Robert Boyle (1627-91): Work-diary XV ('Philosophicall Collections begun the 12th of September 1656')

Content: Medical and chymical recipes in English from September 1656 to June 1657; sources and informants of recipes are not noted

General Information


Work-diary entries

/BP 25, p. 173/

[Authorial heading]:
Philosophicall
Collections begun the
12th of September
1656

Entry 1: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

1 Take of the Caput mortuum of Aqua fortis (made of 3 parts of crude vitrioll & 2 of saltpetre) & <of> either of the Chromiall Mineralls finely powdered equall parts mix these well together and let them boyle well with stale urine in an Iron Kettle for 12 or 14 houres still renewing the urine as it waits till towards the end of the operation when it must be boyld all away till the residue be left drie. put this prepar'd matter into an Iron Still & in a strong & lasting fire draw of what will come over in one day & then exposeing <the> matter that remaines behind for some days & nights to the open Aire destill it the second time as you did the first & soe if need be you may doe it the 3d & 4th time alsoe. Note that <if> the Minerall you deale in be Stannello you may add when you boyle it when with urine [d] about the fourth part [d] of the <weigh of the> minerall of strong potashes


Entry 2: Editorial notes:

2 Otherwise you may worke the same mineralls with Calcin'd vitrioll [blank space in MS, 10-15 letters] part Lap. Claminaris [blank space in MS, 4-6 letters] part & the greene Calcinatum [blank space in MS, 2-4 letters] part mixing these well together & drawing them over as before.


/BP 25, p. 174/

Entry 3: Editorial notes:

3 Take of the Caput mortuum of Aqua fortis & of good Tobacco pipe Clay of each alike quantitie of quick=lime The 4th part of either of them beat these up & incorporate them exquisitly with as litle moisture as possibly may suffice <to make them into a lute> to Coate Retorts and Line Furnaces. Note that it matters not much whether the Clay be calcin'd or noe,


Entry 4: Editorial notes:

4 [d] Take of the hearb called Ladiesmock & distill it in a comon cold Still or els in a glasse head & bodie in Balneo then take the distilld water & put it upon fresh hearbs & draw it of once more & give of it, 3, 4, or 6 spoonefulls at a time fasting in the morning for Convulsion fits, Spleene Epilepsie &c or els give of the powder of the dryed hearb as <much as> will lye upon A sixpence <to a man> & halfe as much to child


Entry 5: Editorial notes:

5 Take an ounce of Quicksilver purify'd with Colcothar & vinager & an ounce of water gold or other fine gold very finely ground upon a porphyrite stone then provide a strong glasse egge of the forme of a Cone inverted with the bigger end somewhat flatter then ordinary & the neck suitable in bignes to the glasse which must be of such a size that it may hold about thrice the matter to be put into it & not more then put in first your {mercury} & strow your gold dexterously that remaineing at the top it may be /BP 25, p. 175/ penetrated by the ascending fumes of the Quicksilver then stop the orifice of the neck loosely with a peice of clay & set your glasse in an Athenor where it may have a gentle heat day & night for a forthnight after which time your fire must be encreasd for a forthnight longer & then to a higher degree for a third forthnight & last of all to a yet higher degree dureing a 4th forthnight dureing which time the sand must never be soe hot as to be of a red much lesse of a white head & by this time the matter (part whereof will perhaps grow in trees) will be converted into a red præcipitate haveing lost by evaporation somewhat of its first weight of {ounce} 2, whatever the remaineing weight be grind it well & ad to it its full weight of new purifyd {mercury} which must be first put in a glasse of the same shape but of a larger size then the former & the præcipitate being put upon it they must be digested for the same space off time & by the same [de]grees of fire that formerly we[re] imployd about the first glasse & at the end of 2 months this second præcipitate being ground & weighed must be comitted to a 3d glasse of the same shape as before with its full weight of {mercury} (which will be above {ounce} 3 ) & must be handled in all points as the former till at the end of 2 months [d] more the whole masse be turn'd into [d] reddish præcipitate which will amount to about {ounce} 7 & thus in all cost about six months in præparation


