Robert Boyle (1627-91): Work-diary XII ('A Philosophicall Diary, Begun the first of January 1654/5')

Content: Medical and chymical recipes from 1655; sources include Frederick Clodius, George Starkey, Thomas Smart, Sir Kenelm Digby, et al.

General Information

Work-diary entries

/BP 8, fol. 140/

[Authorial heading]:
Begun this First of January
And to be coninu'd, by God's Assistance, during my Life.

Entry 1: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

1) {Rx} {antimony}ii contusi {pound} i. affunde Sp. Aceti {pound} ii Digere donec flavescast (quod fit interdum 14 diebus, interdum vero 4 vel 5, imo 6 hebdom.) Tincturam destilla ad siccitatem, pulverem aurei coloris lava aquâ purâ, donec aceti odor abeat. Tum {spirit of wine}um optimum pulveri siccato affunde, & rubedine insigni tinctum (effundendo se à facibus) distilla ad siccitatem (ex alembico.) Dosie Grana duo aut 3. Contra anginam & quasvis pene difficultates prodest. Ultra mille hydropicos eo curavit. Dr Rashius.

Entry 2: Editorial notes:

2° 2) Oleum Tereb. 2 or 3 times rectify'd upon Decrepitated & then melted Salt, will bring over Sulphurs with it, ex retorta. Dr Unmisig suo damno expertus est.

Entry 3: Editorial notes:

3) Young Helmont cures the Ulcers of the Lungs with the Pulvis sympathicus inspers'd upon the Blood & matter spit out by the Patient.

Entry 4: Editorial notes:

4) Dr Coeffler calcin'd Tin with Calx viva, according to Basil. Valent. his way (extant [blank space in MS, 15-17 letters]) & twice or thrice had the lucke to reduce it, & had it turned into Luna fixa. But oftner could not do it. Mr CL. to whom he gave a quantity of the Powder.)

Entry 5: Editorial notes:

5) Sir Kenelme D. commends above all his Secrets the Tinctura {antimony}ii ex vitro & Sp: primò Aceti, postea vini, secundum Basilium. (pag [blank space in MS, 2 characters] Curr. Triumph.) He makes this Tincture with Sp: Aceti <ex> vino not ex {antimony}o. And his Vitrum {antimony}ii is red red, which it will become from the 6th to the 10th fusion.

Entry 6: Editorial notes:

6) Mr Smart made thus his Sal {antimony}ii. He tooke the Flores (cum {gold} volatili in them) & {nitre} ana, mixt them well in a cleane mortar, fir'd them at the top, let as much of the Niter as would puffe away; had a crucible ready, red hot, into which he cast the Matter as soone as ever it had done puffing; & kept it in a flux till the greenenesse was both come & vanisht. Then he tooke it <out> & immediately powr'd on it good Sp: of wine enough to swim above it 2 or 3 fingers, then digesting it (for the most part in a boyling heat) for 16 or 20 houres, when /original pagination, p. 2/ /BP 8, fol. 140v/ the Spirit was pretty wel tincted, he powr'd it of into a cleane vessel, & set it in a cold Place, where a salt soone shot, from which he powr'd off the {spirit of wine}, which tasted & smelt like urine, (yet he uses it inwardly) & lost of it's color. The Dose of the salt is from one Graine to 8 or 10.

Entry 7: Editorial notes:

Jan. 4°.

7. Spir. Sal. Armoniaci will by Digestion reduce Wax into an oyle as doth the Menstruum cereale. Mr S.

Entry 8: Editorial notes:

8. Sp. Sal. armen. (with {nitre} ana to the {iron}) præpares the Tincture of filings of mars.

Entry 9: Editorial notes:

9. Pot-ash alone præpares & opens common salt & {nitre}. Mr Sm.

Entry 10: Editorial notes:

10. Take the livers & Gals of Eeles, dry them gently, & of the powder give quantit. avellanæ to a woman in hard labor, in good white wine or some convenient vehicle. Helmont. Mr Clodius. &c.

