at the flame of a candle, & haveing here & there some part that burnd blewly, & were concluded by those that smelt them to have a strong sulphureous odour.


/BP 22, p. 17/

Entry 39: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The bubble of the staticall Baroscope which had for divers days together been bouyd up by the weight of the Atmosphære soe as to make the counter poise manifestly præponderate, (all which time also the {mercury}all Baroscope showd the aire to be heavyer) then when the Staticall one was first adjusted) did this day manifestly outweigh the Counter poise both in the ['water & in' deleted] morning & in the afternoone. The much raine that fell ysterday & today haveing made the Atmosphære lighter then when the scales were adjusted, as appeard by the subsidence of the {mercury} in the other Baroscope which observation shows that 'tis not <by> the thicknesse or moisture of the Aire, that the Bubble is supportd more then ordinary, but by the acquird Gravity of the Atmosphære. Since when the Aire was this day ['soe' deleted] very damp as was witnessd also by the Hygroscope the Bubble was not lighter but <heavier> [ replacing 'heavier' deleted] in reference to the metalline Counterpoise then ordinary.


Entry 39a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

I this day tooke some black Caput Mortuum of sacc. saturni: & having mixd it with a good propotion of my wooden flux; of which I layd a pretty quantity unmixt at the Bottom of the Crucibles, I did within a minute or lesse reduce the Caput mortuum, partly into a substance like Litharge of Gold, & partly into a ['g' deleted] considerable Quantity of good Lead, that was malleable, & would be easily cut with a Knife.


Entry 40: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The seald weather glasse often usd about such Experiments was put into water lately brought up from the pump, when the tincted spirit was at 7 Inches & ¼, & being left in the water to try whether that was colder then the air e of my Chamber /BP 22, p. 18/ The Liquor insteed of falling rise an eight wherefore we then put in a pound of sal Armoniack grossely beaten, & within three minutes & a halfe the red spirit fell to the marke at which mild frosty weather abroad, had at the beginning of the winter formerly reducd ['r' altered from 'd'] <it> [ replacing 'man' deleted] namely to five Inches & ½, & within 4 minutes, that is halfe a minute after it fell to 4 & about ¾ which is the marke at which hard frosts & that lasted a good while had made it stand, not long after it fell to 2 & ¾, & much lower I did not observe it to fall this time, within somewhat lesse then a quarter of an hower after the salt was put in, some water that had been purposely spilt on the Carpet, whereon the glasse Body stood, began to be turnd into Ice & made those 2 Bodys stick together.

After this some water being purposely put upon the sides of the vessell, wipd ['dry' deleted] with a handchercheife to free it from the former Ice & moisture, did freeze soe fast that we tryd more then once that in about halfe a minute if [altered from 'or'] not lesse three distinct parcells ['of' deleted] water were successively frozen into Icy filmes as appeard by their being scrapd off each time with a knife, the vapours of the Aire congeald on the outside discoverd noe sensible saltnes upon the tongue. Within about halfe an howre, the tincted spirit began to rise, soe as to reach to the 3 marke, though the Ice on the outside of the glasse, which reachd noe higher then the mixture continued a good while longer. All this was done in a warme Roome not <above (3 paces)> [ replacing 'far f' deleted] of a good fire. The weather not being frosty, it haveing raind this morning & <the> wind being now Southerly.


Entry 41: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A single Violl filld about halfe full with sheeps Blood & Hermetically seald was kept a month & three days in all, & about 3 weeks of that times stood in one of the coolest places of the digestive furnace, nor did I perceive any sensible /BP 22, p. 19/ alteration in it from time to time. But this afternoone upon a sudden noe Body touching it, (as is affirmd and likely,) it blew up & abroke <the neck of a> [ replacing 'a' deleted] receiver that stood near it short of makeing a strang stinck which obleigd us to burne some perfumes to keepe it from being too offensive.


Entry 42: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Two ounces of oyle of Vitriol (as I bought it, without subsequent rectification) was mingled with a like weight of distilld raine water, then we drew off as much of the mixture as would come over in the Digestive furnace, which seem'd to be a good deale lesse then the water that was added to the oyle yet I resolvd to try whether being reconjoynd a new heat as at first would be excited, & haveing put the Liquors cold together, there was presently produc'd a very considerable <heat> that was great & lasting enough for my purpose. which was to show that this kind of heat did not soe probably proceede from particles of fire remaining in the oyle of Vitrioll since t'was distilld with a violent heat, as from the change made in the Texture & motion of it by the addition of water; which perhaps fits it to be for a while vehemently agitated by some fine pervading matter;


Entry 43: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The anaticall mixture alone was {ounce} iiii, the whole solution {ounce} xii & {drachm} vii or {ounce} xiii, soe that the menstruum did somewhat more then twice excede the other Ingredients.


Entry 44: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

To [blank space in MS, 3 chars] of wheaten Bran was taken 12 Tankards of water amounting to [blank space in MS, 3 chars] pintes (which quantity appeard to be somewhat too much by the leakeing out of 2 or 3 pints at least of the Liquor The mixture was put in on [blank space in MS, 3 chars] day <at> night & did not appear to be very sensibly hot till this Tuesday morning.


Entry 45: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Experiment mentiond number (42) was againe repeated with the same oyle of vitrioll & water, & thô the latter of these Liquors did not seeme sufficiently /BP 22, p. 20/ to be drawne of, soe that we judgd the former to be very flegmatick, yet upon their reconjunction there ensued a more considerable and durable heat then I expectd.


Entry 46: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

To betweene 7 <or [altered from '&'] > [ replacing 'or' deleted] 8 pound of grossely beaten Juniper Berrys I causd to be put 6 quarts of well heated water, & above ½ a pinte of yest being added to them the whole mixture was well disturbd together in a small firkin (standing upright) which was not halfe filld by it & whose Top was well defended from the cold aire by divers doubles of a wollen cloth layd upon it, It seemes by the thicknesse of the mixture <that> [in Boyle hand] a somewhat greater proportion of water would have done better, but however the mixture being put in late at night the next morning it did manifestly worke, & soe has done in all for 3 whole days & nights, & now by laying ones Ears to the vessell uncoverd one may yet ['make a shi' deleted] easily enough hear the fermentation.


Entry 47: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

We tooke coynd Sylver, & haveing dissolvd it in common double Aq. fortis, we præcipitated it with a filtrated solution of sea salt, which struck downe ['all' deleted] the Sylver, but did as we expected leave a clear solution of Copper, which being gently evaporated shot into a good Vitriol somewhat differing in colour from any ordinary Copperas either of Mars or of Venus.