/original pagination, p. 4/

/BP 25, p. 176/

Entry 6: Editorial notes:

6 Take of tinglasse one part of lead one part melt them together & then take of {mercury} 2 parts amalgame them well together & poureing them hot into the glasee well heated before shake them as evenly as you can till you see the have sufficiently foliated the glasse,


Entry 7: Editorial notes:

7 Make your 6:s Beare of River water to a kilderkin put in (immediatly after Fermentation) 3 orenges & 3 Lemons sliced skin & all & then stop it exactly with clay beaten with Salt to exclude the aire drinck it 6 weeks old in winter & 3 or 4 in Summer


Entry 8: Editorial notes:

8 Take [d] 6 or 7 quarts of Aqu: Calcis & a drachme & a halfe of Sublimate ground with {ounce} 2 of fountaine water let it stand 3 days then filtre it & reserve it for outward uses ulcers gangrenes &c,


Entry 9: Editorial notes:

9 Take the Cinnaber of Antimony that rises in the distilli[n]g the Butyrum Antimonii this sublime 2 or 3 times more per se and strow the fine powder of it upon Balsam of Sulphur when you apply it to ill [...] conditioned ulcers.


Entry 10: Editorial notes:

10 Let Sublimate run per deliquium in a Cellar upon an Iron plate abstract what moisture you can in a low head & body in Balneo let the Caput mortuum run againe per deliquium & abstract againe the moisture & soe proceede till matter will run noe more /original pagination, p. 5/ /BP 25, p. 165/ per deliquium then take this Liquor (in which there will swim sometime [d] a kind of oyle) & in it dissolve gold


Entry 11: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

11, Take pure regulus of Antimonie (without Mars) & dissolve it in good Aqua Regis till the Soution become like milke, then præcipitate it with Oile of Tartar per deliquium till the Solution grow prettie cleare then filter it thorow Cap=paper & the powder that remains in the paper dulcify exquisitly by frequent effusion of faire water this powder put in a Crucible & keepe it in as great a fire as <it> will well endure without danger of fusion & within 2 houres it will grow yellowish then take it out & give of it three foure or five grains for a dose


Entry 12: Editorial notes:

12 With good wine draw over any Cordiall liquor you please (whose Ingredients are well sented) as Aqua Mirabilis &c let the <Sp:> be pretty strong but not excessively soe nor at all Empyreumaticall into a pint of this Liquor put {scruple} 4 of {drachm} 2 of Sulphur marinum viride & botle it up exquisitly well tyeing downe the Corke very strongly & set the botle over head & eares in a vessell of water impregnated with as much salt peter as it is able to dissolve & after it has stood there 6 months take it out & use it


/original pagination, p. 6/

/BP 25, p. 166/

Entry 13: Editorial notes:

Aprill 29th 57

13 Take good rectifyd Butyrum Antimonii & on it poure by degrees good Sp: of Nitre till the Liquors will make noe more Ebullition abstract what will come over in a gentle heat of sand & cohobate it 2 or 3 times in a retort upon the Caput mortuum (or Bezoardicum Minerale) in this Menstruum dissolve pure foliated <{gold}> & the weight of that <{gold}> of good Sal armoniacke digest these together for 5 6 or 8 weekes then abstract the Menstruum & sublime up [d] with a strong fire as much as will ascend of the Mettall <from> which being thus made volatile may by the sweet Sp: of Salt <(made secund. Basil. with {spirit of wine})> be drawne a red Tincture which digested with <sil.> dissolv'd in Aqua fortis & beaten downe with Copper will give it a golden colour but not permanent after fusion & the Mettall that remaind in the retorts will for 2 parts of it be pure <Lune> & the other third white <{gold}>


Entry 14: Editorial notes:

14 Upon calcind <lune> pour <the> pure Saline Spirits of quick=lime & it will draw thence a blew Tincture which being digested with Quicksilver does sometimes coagulate it


Entry 15: Editorial notes:

15 The Antimoniall Menstruum above mention'd will from <Silver> calcind or els dissolvd in Aqua fortis & beaten downe with Copper plates draw by Digestion a blewish Tincture