Entry 11: Editorial notes:

11. Take Cinnamon quantum vis (& so of cloves mace &c) powder it grosly, & on it powre of good oyl olive (scalding hot) as much as it will well and thorougly imbibe. This moystish masse (a little incorporated in a stone or glasse mortar) put into a cleane glaz'd earthen vessel on which put a fit cover a little of the least (that it may just go into the mouth of the Pot) of copper or wood, & on it lay a greate weight [altered from 'waid'] , that the matter be strongly compresst; & let it remaine so for 3 or 4 weekes. Then take it out, & let it dry for a day or 2 sub dio: & beate it againe; then take bread (browne or white, parum refert) stale enough to be conveniently grated, about a fifth part in relation to the spice; make a laire of your Aromaticall matter, & on it strew some grated Bread, on which lightly Sprinke a little faire water, (but not neere enouf to make it like batter,least in a liquid forme fiat fermentatio vinacea vel acetosa) & so proceed with the rest of the matter & Bread making strat; sup. strat. & sprinkling each with Water; & when the vessel is full (NB som greene hay or leaves at the top would much promote the Ferm.) lay on the cover & weight againe, & let it stand in a strong compression for about 3 weekes longer. Then with about it's double weight of water distill it off; powring in the water againe (by a hole made in the head or [altered from 'of'] shoulders of the limbeck) when it is about halfe come over, so often till all the oyle be come off. NB 1. Cloves /BP 8, fol. 141/ yeelded this way about 3 ounces a {pound}; mace neere as much, & Cinnanon sometimes neere ['i' deleted] {ounce} i. sometimes above {ounce} ii. 2. If you mixe with the matter when it is put in to be still'd, some alcali (perhaps about a 6th part) it will both facilitate the more copious separation of oyle, & (being often employ'd in the same service) draw a vertue from the spice & seem Salt of Cinnamon. Try'd by Dr Stirke.

Entry 12: Editorial notes:

12. {Rx} 10 or 12 {pound} of the ore of {gold} or {silver}. wash it well & stirre it well up & downe in the water; & what is light & easily ascends or swims, lay by as improper for this worke. What is ponderous & remaines in the bottom dry well & grind it <in calido> with about 6 times as much {mercury} as you guesse there is mettall in the ore. Then provide a good strong Iron kettle, & an earthen pot like a subliming pot with a like hole at the top (to be shut with lute or left open at pleasure) about 2 ½ feet ['ee' altered from 'oo'] high, or a yard. Into this kettle put your mixt matter, set on Your Earthen pot, & lute it well to the kettle. Give for 6 or 8 howres a heat that the {mercury} may circulate upon the matter. Then let it coole for 2 or 3 houres, take off the Pot, (first striking it gently that the {mercury} sticking to it may fall into the kettle) & out of it with a feather sweepe what remaining {mercury} you can into the kettle, in which stirre very well all the matter, lute on the pot, & give it once more a circulating fire for about 6 houres more; & the merc. will thereby amalgam with whatsoever is metalline in the ore (unlesse there be too little {mercury} put in, which may be perceiv'd by the thicknese of the {amalgam};) when the matter is prettily cool'd take it out, & in broad shallow vessells, wash the {amalgam} well & separate it from the feces, & distilling off your {mercury} in an iron retort, you shall find a considerable quantity of {gold} or {silver}, even out of such ore, as would begger one that deales with [altered from 'in'] it the ordinary way. NB. When the lead is melted out of the ore, what remaines after the extraction of the lead, & is lookt upon as worthlesse, will this way yeeld more {silver} then rich lead it selfe.

Entry 13: Editorial notes:

13. Out of dry rose Cakes by such a Ferm, as is taugh Num. 11. may be drawne a pure chymicall oyle of roses.

Entry 14: Editorial notes:

14. Amber long fermented will yeeld an oyle per alembic.

Entry 15: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

15. Flores aurei ex ⋆ {iron}is with our rectificatiss. {oil} ['θες' deleted] θες absque etiam colostro, will make Suchten's oyle. St.

Entry 16: Editorial notes:

16. Radices quorum cunque florum macera succo rutæ, & virides evadent colore flores; si fimo ovillo lacte humectato implantentur. Cæruleus color a florum cæruleorum succo Mr Cl. ex mss. Doctoris Rash.