Some part of the formerly mentiond solution of Sylver being præcipitated with ['ferme' deleted] spirit of fermented urine, præcipitated a white ['cal' deleted] calx of the Sylver but as I forsaw the supernatant Liquor was of a deepe & very lovely blew: which being gently evaporated did not which well, but yet afforded a kind of blew vitrioll, whose particles where either soe small, or /BP 22, p. 21/ soe oddly connected that I could not well determine their figure


Entry 48: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} iiii of good oyle of vitriol, & as much Alchool of wine haveing been digested for a pretty number of weekes were put into a tall head & Body & with a very gentle heat a subtle & odoriferous spirit was abstracted, & some of the acid spirit also. ['Then the r' deleted] (but noe oyle came over [',' deleted] then. The rest being put into a Retort was for a while distilld in sand ['for' deleted] with a slow fire (But as I have often observd this mixture to be very apt to boyle over, soe now) the fire being a litle to much increasd in my absence, a good part of the remaining mixture ascended in the forme of a black Spine in the neck of the Retort; which being broken that & the formerly abstracted Liquor (, excepting the first oderiferous spirit) were more warily distilld over againe ad siccitatem, & afforded <a pretty> [ replacing 'a good' deleted] sharp Liquor. Whereupon I being desirous to find whether [altered from 'wther'] ['with degre' deleted] the oyle of vitriol by its bare conjunction with the spirit of wine would upon the Account of its change of Texture, & the seperation of a black substance from it, copious enough but insipid loose its corrosivenesse or in case it did not what degree of acidity would be retain'd by the Liquor made by abstraction as acid as I could: I caus'd the acid Liquor to be very gently abstracted & at length found that almost all of it (to lesse then a spoonefull came of, though not without a strong smell & an odd Tast; yet without any corrosivenes or almost sensible acidity. And the litle that remaind behind & would not ascend in that heat was far lesse corrosive then oyle of vitrioll. &

NB. This remaining substance would appear consistent & coagulated in the heat <of a warme part> of the digestive furnace, but being removd would quickly turne to a Liquor.


/BP 22, p. 22/

Entry 49: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

In the makeing of the Menstruum Triplex mentiond number 43(q) there came over of the substance by abstraction of the superfluous moisture reducd to a saline, or at least a consistent forme, about {ounce} iii;, & of very black Cap. mortuum there remaind {ounce} i, {drachm} v. which was three drachms lesse then was at first put in.


Entry 50: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

(The seald Weatherglasse being at five Inches & ⅜ the water weatherglase was closd up at the markd made by the diamond, the {mercury} being at 30 & a quarter almost.)


Entry 50a: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The distilld raine water formerly mentiond being the third time abstracted from the oyle of vitriol & reconjoynd when both were cold, did againe produce a heat though not soe great as before, because the water was not this time soe much abstracted (& was not at all soure.)


Entry 51: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Stalbridge Marchasite being put <whole> into a strong fire I [altered from 'that'] made in a furnace with a litle pipe belonging to it seemd to burne in good part away, in the forme of a <somewhat> Sulphureous & inflamable vapour. Some of the raw marchasite being powdered, & blowne upon a good while with a great bellows; seemd whilst red hot to be ['a' deleted] litle, melted, but indeed was not & being taken out afforded me a powder, that in many places lookd like Crocus martis, & in some others of a fine blewish purple, a cold ['lixivium thô ver' deleted] alcalizate Liquor thô very strong did not seeme to worke at all upon this Calx. But that of the intire burn't marchasite newly mentiond being infusd for a good while in warme water seemd to <imbue> [ replacing 'tinge' deleted] it a litle as well with the substance as with the smell of sulphur For I tryd that it would faintly gild a peice of Sylver being rubd, & a litle spirit of salt being put to it /BP 22, p. 23/ there a præcipitated a litle powder which seemd by the colour, & by being thus struck downe to be a kind of Sulphur. Upon the Calx made by the great Bellows, putting ['a litle' deleted] some Aqua fort or Aqua Regis (for the bottle was not writ on but smeld strongly of spirit of nitre) it emitted a very sulphureous stinck, & was partly dissolvd by the Liquor & gave it a Tincture; & this solution, tho the <never> [ replacing 'un' deleted] dissolvd powder did not at all, did immediately turne a great proportion of infusion of Galls into Ink.


Entry 52a: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

foure ounces of oyle of vitrioll & as much Alchool of wine afforded about 2 spoonefulls (for I cannot yet conveniently weigh it,) of clear & odoriferous oyle, heavyer then the acid Liquor that came over with it, as it appears by its subsidence therein, This oyle began not to ascend till the more light part of the mixture consisting of the spirit of Wine much alter'd, was almost all drawne over, & the oyle requird a considerable heat & ['a' deleted] about 2 or 3 days to distill it in a somewhat tall & very slender head & Body wherein we had put it. There remain'd after the administration of a strong heat in a lower glasse above a drachme & a halfe of Caput mortuum, which is <coale> black & in many places shining like pitch or Jet. 'tis very dry & brittle; inodorous & insipid & a peice of it being put upon a live coale wee could not perceive it to wast or stinck.


Entry 52b: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Gall of sheepe or oxe being warily distill'd after it had been boyld away in a pipkin to the consistence of a thinne syrup appeard to be very apt to boyle over into the Recever in exceeding large bubbles. One parcell /BP 22, p. 24/ of it yeilded store of oyle; the other <if> I mistake not very brittle, the spirit was clear enough but ['somew' deleted] tincted of a pale Amethist colour, & though seperated from the oyle extreemely fœtid, stinking not only more ranchly then other animall oyle, but differingly from them. It turn'd syrup of violets greene, being put upon a solution of sublimate it made a præcipitation but very turbid & stinking, & far differing from the fine white præcipitate usually producd by the mixture of dissolvd sublimate & volatile salts, being mixd with spirit of salt it made an ebullition tho not soe great as if it had been spirit urine; & the mixture was soe strangely fowle as well as stinking that I was faine to have it filterd, after which being evaporated to a due consistence & left to shoote it afforded me as I expected a salt figurd like Combs or Feathers as is usuall in Sal. Armoniack:


Entry 53: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Stalbridge marchasite being mixd with an æquall weight of Sal Armoniack & sublimd in the sand furnace part of the Sal Armoniack was ting'd with a yellowish blew, which not only seemd to the Eye to proceede from the mixture of some lighter parts of the Marchasite, but appeard furthar to doe soe, by my putting a graine or halfe <of a gr.> into ['infusion' deleted] a litle infusion of Galls. For immediately that part of the Liquor <to> which the sublimate reachd, became of Inky blacknesse.

At the same time some finely powderd marchasite, but without sal Armoniack /BP 22, p. 25/ was put to sublime in the same furnace in a hotter part then the Other, but nothing ascended to the upper part of the Urinall, save a litle white powder which fastend itselfe to the Top, & which had a manifest saline Tast, but would not turne the Infusion of Galls any whit black

The sponge formerly mentiond to weigh {drachm} ; being upon the change of weather counterpoisd 3 or 4 nights agoe did this night appear to have increasd a graine & a halfe in weight.


Entry 54: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A pound of Potashes as I bought them & as much Sal. Armoniack being finely powderd & mingled, & moistend with as much distilld raine water as would just serve to wet & thereby [altered from 'dis'] discolour the mixture, afforded by distillation a pound of Liquor & volatile salt wanting two drachmes which might perhaps have been made up if all the salt that stuck in the neck could have been got out. That the Liquor was ['all' deleted] very spirituous, appeard by as much salt as I guessd to amount to some ounces, which remaind undissolvd at the Bottom & would not have done soe, if the Liquor had had any flegme to take it.


Entry 55: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

<Two> [ replacing 'An' deleted] ounces of the fusible oar did in my Chimny without a furnace or store of Coals or more then one small paire of hand Bellows, or any additament melt within a quarter of an hower or ['lesse' deleted] lesse, though it let fall soe soone & with soe small a heat but a drachme & a halfe & some graines of malleable Lead.

The ['Cinders &' deleted] unmetalline part of another parcell of fusible oar melted with a stronger fire turnd quickly into a glasse exceeding fusible & brittle, but pretty to see to, being transparent, & of a colour betwixt a Jacinth & an Amethist, it will quickly melt in the flame of a small candle.