Entry 16: Editorial notes:

16 To make Tillets take root plentifully <cut them of &> set them in the ground 2 3 or 4 dayes after the full Moone when the Spirit is drawne up to the upper parts of the plant


Entry 17: Editorial notes:

17 Take <good> Colcothar undulcifyed & flowes of Antimony of each alike & sublime them together cohobate <ing> them 2 or 3 times till the flowers ascend somewhat tincted by the /original pagination, p. 7/ /BP 25, p. 167/ venus & then with highly rectifyd Sp: of wine drawing a rich yellow tincture abstract it either at Mellaginem or to a pulverable consistence & give some graines of this Substance


Entry 18: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

18 Take of [syncere] Sublimate for instance {pound} 1 & at least a pound or a pound & a Quarter of running Mercury incorporate them well together & sublime them & if there be pretty <store of quick> Merc. in the Sublimate then there will not need addition of more but els there must be added such a Quantity of fresh Mercury as may suffice plentifully to satitate the Salts that help'd to make up the Sublimate And however the Quicksilver that is either found after this first Sublimation or added or both must be carefully rubb'd & thereby incorporated with that seemingly saline Substance last sublimd up & then this mixture must be sublimd once twice or thrice more with new Merc. if need be till all the saline particles of the <Sublimate> be glutted with Quicksilver then sublime the Mercurius Dulcis once or twice & afterwards put it into some broad & shallow vessell in moderatly hot sand that the adhereing graines of Quicksilver if there be any may ascend & fasten it selfe to a sheet of cleane paper with which the vessell must be coverd & must be shifted as often as need requires till all the loose <&> runing Mercury be sever'd from the Merc. Dulcis which will not fly away in soe gentle aheat the Dosis may be about {drachm} 2 with gr 18 of unprepared Scammony


Entry 19: Editorial notes:

19. Make [d] of equall parts of salt petre & tartar a white Calcinatum to which add of Fel vitri or Sandivert a 5t or 6s part of its weight & to 2 or 3 parts of this mixture add one part of [blank space in MS, 12-14 letters] /original pagination, p. 8/ /BP 25, p. 168/ beaten to fine powder let these Ingredients flow together in a crucible till <they> will noe longer puffe or yeild bubbes then poure out the Masse into a Cone and knocking of the Metalline Regulus coppell it according to the wonted manner


Entry 20: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

20 Take of Allum of Nitre & sea salt ana dissolve them in as much faire water as is sufficient for their solution in which boyle <of> foliated Gold made small a sufficient quantity till the solution first grow yellow & afterwards continue the fire till the salts be reduc'd to a Dry cake & then breake the glasse & take out this yellowish cake & beat it very small & boyle the powder well in Spirit of <Wine (as I remember)> & this Menstruum being pour'd of hot and put in a coole place will in the cold let fall the salts very white & retaine the tincture of the gold which will make it yellow


Entry 21: Editorial notes:

21 Take pure silver & dissolve it in a sufficient quantity of Aqua fortis then precipitate it with Sp: of salt into a white Calx evaporate away the Menstruum & puting this Calx in a crucible give it fire by degrees till as much as is Evaporable be exhal'd


Entry 22: Editorial notes:

22 Take silver & dissolve it in Aqua fortis & then adding to the Menstruum 5 or 6 times its quantity of faire water cast into it cleane copper plates & let them rest there about foure & twenty houres then wipe of all the silver that adheres to the plates (which it will doe but loosely) & collect alsoe that which you shall find precipitated to the bothom of the vessell & all this silver must be well boyd in change of faire waters till it be perfectly dulcify'd & the water come from it altogether insipid


/original pagination, p. 9/

/BP 25, p. 169/

Entry 23: Editorial notes:

23 Take laminated silver & cement it for 24 or 30 houres with sea salt & it will thereby be refind (the adhereing copper not being able to indure soe great a heat) & turn'd into a opened calx which must be by frequent ablutions with hot water exquisitly dulcify'd & then it is fitted to yeild its blewish tincture if not in the Menstruum Catholicum yet at least in the Sp: Hermaphroditicus