Entry 17: Editorial notes:

Jan. 9°

17. {Rx} Flor. {sulphur}is {ounce} ii Olei terebinth {pound} i. (NB. Si placet poteris addere ol. juniperi & succini; tantundem imminuendo ex {pound} i illâ olei tereb.) Digere per octiduum, filtra, incorpora cum cornu cervi usto & distilla per {retort} igne forti.

/BP 8, fol. 141v/

Entry 18: Editorial notes:

18. {Rx} Viperas exsiccatas, affunde spir. terebinth. & coque in vitro longi colli; cum hoc oleo Tereb. solve flores {sulphur}is aliquoties (2, 3, vel quater) à coralliis sublimatos, & colore corall aliquatenus saltem tinctos ['os' altered from 'i'] . Est Bals. insigniter Cardiac. Mr Cl.

Entry 19: Editorial notes:

19. Sali ({urine}i) Alcali cinerum, æqua pars cinerum subtiliorum imponatur; exiccetur compositum atque in Cellâ resolvatur: fiat exiccatio ad solem aut in hypocausto. resolutio <hæc> atque congelatio repetatur ad vices circiter decem: tum fluant simul igne torrido, & fient Cineres Lavellati pulcherrimi. Verbatim ex Processu Stirkii experti.

Entry 20: Editorial notes:

20. To make Elixir Salis ['l' altered from 't'] volatilis, {Rx} Essentiall oyle 2. Parts, pure Salt of tartar one part (Stirke sometimes told me he tooke 3 parts of oyl & two of salt) & let them circulate with a Bottome heat 3 or 4 months. The salt will be like sugar-candy & somewhat tincted by the oyle, & will sticke to the sides of the Glasse (which must be large & strong, & exquisitely stopt with Helmont's Lute ex cerâ & colephoniâ) at the Bottom of which not withstanding som liquor will remaine. Stirkius.

Entry 21: Editorial notes:

21. {Rx} æ {iron}is {ounce} ii {copper} {ounce} i. funde simul & in secundâ fusione adiice salis armeniaci {ounce} i ; tere optime simul & liquefacta detine circa 4tem (horæ) in {fire} satis valido: postea separatum a scoriis habebis ut plurimum rete coopertum.

Entry 22: Editorial notes:

Vinum ex Pomis & mutso. Ex Mss. ni Clodii.

22. {Rx} Musti congia LX. Mellis {pound} XL. Misce optime & impone cado, adde fermenti vini vel cepe visiæ, cum fermentiatio cesiare inceperit, tunc sume Musti recentis congia VI & Mellis {pound} vi in funde cado calefacta, adde Fermentum & fermentent secunda vice. post decretionen fermentationis iterum adde Musti congios iii & Mellis {pound} iii calefacta, & adposito fermento fac fermentent. Cum fermentatio decrescit claude vas optime per [' approximately 1 character, illegible (, ' deleted] ii hebdomadas, tunc aperi rimam quandam forsan per {scruple} xii iterum claude exacte, & relinque donec vinum sit clarificatum.

Entry 23: Editorial notes:

Jan. 12°.

23. {Rx} quicsilver, lead, & sulphur ana, amalgame the mettals & grinde them with {sulphur}. then set the Powder on fire, & all will go away together in a flame like spelter, & leave such a Cinder behind it. Dr Stirke.

Entry 24: Editorial notes:

24. Cohobated oyl θες (uncolostrated) will dissolve the sublimate of stella (made with ana of salt armeniacke) into a deepe oyl. which Dr St. thinkes to be Suchten's oyle. NB. This sublimated {sulphur} may by frequent cohob. be made volatile, sed not opus) Idem.

Entry 25: Editorial notes:

25. The same oyle will draw a RED tincture out of Dulcify'd Colcotar; & will extract the sulphurs of quick-silver, Minium, stella, & even {gold} it selfe, being sufficiently circulated with them. Idem.