Entry 56: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

['Wee' deleted] wee <this day> tooke a Calculus cut out of a mans Bladder, which was about the bignesse of a hens Egg & much about [altered from 'abut'] that shape being in colour of a whitish grey. This being <transversly> cut thorough (with a strong knife and a hammer) appeard to consist of 2 stones of very differing colour & Texture, the Ambient stone was made up of divers coats imbraceing one another like the Rind of an Onion, & most of them (for they were not all of a colour) being of a light Grey inclining to whitenesse but the inclosd stone, (to call it soe for distinction sake) was of a darke colour like that of a peach=stone but more obscure, & was all [altered from 'almos'] about as rough as it if not much rougher, & soe distinct from the ambient stone that were able to scale this off as the ripe Husk of a Walnut may be parted from the shell without injuring it; This dark colourd stone which was about the bignes of a Nutmeg we also cleft ['of' deleted] in two, & found that though it seemd to consist of severall Coates; yet they were all of the <same darke> colour, till we came to the Kernell (if I may soe call it) of this nut. for that had a rinde or thin shell about of a whitesh grey; & was itselfe of that colour & of the bignesse of a small Cherry stone, & this being /BP 22, p. 27/ likewise clift, ['it' deleted] appeard to have in the midst of it a small stone, somewhat bigger then a large pins head but shapd like the other.

Two ounces wanting about {drachm} ii of finely powdered Calculus humanus being (after this survey) put into a Retort & distilld by degrees of fire in the sand furnace till at [altered from 'th'] length the Bottom of the Retort began to sinck afforded us about ['{drachm} iii four' deleted] foure drachmes of Caput mortuum in a fine powder light almost like flower but black as Charcoale, the Residue of the Body being all driven up ['in' deleted] a good part of it into the neck of a Receiver where it composd an odd substance blackish & brittle that seemd to consist of oyle & salt, & perhaps some earthy substance, in the Receiver which was remarkable there was noe Liquor when we tooke it off. For though during the distillation there seemd for a while to be a pretty proportion of Liquor at the Bottom; yet afterwards it totally coagulated into one cohærent Cake consisting of graines of Salt, which seemd most <of> them to have determinate figures & Curious enough, but were soe crowded together & confusedly mingled in the Body they made up probably by reason of some < particles of the impure oyle (blended with the saline ones) that this day being very darke & misty I could not well discerne what figures they were. The upper part of the Receiver did almost every where show graines of volatile salt, which we were faine to wash out with distilld raine water. The smell was <very> strong of urine & then ['en' altered from 'at'] salt being put to spirit of common salt did as other volatile salts immediately make a great hissing which confirmed <the> [ replacing 'w' deleted] Testimony given by the smell & Tast of its being an urinous salt. In the conflict much of the darke colourd & fœtid oyle was seperated.> [insertion in margin]


Entry 57: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A <Drachm> [ replacing 'hundred' deleted] fifty two graines of refind Gold as it was dissolvd in a Menstruum & reduc'd to drynes agen, being melted downe with Borax yeilded in one Lump 93 graines of metall, besides what might probably be lost in the operation. & yet of the newly mentiond powder immediately before its reduction would only with a lighted peice of paper on which t'was put be readily turnd into a greene flame


Entry 58: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Lapis Armenus being sublimd in a Urinall with æquall weight of Sal Armoniack afforded me a litle sublimate of a faint blew, (or at least it appeard faint by candle light, which was strangely soft like downe & seemd to me to have a metalline Tast, but there was 10 times more sublimate of a yellowish colour in some places inclining to red, which tasted like Ens Veneris, & which <because> I suspected ['ed' altered from 'ing'] < it> to containe some metalline substance I put a litle of it into an infusion of Galls that was presently turnd black thereby, which the blew substance <would> [ replacing 'did' deleted] not as farr as I could ghesse, doe. And for /BP 22, p. 28/ for further satisfaction having put some of it upon a peice of lighted paper it tingd the flame for the most part very blew, but here & there greene, & soe did but much more durably the Caput mortuum, which looked almost like a Crocus Veneris. ['Lapis Armenus.' deleted] The blew substance that sublimd to the upper part of the glasse, being sufferd to lye in it all night resolvd per deliquium into a Liquor, ['abou' deleted] transparent & very lovely almost like an Emerald, which had a metalline Tast, & being soackd up by Paper would upon the kindling of the Paper yeild an high colourd blew flame.


Entry 59: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

I observd in the Christalline fluor that I dissolvd in spirit of Vinegar, as also in that which I knockd off from the hilly stone that the solution was tincted almost like a pale German Amethist, which I observd not in Sparr or the Icy stone, or any other stone soluble in that Liquor.


Entry 60: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

I observd likewise that the <blew> sparr of Sylver oar, that was formerly presented me might by being kept some houres in a good fire be brought to be as white, as the spar of Lead oar, & broake in figurd Corpuscles just like <it> , & yet not only would not in the Cold (for I tryd /BP 22, p. 29/ it not in the heat, be dissolved by [altered from 'with'] spirit of vinegar like the Lead sparr, but did not seeme to be at all wrought upon by spirit of salt it selfe. <I observ'd ['I observd' deleted] allso that both the Lead=spar & the blew spar & the soluble fluor (freshly mentiond, had each of them some degree of Electricity. ['though' deleted] the last namd, having it somehwat more manifest then the 2 others, which attracted a haire very ['fin' deleted] faintly.> [insertion in line, Boyle hand][insertion in line][in Boyle hand]


/BP 22, p. 30/

/BP 22, p. 31/

[Authorial heading]:
A Continuation
of the Physiologicall Entrys
From January the XXVth.

Entry 61: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Having counterpoizd the Barometricall Bubble I imployd at Staunton, when the Mercuriall Barometer was beneath 29 <(inches)> . (and, if I misremember not, a pretty deale,) having this day contrepoisd it again when the Quicksilver was litle beneath 29 ½ there [altered from 'the' by inline insertion of 're'] was requisite to bring the Ballance again to an æquilibrium 5/32: <(viz. of a graine to be added to the Bubble to make it weigh in the (now) thicker Air, as much as it did before when the Atmosphere was lighter)> [insertion in line, Boyle hand][insertion in line][in Boyle hand]


/BP 22, p. 32/

/BP 22, p. 33/

Entry 62: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A piece of shining and Square Darbishire Lead-Ore. that weigh'd in the lump a litle more then{ounce} ;. being reduc'd unto good metall afforded a lump of 2 dra. 19 gr. and besides a litle which was cutt to try whether the lead was good which might amount to a gr. more so that, especially Considering that some ['hetero' deleted] earthy matter adher'd to the ore it contain'd at least 7 pts of 12 good metall.


Entry 63: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Some English Vitriolate Earth being, without any preparation or so much as being beaten, infus'd in fair water, and sufferd to stand in a window for some days (as I remember 6. or 7.) did manifestly acquire a vitriolate colour & tast, and with the infusion of galls presently made a very inky mixture, and <(besides)> [ replacing 'yielded' deleted] crusted over the upper side [altered from 'sides'] of the glass quite round with a vitriolate salt


Entry 64: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Antimony was put into the digestive furnace in 2 crucibles on fryday about Noon, and the one of them which stood hottest was taken out on Saturday night late, /BP 22, p. 34/ the other not till Monday about 10. Morn. The Experiment [altered from 'Experiments'] succeeded <well> enough in both especially in the former.