Entry 24: Editorial notes:

24 Take of good comon Sp: of salt 3 parts & of good Sp. of Nitre one part & use this mixture instead of <{aqua regia}>


Entry 25: Editorial notes:

25 To purify aqua fortis & make it fit to separate silver from Gold before you use it to that purpose [d]; cast into it a litle refin'd Silver which by the meanes of the saline Sp: proceeding from the comon salt that lay hid in the salt=petre whereof the Aqua fortis was made will precipitate into a white Calx from which you must carefully decant the menstruum which will then and not before be fit to make separation of Gold from silver for otherwise salt=petre haveing comonly some mixture of some sea=salt the Aqua fortis would as wel upon the score of the saline Sp: let fall some of the silver as upon the score of the nitrous Sp: it will <let> fall the Gold,


Entry 26: Editorial notes:

26 Take of Miluus what quantity you please & distill off all that will come over from it & mixing all the three liquors it will yeild together poure of this Menstruum upon very finely powder'd Antimony till the Menstruum swim above the matter three or 4 fingers Then closeing the bolt=head well <digest it well> for 3 4 5 or 6 week & after drawing of the Menstruum ad siccitatem & urgeing the remaineing matter with a competent fire you will have a <copious> sublimate consisting of lumps of several <sizes> in show like comon Sulphur but onely somewhat more inclineing to greene


/original pagination, p. 10/

/BP 25, p. 171/

Entry 27: Editorial notes:

27 To reduce the Calx of silver or other Lunary preparations into a body melt the disguised silver with a flux made of <the calcinatum of> Nitre & Tartar to which is to be added a quantity of Charcoale dust


Entry 28: Editorial notes:

28 Take the juyce of Rasberryes & in it cast as much pure loafe suger as it will dissolve without the assistance of fire This Syrup being carefully stopt must be carefully kept from fermenting by being plact in a coale cellar or well &c where it will not worke but onely cast <up> a mother & when it is to be us'd there needs noe more but the putting of an arbitrary quantity <of it> into the wine or other liquor to which it is to give the Denomination


Entry 29: Editorial notes:

29 Take Morella cherrys well dry'd & to one part of them put 6 or 8 parts of Rhenish wine or very good white wine & let them stand together in a coole place where they may not ferment & the wine will take the perfect [d] tast tincture & verturs of the fruit, If you would doe this with undry'd Morella's you must beat them very well in a cleane mortar takeing care that the stones be broken & the Kernells well bruised allso, & to this Mash you must adde a greater proportion of wine by reason of the aquosity of it


Entry 30: Editorial notes:

30 To one part of good-hony [d] put about 6 parts of faire water & boyleing together for about half an houre or an houre till they be well incorporated & have cast up: most of their scum (which must be carefully taken of) put this liquor into a Barrell of which it may not fill above half or 2 thirds (for otherwise it might prove vinous) & in about [d] three days it will turne into very strong vinager which after a yeares keeping will not like Rhenish wine vinager continue the same or els decay in strength but will grow stronger & more like an Aqua fortis


/original pagination, p. 11/

/BP 25, p. 170/

Entry 31: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

31 Take Coboltum beaten downe with Copper & mix it with two parts of comon sea salt put the mixture <into a> melting pot & give them such a fire as the salt is able to indure without fusion (which is carefully to be avoided & in case of which new salt is to be taken & if need be the Coboltum is againe to be made small) & in such a heat the pot will scarce appeare red unles in the darke When this cementation is finish'd, the calx <which will looke blackish> freed from the salt by faire water must be againe cemented <with new salt> for 24 houres as formerly & this worke of cementation must be reiterated 5 6 or 7 times or untill the Minerall will <totally> dissolve in distilld vinager & give it both a blew colour & a strong vitriolat tast. The Sp: of vinager being drawn quite of will leave the salt of a whitish colour, Upon this salt poure about a fingers depth of a Menstruum made of all the three Venereall liquors & seting the mixture to evaporate in a Crucible the Menstruum will carry away all the Minerall Sulphur (which made the mineral as often as it was dissolv'd in distilld vinager yeild a blew tincture) & will leave in the Crucible the whiteish fixt salt desired. but if before the affusion of the venereall <Menstruum you melt downe the calx with a flux of calcinatum tartari & coale dust you shall have part of your minerall fixed but not tinged note also that the water us'd to dulcify the calx after each cementation must be carefully reserv'd for after its haveing stood some days it will at length let fall a pretty copious calx abounding with the fixed but not tinged parts formerly mentioned.>