Entry 26: Editorial notes:

26. To make the Colostrum the alcali ought to be dissolved in (ana) of water; else it need not, at all.

/original pagination, p. 5/

/BP 8, fol. 142/

Entry 27: Editorial notes:

27. Ens veneris repsects the Mother, & is excellent in retentis menstruis. Idem.

Entry 28: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

28. To make Sapo, {Rx} oyl of almonds ii parts, sal tart. i part, boyle them wel together (with the weight of the salt of faire water) for 12 or 16 houres, till they be well mixt & then tinge & specificate the sapo ad libitum. Idem.

Entry 29: Editorial notes:

29. Take good fat earth beatem smal, put it into an empty Barrell or hogshead, put to it a sixtyth or hundredth part of good Saltpeter. make str. super strat. of the earth & that; sprinkling each layre with strong stale urine. Set the vessel in a Cellar (but not over moist,) & for 4 months or thereabout, wet the whole matter about once a weeke with stale urine passt first thorough horse-dung (or some other Dung) Then close the Barrell, & lay a weight upon it; & Let it stand so coverd for 4 or 5 months more. Then extract the Saltpeter, (NB. the offensive sent of the urine will be by so long standing almost vanished) & the same earth (handled as before, thogh without putting to it new Peter) will in a short time be imprægnate againe with Nitre. Dr St. who tells me that with about 13 or 14 {pound} of refin'd Barbary Niter, & the residence left in the refining it, he had about six score {pound} of good Peter, in about 9 months.

Entry 30: Editorial notes:

Jan. 15°

30. Sir Kenelme Digby's greate Arcanum contra Luem veneream is, (verbatim transcrib'd out of his owne copy) this. {Rx} sarsaparilla farinosa, pura, <sena> ben mondata & scelta ana {ounce} ii Turbith, Hermodact. ana {drachm} iii Betonica, Cardo santo, herba ina artetica, (i.e. Camepitheos) specie aromatic. rosat. Zenzero, ana {drachm} i ;.

Riducati il tutto in poluere sottilissima, & facciasi lattuario S. A. con una libra di mele vergine di Spagna, prima ben schiumato et chiarificato.

La Dose è {ounce} i. La mattina a digiuno; ò tanto che muovi il corpo 3 volte in 24 hore.

Bisogna purgarsi bene prima che di comminciar il lattuario, & poi purgarsi ogni 8 giorno; & non pigliar il lattuario quel giorno, la purga può esser con la pilula di mirabil virtu del Zapata, fatta così. {Rx} Aloe sicutrin. scammon. eletta, pulpa di coloquintida, facciasi massa con s. q. di syrupo di stæcad. Dos. gr. X. vel XII. vel XIV secondo la complessione.

Per bevanda, mentre si piglia il lattuario, beva il Patiente un decotto di sarsa, China, & santalo; fuora i giorni della purga; ne quali beva della cervesa; Avertisca ['t' between 'A' and 'v' deleted] di non mangiar mai mentre piglia il latuario, carne di porco di nissuna sorte; del resto si notrisca di buone carni euchyme.

Con buono {spirit of wine}, tirasi la tintura di ottimo sarsaparilla; fendendolo in mezzo, & lasciandolo starni in Digestione; & mettendovi dell'altro <({spirit of wine} videlicet)> [insertion in margin] quando bisogna. Essendo di /original pagination, p. 6/ /BP 8, fol. 142v/ color molto acceso, & rubicondo, pigliane {pound} ii & mettevi dentro lib. ;. di gomma di guayaco, in polvere, & {ounce} i di Balsamo negro Peruviano; lasciasi in digestione per 15. ò 20. giorni; [XV aut XX dies] movendolo per volte ogni giorno.

La dose è una vichiarata, ò duè, in piccolo cervesa, la mattina à digiuno, à 5. hore della sera; & andando a lette la notte.

Sir Kenelme uses indifferently the Electuary & the Tincture but prefers somewhat the latter; (but Mr De Boui <is> [ replacing 'was' deleted] newly cur'd by the use of the Electuary.

Entry 31: Editorial notes:

Jan. 16°.