Entry 65: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

I try'd (for Mr. Hutchinson) 2 lead ores, wherof the one promis'd not much, but the other which consisted of broad and shining plates seemd to be rich in metall; I kept them in fusion with a double weight of additament for neer an hour and an half. The coarser oar yielded somewhat more then half its weight of metall; and the finer ore yielded within 2 gr. (which might probably stick to the crucible) ⅔ ['thirds' deleted] of its weight of good lead.


Entry 66: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

In the making of <a> Calx Auri wee employd but 3 parts of Mercury to one of gold and having put the precipitated metalls together with Aq. Reg. into the digestive furn, again and kept them in a pretty heat for 12 or 14 hours wee found the Menstruum very yellow again, which argued its having redissolved some of the precipitated gold; There appear'd also by the bubbles arising in great numbers from the metalls.


Entry 67: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} iiii. of Quicksilver with the due proportion of oil & Sea-salt did yield {ounce} iiii; of sublimate & very seldom yields above 5.


Entry 68: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Out of {ounce} ii of English Antim. Ore and {ounce} iiii of flux wee had about {drachm} iii; of good Reg. & probably might have had as much more if the crucible had not bin unluckily overturnd wherby a good part of the flowing mixture was spilt.


/BP 22, p. 35/

Entry 69: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{pound} ;. of pure Antim. & {pound} i. of Sublimate orderd after our way afforded {ounce} viii. or there abouts of Cinabar besides a C. M. that appeard to be crude Antimony finely figur'd & amounting to about [blank space in MS, 4-5 chars]


Entry 70: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A piece of Ice was Counterpoiz'd in a good pair of Scales about 11. at Night (the Counterpoise being partly of Sand, partly of Brass weights) the wind being very Cold at NE, and the next morning about 9. a clock, the Ice which was in one entire piece, ['and had very litle wetted the Bason of the Ballance' deleted] appeard to have lost of its weight 47. gr. and somewhat more, the whole piece weighing then but {drachm} vi. and gr. 8. the weather being so cold that at that time 2. great glasses of water that stood in a window neer the fire continued frozen when I was weighing the ice. So that the Decrement of weight notwithstanding the sharpness of the cold was above ['ve' altered from 'ut'] an 8th. part of the whole weight of the Ice, which hee that brought it into my Chamber (being purposely ask'd by me) affirmd not to have wetted the Scale wherein it lay, and consequently not to have thawd.


Entry 71: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The frost above mentioned continuing & encreasing some <pieces of> Ice were ['ere' altered from 'as'] expos'd from Thursday about 10. at night till Saturday between 9. and [altered from 'or'] 10. Morn. ['It' deleted] lost of its weight a drachm, ['the' deleted] the whole weight of the remaining Ice <being> [ replacing 'was but' deleted] {drachm} xi. gr. 26.


/BP 22, p. 36/

[Authorial heading]:
Aprill 25.

Entry 72: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

['The' deleted] Lapis <Armenus> [ replacing 'Orientalis' deleted] being dissolv'd in its appropriated Menstruum afforded a very Lovely Solution, which being rubd upon a well whetted knife did immediately colour it very vividly. This Stone at its first Solution let fall great store of a certain powder, some of which seemd purplish, but far the greatest part was of a pale Brick colour.


Entry 73: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

This above mentiond Solution being precipitated with Sp. of Sal Arm. was immediately chang'd into 2 blewy substances, the uppermost of the colour of a Turquois & opacous, the other Diaphanous and of a very lovely colour, almost like Ultramarine.


Entry 74: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Metall melted out of what seem'd a mere stone being beaten in a Mortar was in great part reducible to powder, but some part of it struck fire with the pestill, and one lump of it that I guessd to be malleable being sent to the smiths was quickly ['f' deleted] quickly reduc'd to a flatt plate of about the thickness of a shilling, which a small Loadstone readily took up. Whilst it was in flatting it grew exceeding hot, and being dissolv'd in the yellow Menstruum it took away the colour of the Liquor and was much longer in dissolving then I expected tho. the Liquor still wrought upon it. Having put the Solution (unfiltred) to evaporate away in the Sunne there coagulated at the upper part of it litle grains (as it were) of a greenish Vitrioll, but about the midle of the glass there was supported by the tenacious froth a pretty store of a gold colour substance.


Entry 75: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Liquor being put to an old Infusion of Galls did not suddenly alter it, but after they had stood together all night the upper part of the mixture appear'd somewhat Inky, the lower was rather yellowish or purplish


/BP 22, p. 37/

[Authorial heading]:
May the iii

Entry 76: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Benjamin being distilld with double its weight of Menstruum till the adventitious Liquor was <slowly> abstracted again, was afterwards pressd by stronger degrees of fire, and afforded us besides an acetous spirit great store of fine white flores that filld the neck of the Retort, and retaind their form there a great while, till the heat being encreasd they melted into the Receiver <where> [ replacing 'and' deleted] wee found pretty store of Oyl a litle Empyrematicall; and afterwards urging the C. M. with a yet stronger fire wee obtain'd (in another Receiver) a litle Oyl very high colour'd, which being diluted by Solution in a convenient Liquor (whose Diaphaneity it alter'd not) retain'd a strong but not unpleasant Smell.


Entry 77: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A Solution of Sylver refind but not exactly being præcipitated with the Urinous spirit of Sal Armoniack there swam ['upon' deleted' deleted] at the Top of a white powder (more copious then Glauber would have expected,) a blewish Liquor, whose smell seemd a litle vinous but not ['at al' deleted] either nitrous or Urinous.


Entry 78: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} xii. of Sal Armo. and as many of Salt of Potashes being powder'd & mingled together, and lightly moysten'd with common water (for there was not enought to wet them thoroughly) afforded by Distillation in a Retort about {ounce} x. of Sp. and Salt, whereof the greater part continu'd in the form of Salt after the Liquor was put to it; the remaining C. M. <was> without being stirr'd, press'd for some hours with a good fire in the same Retort, and furnace, but yielded litle or no addition of Spirit or ['r' altered from 'f'] Salt.


Entry 79: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

To make the silvering powder I took one part of fil'd silver-coyn, and as much as I ghess'd to be 5. or 6. parts of the (geometricall) mixture in quantity not in weight.


Entry 80: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

May XVIII

I took the Vinous & Vitriolate Sp. wherein some of its own oyle had by long standing been disolvd, and having put it/BP 22, p. 38/ upon filings of Mars tho. the Liquor dissolvd them readily enough yet I observd not that it stank & the filtrated Solution had a smell which tho. strong enough was yet rather pleasant then offensive; the tast at that first touch upon the tongue was actually and considerably sweet almost like Sugar tho. it afterward degenerated into a somewhat vitriolate tast.


Entry 81: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

After the Sal Armoniac had been drawn off from the Q. Lime via sicca till no more will come over with a moderate fire (tho. pretty well intended at last) some fair water being put to the C. M. in the same vessell where the operation had been performd, and the fire being continu'd there came over a good quantity almost as ['s' altered from 't'] much as at first of Sp. much more fiery then one would have expected.


Entry 82: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{sal ammoniac} & {water} being distilld together in a quantity of {oil} of {vitriol} of equall weight with the Salt, afforded a Sp. much like that of <common> {salt} handled the same way


Entry 83: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Sp. of {salt} being put upon the {mercury}all gumme & reduc'd by the Air to a Seagreen {powder} did readily enough in the Cold dissolve into a deep sad green Liquor.