Entry 32: Editorial notes:

32 Take good copper & dissolve <it> in Aqua fortis abstract the Menstruum ad siccitatem & put the remaineing Calx into a Crucible where you must give it such a heat as will force away the adherhereing saline particles & leave the copper like a blackish powder & very well open'd, Then take of quick=lime {pound} ; of [blank space in MS, 8-10 letters] a quarter of a pound & of comon salt a handfull (which is supposed to [d] amount to allso about a Quarter of a pound <on> this mixture poure vinager & by drawing it from these Ingredients make it a Menstruum which in about 24 houres will from the aforesaid Calx draw without heat a deep green /original pagination, p. 12/ /BP 25, p. 172/ tincture & when the calx is wholely depriv'd of all the tincture of that kind which it contain'd the remaineing body wilbe white & fit to be melted with <a third part> its weight of silver the Menstruum pour'd upon the abovemention'd Calx will extract thence a deepe greenish blew tincture which digested with Silver <& abstracted will tinge it> but not permanently


Entry 31a: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

31 To prepare cloath for scarlet boyle it a competent time in liquor made of an ounce of powderd Argoll & a gallon of faire water into which has been put an ounce of Aqua fortis neither very strong nor very weake


Entry 32a: Editorial notes:

32 Take Mirabolans & free them from the stalks & tufts as if they were to be presently drest then lay them in a convenient pot into which poure on them a sufficient quantity of good white wine made scalding hot & taken of the fire as soone as ever it is soe. On this liquor in the same vessell poure a sufficient quantity of good oyle & closeing on the cover of the pot exactly keep it in a coole place for use At which time the thick skin that will swim at the top of the wine must without breakeing <be> gently lifted up & with the <plump> fruit a proportionable quantity of the wine impregnated with it must be taken away & the skin permitted to fall downe againe


Entry 33: Editorial notes:

33 Take oisters &c as also Capons foule &c & perboyle them takeing them imediatly from of the fire then take of the Hermaphroditicall oyle & (haveing first let the liquor draine from the perboyld things & place them in a convennient pot) set it over a gentle fire that the saline parts if it have any may fall to the bothom & decanting what is liquid & unsalted poure it on the perboyld things till they be all cover'd over & overtop it by a competent height of the liquor & soe closeing the vessell well keep it in a coole place


/original pagination, p. 13/

/BP 26, fol. 96/

Entry 34: Editorial notes:

34 Take of <Quinces> that are litle worth what quantity you please stamp or cut them small & make of them an exceeding strong Decoction (that may not ferment) Into which cast a quantity of comon salt & then put into this pickle good peares of the same kind & closeing the vessell well keepe it in a coole place


Entry 35: Editorial notes:

35 Take french beanes cods & all & in a strong decoction of them cast some salt & in this Menstruum preserve shelled french beans after the manner just now taught


Entry 36: Editorial notes:

36 Take wallnuts that have been dry'd & bury them for 2 or 3 days in good earth


Entry 36a: Editorial notes:

36 Cut of Angelica neare the ground & anointing the place of the cut very well with pitch to keepe in the juyce & to keep out the aire hang up these plants in a coole & dry place


Entry 37: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

37 Take Copper fifteen ounces tin 4 ounces Iron 12{superscript d} peny weight & <Antimony> six peny weigh melt all theis together in a strong Crucible or melting pot & when the bubles are gone away out of the liquid mixture poure it into a mould made of Spaud or good lute the inside of which mould must be first well smoak'd with the smoke of a torch or candle to hinder the mettall from sticking to it

[d] N. B. you may make spaud with the calcin'd stone that is digg'd out of the great Quarry <neare> Swithland in Leicestershire which Calx must be made up with water impregnated with Sal armoniacke. N. B. Inquire for Mr W More of [Bureq] in Herefordshire neare Din-mare hill within 4 miles of hereford.


/original pagination, p. 14/

/BP 26, fol. 96v/

Entry 38: Editorial notes:

38 Take of Sal tartari 2 parts Crystalls of tartar 2 parts <Opium> one part [d] incorporate these exquisitly together by beateing them into a masse of which the dose may be about the bignes of [d] a hazill nut, <Mr Hardings Laudanum>


Entry 39: Editorial notes:

39 Make a regulus Martis with Iron and salt petre without tartar. Suffer the slates of the first fusion of this regulus to fall of themselves into powder in the open aire To a pound of this powder add a pound or two of the strongest Lixivium you can make of potashes and boyleing them together without indeavouring to incorporate them take carefully of the lumps that will rise to the top of the liquor & reserve them for use


Entry 40: Editorial notes:

40 To 2 pound of the antimoniall slates made as formerly add 2 [d] 3 or 4 pound of the strongest Lixivium of potashes stirring them often very well together that they may incorporate into a kind of sope upon which (first cut into small peices) poure of the Sp. terrinus about its weight or rather untill they will make no more Ebullition then place the mixture in a retort in sand & a litle of the Sp: <which may be kept> will come over <at> the first & as soon as the flegm begins to follow boyle up the mixture in an Iron pot ad siccitatem after which give it a pretty smart fire for about a quarter of an houre. Then satiate it the 2d time with <the like quantity of> new Sp: & draw of the liquors and proceed as before & this doe also the 3d & if need be the 4th time & last of all distill the Sulphureous matter in a retort by degrees of fire


Entry 41: Editorial notes:

41 Take opium & dissolve as much as you can in faire water filter the solution thorough paper & into it cast the weight of the opium of dry fermented salt which will precipitate /original pagination, p. 15/ /BP 26, fol. 97/ in great quantity a Narcotick Sulphur of the opium then filter this solution (after it has stood 24 houres) once more thorough good cap paper & <evaporateing> it till it come to a consistence keepe it for use,


Entry 42: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

42 Take of the <raw> calx usd in old Irish castles beat it into a grosse powder & casting it on quick coales (perfectly kindled beforehand) draw a liquor from it of which in rectification the Spirituous part will first ascend & leave the flegme behind it. then take reddish flints or pebles whose tincture is somewhat fixt [d] which you may know if after calcination the inside remaine of a reddish or yellowish colour heat these stones red hot & quench them in faire water & continue to doe thus till you can easily beat them into a fine powder upon which poure as much of the abovemention'd rectify'd Sp: as may overtop <it> 3 or 4 fingers bredth digest them together for 10 or 12 days or till the Sp: have got a reddish tincture from the calcined stones Of this tincted Sp: you may give about half a spoonefull in wine Syrups or any other convenient vehicle


Entry 43: Editorial notes:

43 Take of the abovemention'd powder of calcin'd flints & digest them 10 or 12 days or longer with a convenient proportion of Aqua terræ made per deliquium & this liquor which wilbe somewhat tincted being drawn over in a small coated retort & <a> strong fire will yeild an urinous & penetrant Sp: in vertue like the former


Entry 44: Editorial notes:

44 In the makeing of the Antimoniall tincture the matter upon which Glaubers disciples worke in order to their panacea may be kept <after calcination> 2 o three houres <[d]> in a good fire & must be made to flow at last for soe it will yeild its tincture the better