/BP 22, p. 39/

Entry 84: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Sept. 20 1663. {pound} ii of White wine {tartar} and as much good {nitre} being kindled together & well stir'd in an Iron Mortar afforded us {pound} i & {ounce} xv. of white C. besides a litle parcell which had been taken out before the weighing which by estimation amounted to about {ounce} i. more.

Sept. 29. 63. {ounce} viii. of Oil of {vitriol} put upon {ounce} xii. of salt dissolvd in fair water & distilld from it left in the botom of {retort} {ounce} xiii. of dry & hard {salt}

Item gr. 1. of cochinele dissolvd in a pretty quantity of Spirit of {urine} & then dissolvd farther by degrees in fair water, imparted a discernible though but a very faint colour to about 6 glass fulls of water, each of them conteining about {ounce} XLiii.;, which amounts to 125280 times its own weight.


Entry 85: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

May 22. 64.

Five p. of the flux powder mark'd 832. mingled with 1. p. of beaten Sacch. {lead} & kindled together reduc'd it (at least in great part) into malleable Lead.


Entry 86: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

About 2 gr. or less of the fulminating powder markd 732 performd its part well, but went not off till it had boyld a litle


Entry 87: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Inside of an Elephants tooth wee measur'd with a packthread and found to be 8 foot wanting about ½ an Inch. The Compass of it about the Middle (not the Root) of the tooth was above 19 Inches.


Entry 88: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The Menstruum made with crude {mercury} Cr. was put to ⅛ of its weight of very finely powderd Ludus & presently began to worke a litle upon it in the Cold. Afterwards being kept for 12 or 14 hor. (in a blind head & body) in a pretty strong digesting heat the Solution was filter'd & being abstracted ad siccitatem left a saxo-saline substance behind it the Menstruum that came off being


Entry 89: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Eight pound wanting ¼ of Hartshorn being distilld in a sand furnace with a large {retort} & a very large Receiver the whole being put in at 2 severall Distillations each of which was so slow as to last 2 days, afforded {ounce} xxxviii. of volatile matter, whereof about 25 was Sp. & flegm mingled together 7 were volat. {salt} & the other 6. fœtid {oil}


/BP 22, p. 40/

Entry 89a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

/text in left column begins here/
Lead Oar Mindip in the Aire {drachm} ; + 1/32
In the water gr. 26 + ½

Lead Oar in the Aire Derbyshire gr 30 17/32
In water gr. 25 17/32

Mock Oar in Aire gr. 37 5/16
In water gr 30 26/32

Spar <of Lead oar> in the aire 20 gr. 1/16
In the water 13 gr. 5/32.

Bolo <nion> stone
in the Aire gr. 35 3/16
In the water gr. 27 4/16

English Loadstone in the Aire {ounce} ii - gr. 12.
In the water {ounce} i ; + gr. 48

Stalbridge marchasite in the aire {drachm} xii gr. 15
In the water {drachm} ix gr. 7 ¼

Stabridge Talke in the ['water' deleted] Aire {drachm} i gr. 28.
In the water gr 50

Staff. Clay (bakd)
In aire {drachm} iv gr 2 -
In water {drachm} ii gr 14-

Brick in Aire {drachm} iii gr 5
In water {drachm} i gr 46. ½
Diff. {drachm} i + 18 ½

Blew spar in Aire {drachm} v gr. 22
In water {drachm} iii gr. 39

Lapis Lazuli in
the Aire {drachm} iii ; + gr 10
In the water {drachm} ii + gr. 29 [originally '24']

Lapis Armenus in
the Aire {drachm} i + gr 24
In the water {drachm} i + gr 00

[Non-literal figure: Mathematical calculations involving long division and fractions]

White Earth in the Aire {ounce} ; + gr. 8
In ol. Terebinth [originally 'Terbinth'] {drachm} ii; + gr. 12

A piece of good opacous Bloadstone
weighd in the Air 238 gr. ¼
in common water 199 gr. ¾
the difference was equall to the weight of water 49 gr. 2/4
just as big as the Bloudstone, & dividing 238 ¼ by 48 2/4 the proportion of Bloudstone to water of equall bulk appears as 4 157/194 to One.

Rock chrystall weighd
in the Air 257 gr. 15/16
in rain water once distilld 159 gr. 11/16
The proportion of Rock chrystall to distilld rain water is as 2 625/1000 to 1.

Dr, Wallis Sept. 21. 64
Violl & {mercury} in rain water once destilld
{drachm} vi. gr. 17. 13/16
or gr. 377 13/16
Violl alone in water weighd
{drachm} ii gr. 15 7/16
or 135 gr. 7/16
{mercury} alone in the water {drachm} iiii. gr. 2 6/16
or 242 gr. 6/16

[Non-literal figure: Mathematical calculations involving long division and fractions]
Violl in the Air {drachm} iii. gr. 41 11/16
or 221 gr. 11/16
{mercury} & violl in the Air {ounce} i gr. 3 12/16
or gr. 483 12/16
{mercury} alone in the Air {drachm} iiii. gr. 22. 1/16
gr. 262. 1/16
The proportion between such water & white glass in weight is as 1. to 2 57/100.


/BP 22, p. 42/

Entry 90: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Jun. 8. 1664. There was for tryall sake taken 3 p. of Tyn & 1. of lead, which being melted together in a very gentle fire, that as litle as could be, might be lost the mixture was pour'd out, and in a very exact pair of Scales fitted for Hydrostaticall Experiments wee weighd out {ounce} ; of the mixture & the like weight of Block tyn, & of good Lead, then to try if by Calculation wee could find how much lead, & consequently how much tyn there was in the mixture, wee weighd the 3 bodys that were Equiponderant severally in the Water & noted the Diminution in weight of each particular Body (which diminution is the weight of just as much water as is equall in bulk to the said Body) and then by Algebra wee found the weight of the Lead in the mixture to be just (as indeed it was) gr. 60. that is ¼ of the whole mixture that wee had weighd in the water. The Computation was made as follows.

Lead in the Air {drachm} iiii.
In water {drachm} iii. gr. 36. so that it looses gr. 24
Tin in the air {drachm} iiii.
In water {drachm} iii. gr. 24 so that it looses gr. 36
The Mixture in the Air {drachm} iiii.
In water {drachm} iii. gr. 27. so that it looses gr. 33.


Entry 91: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

A Cube of Black Marble being every way 2 Inches & consequently containing 8 solid Inches was ty'd about with horse hair that was fastend by the Intervention of a litle Silk to the scale of a balance that would be cast either way with ¼ of a grain when it had {ounce} iiii. at each end.
In the Air it weighd {ounce} xi. gr. 54.
common undistilld water {ounce} vii. gr. 2.
& consequently the Diminution of the weight in water amounted to {ounce} iiii. gr. 52 that is 1972 gr. which is the weight of the water equall in bulk to the 8 Cubicall Inches of Marble. So that dividing this number by 8. the quotient which is 246 ½ is the weight in grains of a Cubicall Inche of water.

The same was repeted July 25. 64, with good scales & accurate ['wate' deleted] weights & found the same without any considerable variation, only the Thames water was found gr. 1 lighter then the pump water in a bulk of 8 cubicall Inches of water; and clear but very stinking rain-water in the same bulk one grain lighter then the Thames water.

A piece of Lead weighing in the air {ounce} ix + {drachm} vii + gr. + 21. (that is) 2860 gr. weighd in the water {ounce} v. {drachm} iii. & about gr. 8. that is about 252 gr. which amounts to a Cubick Inch of Water


Entry 92: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

{pound} ; of {antimony} and as much {aqua fortis} distilld off yielded the first time {scruple} i gr. 26. and the second time {scruple} i. gr. 36. of {sulphur}


Entry 93: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

(Upon the top of a Box was written this note with a black lead pen) A Dissolving powder {Rx} nitri {ounce} i Alum: Salis M. (q) if not a. r. {ana} {drachm} vi.


Entry 94: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

{ounce} viii. of good {nitre} being calcin'd with Coal afforded of blewish & well compacted fix'd nitre but {ounce} ii;. and {ounce} i. of that strong Alkali took up about {ounce} iii. of Sp. of {nitre} before it was so far satiated, as that the mixture would hiss no more; and in very few hours, tho. no water had been us'd to dissolve the Alkali, yet the fluid part of the mixture being decanted there shott at the bottom good store of Crystalline Salt


Entry 95: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Wee made a tryall to obtain a Butyrum {antimony} without sublimate with meere Sp. of {salt} distilld from crude {antimony} By this means wee easily brought into the Receiver pretty store of red Flores & a Saline Liquor easily made clear by Filtration. This Liquor being weakned by the Affusion of fair water did like common {oil} of {antimony} præcipitate a store of a white powder like Merc. Vitæ; And lastly wee tryd with this Liquor being sufferd to loose its superfluous moysture by Exhalation will not take up again all the white {powder} it had let fall. The Event was what wee lookd for; for the Menstruum dissolvd all excepting a few fæces; by which it seems hopefull that a purer Merc. Vitæ may by such Solutions & Sequestrations be obtaind.


/BP 22, p. 44/

Entry 96: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A Sprigg of Mint put into distilld Rain water & fed almost wholly with redistilld Rain weighd July 15. 1665. gr. 3. & was taken out Aug. 14. & being well dry'd with paper & a cloth weighd gr. 10. and about ¼ so that within less then a Moneth it grew to be above 3 times as heavy as when twas first put in.

Another put in & taken out at the same time with the former had attain'd within less then a month to neer 4 times its first weight, & had shott out a second sprigg much higher then the first, & store of roots, some of which were above as long again as the whole plant when it was first put in.


/BP 22, p. 45/

[Authorial heading]:
A
CONTINUATION
Of
Philosophicall Entry's &c.
From the XXVth of July

Entry 97: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Haveing prepard Laminated Lead the same way, that I make the Marchasite stannea et Argentea, which I have elswhere set downe, I obtaind a shining metall almost like the fine Lead Oar that has very large flakes, & as brittle as that of Tin-glasse.


Entry 97a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Haveing indeavord to make a Tincture of Antimoniall glasse with spirit of vinegar. & it not succeeding to my mind a pretty while (probably because the menstruum was not strong enough) I set the glasse egg wherein it was for 7 or 8 months in a Roome where there was noe fire kept for a great while; & yet at the end of that time my Tincture was become very high.


Entry 98: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Of {ounce} ix of nitre & as much of oyle of vitrioll the C. M. weighd {ounce} ix & {drachm} iii.


Entry 98a: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A glasse Bubble of about the bignes of a pullets Egg was purposely ['blow' deleted] blowne at the flame of a Lamp with a somewhat long stemme turnd up at the End, that it might the more conveniently be broken off. ['By the help of this' deleted] This Bubble being well heated to rarifie the aire & thereby drive out a good part of it, was nimbly seald at the end, & by the help of the figure of the stemme was by a convenient weight of Lead depressd under water water , the Lead & glasse being tyd by a string to one scale of a good Ballance in whose other there was put soe much weight as sufficd to couterpoise the Bubble as it hung freely in the midst of the water. Then with a <long> [ replacing 'v' deleted] Iron forceps I carefully broke off the seald end of the bubble under water soe as noe bubble of aire appear'd to emerge or escape through the water, but the Liquor impelld by the weight of the Atmosphære sprung into the <unreplenishd> [ replacing 'unfilld' deleted] part of the Bubble, & filld /BP 22, p. 46/ the wholl Cavity about halfee full, & presently, as I foretold, the Bubble subsided & made the scale t'was fastend to preponderate soe much that there need 4 drachm & 38 graines, to reduce the Ballance to an æquilibrium, then takeing out the Bubble with the water in it, wee did by the help of the flame of a Candle warily applyd, drive out the water which otherwise is not easily excluded at <a very> [ replacing 'soe' deleted] narrow a stemme into a glasse counterpoisd before, & we found it as we expected to weigh about 4 drachmes & thirty graines besides some litle that remaind in the Egg & some small matter, that may have been rarifyd into vapors, which added to the peice of glasse that was broken off under water & ['lost' deleted] there might very well amount to 7 graines by which it appears ['g' deleted] not only that water has some weight in water, but that it weight either very near of atogether as much in water as the selfe same portion of Liquor would weigh in the aire. The same day we repeated the Experiment with another seald bubble larger then former, being as big as a great hen Egg & haveing broken this under water, it grew heavier by 7 drachmes & 34 graines, & haveing taken out the Bubble & driven out the water into a counterpoisd Glasse, we found the transvasated Liquor to amount to the same weight, bateing 6 or 7. gr. which it might well have lost upon such accounts as have been newly mentiond.


/BP 22, p. 47/

Entry 99: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

I tryd a good Lump of vitrum saturni made with sand that was clear & of an Amythist colour & found that though ['the' deleted] it would very seldom, yet sometimes it would strike fire with a steele, but I could not perceive it to smell as flints & most other [altered from '&'] Bodys that strike fire with a steel <are> wont to doe on such an occasion.


Entry 100: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

I tooke {ounce} ii of spirit of nitre & as much alchool of wine & haveing digested them about 5 weekes ['where' deleted] of which time 2 thirds was only in the Cold they were by three successive distillations <with a pretty good fire> united together together & the mixture thereby acquird a pleasing smell almost like that, but far weaker then that, of spirit of wine digested with oyle of Vitriol.


Entry 101: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Some of this <Mixture> [ in Boyle hand, replacing 'winy & nitrous spirit' deleted] I put into a new glasse jarr & without warming the vessell or the Liquor hold the flame of a small Candle to it as near as I could, but it would not kindle, till I put some fresh Alchool of wine upon it, by which means it tooke fire & burnd a good while within the great perforated Bell ['till' deleted] with a blew flame like that of spirit of Wine, afterwards it began to have many litle Sparkelings as it were with a very crackling noise as <is usuall> in the decrepitating of Salt, (but not soe loud) & afterwards ever and anone there appeard flashes if I may soe call them, which their Luminousnes & their yellow Color made to be very manifestly distinguishable from the blew flame of the {spirit of wine}, Toward the end of the Experiment these Flashes which had occasiond Cracks at whart the Glasse were accompanyd with an odd kind of noise almost like that <which> [ replacing 'of' deleted] the bridge of a violl that is loose makes with the Belly of it. But as I was apt before to suspect that this noise might proceede not from the Explosions of the nitrous Corpuscles, but some motion in the part of the Crackd & heated glasse, soe I was confirmd in the Conjecture by observing that after the flame was gone out, that tremulous noise continued a pretty while, the remaining Liquor was very flegmatick haveing scarce /BP 22, p. 48/ any Tast ['of' deleted] either of spirit niter or that of wine, nor would it at all his with an Alcaly, whence I concluded that the nitrous spirit was gone away in the flame with the Burning spirit of wine. & yet noe red fumes like those of spirit of nitre, nor any other darkning ones appeard in the great glasse which only seemed to be more heated by this flame then it would have been if the burnd Liquor had been only spirit of wine.