/original pagination, p. 16/

/BP 26, fol. 97v/

Entry 45: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

45 Take <pure Silver> & dissolve it <in> its proper Menstruum <viz Aqua fortis> & evaporate the superfluous humidity ferè ad cuticulam then keep it stirring that it may dry without shooting into Christalls then take as much Crystall as you did Tin & make a Solution of it in its proper Menstruum mix this solution <& the abovementiond Calx> together & set them to evaporate as before & when the cuticula begins to appeare keep the masse continually stirring till it be dry then set it in a broad botthom'd glasse or China dish on warme sand which you must have a care never to make hot enough to make the snow white precipitate melt & whilst it is on the sand you must often smell to it because it must be kept there for soe many houres or days untill the smell of the Menstruum be quite gone from it & then the matter must be kept very dry & made up when need requires into small pills containing each of them about 3 gr: of the prepared Tin & of these pills you may give when the patient goes to bed 1 or 2 at a time & in strong distempers & bodies 3 or 4 may be safely enough administred


Entry 46: Editorial notes:

46 Dissolve Silver in Aqua fortis & beat it downe with copper dulcify it with faire water & digest it in Sp: of Antimony till it acquire a blew tincture which you may if you please further digest with the matter of the abovemention'd pills & by drawing of the Menstruum indeavour to unite the tincture & the pills


Entry 47: Editorial notes:

47 Take <pure Luna> open'd by comon Salt till it will dissolve in Sp: of vinager. With Sp: of Salarmoniack made with quick lime extract a tincture which by digestions & Cohobations may be made volatile


/original pagination, p. 17/

/BP 26, fol. 98/

Entry 48: Editorial notes:

48 Take Aurum album & let it boyle in Beguinus his Ænigmaticall <Menstruum> till it have receivd its tincture & note that if the peices of the mettall be anything big the tincture wilbe litle more then superficiall not penetrateing above the bredth of a Barley corne in depth.


Entry 49: Editorial notes:

49 Take Mr Grills minerall & blow it of with lead & every hundred weight of the Minerall will retaine a pound or two of the silver lurking in the lead.


Entry 50: Editorial notes:

50 Take Silver beaten downe with copper & place it with <about> an equall [d] quantity of flowers of Brimstone betwixt 2 Crucibles well luted together with some litle vent for the Sulphur then give a gentle fire to it onely great enough to make the Sulphur burne but not great enough to give the Silver a fusion which must be carefully avoided, When the blew flames of the Sulphur cease to appeare the fire may be increasd considerably, <till the Crucible be candent for above an houre> & then the matter being taken out which wilbe blackish the silver wilbe well calcind but if you <reduce> it with lead (which is the best way) you should find it diminsh'd in quantity & if you then dissolve it in Aqua fortis it will let fall a pretty store of a black powder which is part of the Sulphur retaind by the Silver & by it protected from the action of the lead & this black powder being for the most part burnt away in a small Crucible that which at length remaines wilbe fixt.


Entry 51: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

51 Take silver beaten downe with Copper & well dulcify'd & put to it an equall quantity or litle more of Tartarum <Vitriolatum> & cement it in a double Crucible with a fire not very violent [d] for 12 14 or 16 houres then wash away the adhereing Salts & dissolveing the Calx in distilld vinager draw a tincture of it And Note that after [d] this tincture has been drawn by any acid or volatile Menstruum it may very usefully be brought by abstraction of the Menstruum /original pagination, p. 18/ /BP 26, fol. 98v/ to a dew consistence which will afterwards communicate its tincture in Spirit of wine