Entry 102: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

We put a Bushell of wheat Bran by degrees into a halfe Tub, <&> sprinkled ['k' altered from 'g'] it from time to time with soe much water as in all amounted to about 6. quarts <(> [insertion in line, in pencil][insertion in line][in pencil]whereof near one Quart was powerd downe upon the Top, <)> [insertion in line, in pencil][insertion in line][in pencil] when we had first well pressd downe the Bran, This was done on the Saturday night on the Sunday in the afternoone I perceivd noe sensible heat in the mixture but on the Munday morning it was manifestly hot, & the next day grew considerably soe, & made some bodys that were plac'd in it very sensibly warm [altered from 'of warmth']


Entry 103: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

we tooke {ounce} ii of strong spirit of salt, & as much oyle of Turpentine rectifyd (to subtiliate it) from sea salt, These we distilld together ex Arenâ & there came over two distinct Liquors, whereof the lowermost was colourlesse as formerly but the uppermost (.viz. the spirit of Turpentine) which before was clear, had now acquird a deepe brownish yellow & a smell almost like that of oyle of vitrioll & oyle of Turpentine. There remaind a blackish Caput Mortuum, which for the most part was in a subtle powder, which powder weighd about [blank space in MS, indeterminate]


/BP 22, p. 49/

Entry 104: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

The menstruum made with spirit of nitre (not very strong <yet soe strong that in the cold it briskly enough corroded a peice of an unlaminated [altered from 'ulaminated'] sixpence put into it.> [insertion in margin]) anatically mixd & united by three cohobations as it had lost its acid Tast (,thô it had a very penetrant one of another kind) ['soe it' deleted] soe it would not in the cold dissolve sylver Cake præcipitated with Copper. And [altered from '&] when for a further Tryall of the change made in it, I mixt but æquall parts of it with oyle of Tartar per deliquium, it retaind a distinct surface from that of the oyle, as spirit of wine would have done ['ne' altered from 'e'] , & if the two Liquors were by shakeing confounded they would soone returne to be distinct, whilst the nitrous menstruum was fresh, For after a very few howrs standing the <subtler part of the> vinous exhaling, the remaining Liquor would after shakeing continue mingling with oyle of Tartar


Entry 105: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

About æquall parts of this vinous spirit & spirit of fermented urine being mingled together made not any hissing or Bubbles nor was the spirit of urine deprivd of its nature for I found that the mixture would as the spirit of urine would have done alone immediately turne syr. of violets greene, & a solution of sublimate in water into a seeming milk


Entry 106: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

wee tooke Spirit of Nitre soe strong that the fumes made the upper part of the glasse t'was kept in always reddish, & haveing put but {ounce} i; of it into a Bolt=head with a long neck capable to containe as we ghess'd 12 or 16 times as much, we causd an æquall weight of Alchool of wine to be taken & a litle of it being put to the spirit of Nitre, It presently made soe strang & Quick an Expansion <or Explosion> [in Boyle hand] that some of it flew out of the glasse & hit against the cieling ['ie' altered from 'ea'] of the Roome (where I saw the marke of it) & falling upon his face that held the glasse made him (think as he told me) that fire had fallen upon it /BP 22, p. 50/ & made him run downe the stairs like a mad man to quench that heat at the Pump. wherefore <bidding> [ replacing 'makeing' deleted] the Laborant proceede more warily, I orderd him to put into <the Bolt-head> but part of a spoonefull ['s' altered from 'a] of spirit of wine at a time, & yet at each Affusion ['A' altered from 'E] of a pretty many that I stayd to see the Effect of, there would be a great noise of Ebullition thô noe store of froth produc'd, & accompanyd with soe great a heat that I could not hold the glasse in mine hand & immediately there would Issue out a Copious red smoake to which when I causd a litle Candle to be held thô at near halfe a foot distance from the Top of the Bolt head it would presently take fire, which I could not make the red fume of Spirit nitre alone to doe, & burne at the Top of the Bolthead like the flame at the upper end of a Candle, till I causd it to be blowne out that fresh spirit of wine might be put in; which when it was all mingled with other Liquor the conflict & heat ceas'd & haveing digested the mixture slightly stopd for fear of mischances for a day or two I distilld it with a moderate fire, & a small Head & Body, & much the greater part of it came over in spirit well scented & not at all acid, like that above discribd save that it seemd more strong & peirceing. The remaining spirit (that seemd to be but a 4th part or lesse of the mixture) was not considerably acid, (at least not more then spirit of vinegar) & the ['head' deleted] glasse being taken off & set in the window there appeard to grow up along the sides severall saline plant, two of which lookd like firr or pine-tree, & one like a very tall French ['F' altered from 'f'] furse, & another like a very spreading bush There were also 2 or 3 [altered from '5'] saline Concretions in the Alembick that lookd like stars or < [navells] [unclear]> Spurrs, & at the Bottom of the Body there remaind about the bignes of a hazle nut of a coagulated substance.


/BP 22, p. 51/

Entry 107: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

An ounce (Troy-weight) of {spirit of wine} servd me to distill with in the Lamp furnce sometimes 3 howers & sometimes longer, & two ounces of it serv'd [altered from 'serve] to bring over about {ounce} i; of weake & flegmatick spirit which seemd to ascend manifestly slower then some subtler spirit that had preceded it.


Entry 108: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

The above mentiond mixture kept warme from Munday morning at latest till Saturday night at least & being taken out & turn'd, with the Addition of about a third part of as much water as had been put to at first, in. 16. or 18 howrs it atteind a ['co' deleted] very considerable heat. This Operation was begun a day or a day & a halfe after the heat seemd to be ['abo' deleted] quite extinct. It continued about 2 days at its heighth, & then the heat decreasd continually for 3 or 4 days after.


[Authorial heading]:
Sept 9th

Entry 109: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

The mixture <mentiond in the last Page> of very strong spirit of nitre & its weight of spirit of wine being distilld, <oute in the Digestive furnace> till there seemd not to be much above a 14th part left behind; that which came over was well scented & had a very peircing Tast but ['was' deleted] not at all acid insomuch that it would not give any purplish or redish colour to syrup of violets, but left it its native blew. A parcell of the like distilld Liquor (formerly mentiond to have been made with weaker ['a' altered from 'e'] spirit of <{nitre}> [ insertion in line, Boyle hand, insertion in line, in Boyle hand, replacing 'Nitre' deleted] being put upon dry salt of Tartar, seemed rather moderately to dissolve it then to make any conflict with it; & being put upon dry salt of Potashes, it appeard not to make any Ebullition but being digested a while the Alchaly made a separation of the flegmatick part of spirit of {nitre} by which meanes 2 distinct Liquors that would not permanently mix by shakeing were produc'd, yet, dulcifyd spirit of nitre being disgested <in> [in Boyle hand] a a pretty good heat /BP 22, p. 52/ with filings of Copper did thô very slowly acquire a good blew Tincture upon the [blank space in MS, indeterminate]


Entry 110: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

I remember that haveing dryd some {gold} fulminans as carefully as I thought fit to ['ventu' deleted] venture the doeing it, & as sufficd to make it fulminate well, I found that of 25 gr: of {gold} , I had 58 ['5' altered from '2'] good weight) of the fulminating powder, besides a pretty deale that stuck to the paper t'was dryd in.