Entry 52: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

52 They make their vitrioll at Depthford as they there told us thus

They make beds of whole copperis stones (which they have cheifly from Chitwick & the Isle of Wight) of an arbitrary length & bredth & of about 2 foot in depth these beds are made somewhat shelving that the raine [d] falling upon the stones & assisted by the heat of the Sun to dissolve the copperis lurkeing in them may run into certain tubs plac'd at the lower extremitys of them & to this purpose also there is under each of these beds [d] a floore <made> of such beaten clay made that the water will not penetrate it All these particular tubs doe by pipes with stoptells fitted to them to be taken out onely when need requires empty themselves into one great tub whence by a pipe with a stoppell fitted to it the vitriolate liquor is when the workmen please convey'd into a very large Cisterne from which it is as need requires pump'd up with double pumps under which are placed wooden troughs to convey the pumped liquor into great square boylers (as they call them) which are made of sheet lead (because that either Iron brasse or copper vessells would be corroded by the liquor) where it is boyl'd for 10 15 or 20 days or more dureing which time the workmen cast in by degrees as much old hamer'd (but not cast) Iron as they liquor will conveniently dissolve, & then opening certan pipes which are at other times kept stopt in the boylers the liquor is thence convay'd into other great vessells which they call Coolers where being suffered to rest for 8 10 or 14 days it shootes into vitrioll, NB: 1 That in their boyleing /original pagination, p. 19/ /BP 26, fol. 99/ furnaces [d] they use sea=coales 2ly: That one bed will last 7 or 8 yeares or more but yet they strow some quantity of new stones on it almost every yeare 3ly: <That> The bothom of their great Cisterne is made onely of comon planks [d] well <arm'd> with <comon> pitch or as they call it well calik'd as shipps are wont to be onely instead of Iron Nailes they use wooden pegs or trunnells. 4ly That if the liquor boyle but a litle too long they say it is quite spoyl'd & will yeild onely a greasy substance (as they <speake> but never make good vitrioll. 5ly That they say they pay for their stone brought to their beds [d] 20 <s a tunn> & sell their vitrioll for ten pounds a tunn each tunn consisting of 20 hundred pounds to the tunn,


Entry 53: Editorial notes:

53 The Standard maker when he lays leafe silver upon Standards first covers them severall times with whiteing & then with Size but if he be to lay it on skins he uses Size alone mixing equall quantitys of strained size & faire water & spreding this mixture with his hands upon the skins till they be fully glutted with it & will drinke up noe more then he lays on his leafe silver & pollishes it with a smooth stone & on this Silver he lays his gilding vernish the first time & letts it [d] dry well on (either in the Sunn or shade according to the nature of the vernish) Of which laying on more the 2d time & letting it dry the skin is gilt On this gilt skin you may lay for green [d] verdegrease finely ground with comon white vernish, but for red you must use <a litle> Lake finely ground with <a good Quantity of> some drying oyle which you may make by boyleing for about an houre halfe a pound of umber in about a quart of good old Linseed oyle,


/BP 65, fol. 99v/

Entry 54: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

54 Take of fritta ten pound & as much putty made [d] by calcination of six parts of Tin and foure parts of lead & let these three Ingredients stand in fusion their due time to make Amell white


Entry 55: Editorial notes:

55 Take fritta six pound of the aforemention'd Putty foure pound Zaffora one pound let these stand in fusion their due time to make <blue> Amell [d]


Entry 56: Editorial notes:

56 To make red Amell you must use Magnesia & scales of Iron N.B. Fritta is made of equall parts of pure white sand & Borallio reverberated till they incorporate together


Entry 57: Editorial notes:

57 Colour your [d] Glasse red with <a very litle> Manganese green with Copper calcin'd per se.


Entry 58: Editorial notes:

58 Take Minium 4 parts & Copper calcind one part melt them together & make thereof a coloured past try likewise with Fritta 4 parts & Manganese one part or els with Manganese 1 part & Minium 4 parts keeping them their due time in fusion for one of those two ways will succeed


Entry 59: Editorial notes:

59 Upon peices of grossly tincted Fritta lay fine [d] leafe gold & presse it on upon the Dice being first a litle moisten'd to make it stick then strow on them as much finely powder'd Crystall glasse as is convenient that until the fusion of the glasse in a moderate but competent heat the Gold may be uniformely cased.


Entry 60: Editorial notes:

60 Take Flints heat them red hot & quench them in faire water & doe this soe often till you can reduce them to an impalpable powder then with as litle fixt salt & flux as may be run them with convenient colours then powder the vitrifyd Masse & free it as much as you can with distill'd vinager or otherwise from the salt or flux or both & vitrify it once more to harden it


Entry 61: Editorial notes:

61 Melt a pound of Rosin & to it add a quantity of a beane or nutmeg of yellow wax then by nimble stirring incorporate with it as much powder of beaten bricks as will suffice to bring it to a consistence fit for a cement for Glasse fountaines.