Entry 111: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

I remember also that haveing taken some vitrum saturni made with calcind Lead & sand I tryd with Aq. Fortis or spirit of nitre to make a separation of some of the minium in the forme of Saccharum Saturni, which thô I found it somewhat difficult to doe; yet imploying a pretty brisk heat, I did after a while obtaine divers litle Christalls some like those that compose a flake of Snow, & some few otherwise shapd whereof some had manifestly a saccharine Tast. The undissolvd Powder remaind very white.


Entry 112: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

I causd in the night a <thin> plate of Glasse to be heated upon quick Coals till t'was red-hot, & then takeing it nimbly out with a paire plyers being held betweene me & a candle of a somewhat large seize, I could clearly see the flame of the candle thorough it, scarce perceiveng that any part of the glasse was ['red hot' deleted] ignited, tho removeing it to a darke place I saw it was. This Experiment for the maine was repeated once or twice more, & the glasse held against a small /BP 22, p. 53/ wax candle (such as is wont to be made up in roles the flame appeard thrô the glasse. I causd likewise a Redhot plate of glasse (that <as I remember> began a litle to, melt,) to to be held betweene a sheet of white paper ['e' deleted] & a convex [altered from 'convexd'] Burning glasse; by which I endeavord to unite the Beemes of the Candle upon the Paper, & I perceivd not any great difference betweene the transmission of them through the glasse in this state of it, ['th' deleted] & that which I had observd in the same glasse before.


Entry 113: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

I remember that once I had a mind to try whether the coldnes producd upon the solution of <beaten> Sal {sal ammoniac} in water might not be more probably referrd to some change of Texture, or motion resulting from the Action of the Liquor upon the salt then to any infrigidation of the water made by the suddaine dispersion of soe ['s' altered from 'n'] many saline grains of powder which by reason of their solidity may be actually more Cold then the water they are put into I <therefore> [in Boyle hand] provided a glase full of that Liquor, & haveing brought it to such a temper ['that it was' deleted] that its warmth made the {spirit of wine} in the seald weatherglasse manifestly thô not nimbly ascend I tooke out the Thermoscope & layd it in powderd Sal Arm. warme before hand. soe that the tincted Liquor <was made to> ascend [altered from 'ascended'] much nimblier [altered from 'numbler'] by the salt then just before by the water, & haveing presently removd the Instrument into that Liquor againe, & powerd the somewhat warme sal {sal ammoniac} into the same, I found as I ['con' deleted] Imagind that within a space of time which I ghessd to be about halfe a minute or /BP 22, p. 54/ lesse, the {spirit of wine} began ['n' altered from 'm'] hastily to subside, & within a few minutes fell above a <whole> division & a quarter below the mark at which it stood in the water before that Liquor or the salt were warmd, nor did the spirit in a great while reascend to the heigth ['from' deleted] which it ['fell' deleted] had when the water was cold .


Entry 114: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Haveing a mind likewise to show some Ingenious men how much the production of heat & cold depends upon Texture & other Mechanicall Affections I thought fit to make ['a' deleted] againe a Sal Arm: by a way I ['had' deleted] formerly publishd that <I might> [ replacing 'we may' deleted] be sure to know what Ingredients I imployd, & show their Effects as well before conjunction as after it. I tooke then spirit of salt, & spirit of fermented, or rather putrifyd urine, & haveing put a seald weatherglass into an open vessell, where one of them was pourd in, I put the other by degrees to it & observd that <as> [ replacing 'they' deleted] upon [altered from 'oper] <their mingling> [ replacing 'the mixture' deleted] they made a great noise with many bubbles soe in this conflict they lost their former coldnes, & impelld up the spirit of wine in the seald Thermoscope, which then slowly evaporating the superfluous moisture I obtaind a fine sort of Sal Arm. <for the most part> < ['like combs or feathers' deleted] > [insertion in margin] figurd <not unlike the> [ insertion in margin, replacing 'as the' deleted] other < ['also' deleted] > , <when> [ replacing 'as if it be' deleted] being dissolved, <& filtrated it is> [ replacing 'be' deleted] warily coagulated. This odd salt being Gently dryd I put into a <wide> glasse of water wherein I had before placd a seald weatherglasse that the Inclined ['Liq' deleted] spirit might acquire the temper of the Ambient Liquor, & haveing stirrd this salt in the water, thought I tooke it then off the mantle Tree of a Chymny that had had fire in it divers howers before, it did as I expected [altered from 'expect' by inline insertion of 'ed'] make the tincted spirit hastily subside & fall considerably low.


/BP 22, p. 55/

Entry 115: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

An ounce of aq. Regis (made with as much sal {sal ammoniac} as the aq. fortis could dissolve,) being digested a day or 2 with an æquall weight of pure spirit of wine, & afterwards slowly distilld in a slow head & Body there cam over about ⅔ in a spirit pretty well scented (& much rather odoriferous then stincking) that was scarce at all sensibly ['y' altered from 'e'] acid upon the Tongue. Afterwards the rest of the spirit came over, leaving behind it a pretty copious salt; of which many parts especially the uppermost, were of a rich red, the spirit that came over was not stincking but was considerably sharpe yet not soe that I could dissolve with it a litle leafe Gold (not of the thinnest sort of Leaves) though I kept it many howers in a good head, & thô a litle A: Regis taken out of the same Bottle with the forementiond [altered from 'foremenond'] ounce, did ['readily' deleted] well dissolve water Gold even in the cold. The first spirit that came over; thô it was not at all acid in tast, seemd yet to retaine somewhat of the nature of Aq. Regis, since it would præcipitate a solution of Sylver made in Aq. fortis.


Entry 116: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

Some Luna ['a' altered from 'e'] Cornea made with coind Sylver & Præcipitated spirit of salt being scrapd with a knife & exposd to the aire, the scrapings did in lesse then an hower from a Light & almost whitish gray turne to a darke & blackish blew, & thô at first this Colour was observable in few or none ['n' altered from 'm'] but the uppermost scrapings that are contiguous to the Aire; yet haveing exposd the other successivly to it, did all after a while become of the like colour, which is more considerable bec, 'tis affirmd that Luna Cornea ['C' altered from 'L] is neither dissolvable in aqua F. or A. Regis.


Entry 117: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

A solution of Christalls of Coynd sylver being made ['d' altered from 'k'] in hight rectifyd {spirit of wine} , that wine was set afire, & burnd at first very blew, like pure {spirit of wine} . but afterwards burnd with a yellow flame & towards the Edges, with a blew or greene, /BP 22, p. 56/ which I suppose came from the Copper wherewith the Sylver had been alloyd, towards the End of the operation there were suddaine litle flashes of a yellow flame breakeing forth in noise, like the fireing the graines of Gunpowder or of Salt petre.


Entry 118: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

The prepard sea salt that was not digested did in the Digestive furnace give towards the latter end, about the Acidity of ordinary spirit of salt.


Entry 119: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text
Later marginal endorsements:

Haveing dissolvd {ounce} iv of sal Armoniack in a convenient Quantity of faire water, & put to it {ounce} iiii of strong {oil} of English {vitriol}, the flegme being abstracted, & the rest urgd with a good fire, we had above ¼ of a pinte of spirit salt, that though it lookd not greene or yellow was exceding sharp, & there sublimd about a drachm by ghesse of salt very ['white' deleted] white, & in tast much Like [altered from 'Licke'] Salt Armoniack, but not forward to relent in the Ayre, tho it would with great readynes dissolve in cold water.