31. Mr Cl. tels me he is now trying this Process to multiply {nitre}. He takes good sea-salt, & with it makes a very strong Lee (till the salt begin to granulate) to which he ads a 20th part of Aqua fortis & a tenth of Peter, these he is digesting [blank space in MS, 7-9 letters] & meanes to makes them shoot into chrystals.

Entry 32: Editorial notes:

32. He tooke Flores {sulphur} purissimi, & dissolv'd (liquefecit) in good oyle olive, & pouring on this liquefy'd {sulphur} some of his Sp. C. Cervi, in a strong Digesting heat, in some 24 houres the Spirit dissolv'd into it selfe the sulphur leaving the Grosse oyle untoucht. He expects the same successe with his Sp. Sanguinis Humani.

Entry 33: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

33. Dr Ducket's secret in Tanning is performed with nitrous/ saltpeter Earth & Copperas stones. Idem.

Entry 34: Editorial notes:

34. The Sp. noster ex {hartshorn} is an excellent Remedy (outwardly apply'd) in contracturis & paralyticall affections, as also in Aches ex irruente vel decumbente catarrho.

Entry 35: Editorial notes:

35. Dr St. gave me himselfe this Processe to make Wine of Corne. Take good Malt, ground as it is to be brew'd, put to it as much water as the vessell will hold, when it is full of Malt: adde yest to it equally in every part, & let it worke what it will in a Barrell the bung open. Then take to each Gallon of the matter halfe a pound of good Hony; dissolve it in warme water, & put it in warme & more yest; let it the second time worke with not a fourth of the vent it had at first, & when the Working is almost abated take halfe as much hony more, & dissolve it & warme it, & let it worke by putting in yest the third time, onely a pegge hole open; & when this third Fermentation ceaseth, let it stand open about 6 houres, to let out the wild Spirit: then stop it up close, & in foure months it will be cleare & fine, which then may be racked from the Lees, for all but the Huske of the Graine will be Liquor & this Wine is not inferior in tast - & goodnesse to the richest Canaries. Hactenus ille, sed (NB. Because it is hard to light upon the Knacke at /original pagination, p. 7/ /BP 8, fol. 143/ First, & few Processes of this nature are perfectly understood without a few Tryalls; it's advised that these Experiments be made in many & little vessels, till we grow Masters of the Mechanicks of them.)

Entry 36: Editorial notes:

36. To make Spirit of Corne, Take Malt ground & tune it up, to which put as much warme water ({water}) (you may adde a little yest to it) as the Caske full of Malt will hold: you may adde to it a little dregges of sugar, molasses or drossy hony, what you please, you are not tyed to quantity: stop it up with a bung, close as you can, after the first working is over, in which it workes over, & so let it stand in a place indifferent warme close bunged, About 6 weekes after You may distill it or ten weekes, & shall have Spirit in an incredible quantity & of great strength. Idem. verbatum.

Entry 37: Editorial notes:

37. Take of must of Perry or Cydar made with good Peares or apples, & with part of it dissolve of good cleare hony about a {pound} to foure Gallons of the whole must, then tunne up your must & warme the part in which the hony is dissolved, & put it in & stirre all well together. Then put to it a small quantity of Yest, so much, as will make it worke, when the working is over & the liquor is cold, take about a {pound} of hony & dissolve it in about 4 times as much new must; warme it & put it in againe, which will cause a new Fermentation: when it begins to worke, bung it up, only leaving a little Peg-hole, by which when You find the working abate, & neer over, open it about 12 houres, {scruple} & then make it up very close, & in about 4 months it will be very good wine tasted like the best small French wines. Idem.

Entry 38: Editorial notes:

Jan. 17°.

38. Coen says expressely that the sal tartari which is joyned to the oyle to be made volatile, must be not only optimè [è altered from 'a'] exsiccatum & candefactum, but fusum. Mr Cl.

Entry 39: Editorial notes:

39. To make <or increase> Rhenish Wine, take a little rundlet of good rhenish wine, & in it infuse pretty store of Lil. convall. carefully dry'd in an open roome (absque igni) & a little of this liquor will <give to> [ replacing 'turne' deleted] a greate quantity of white wine the genuine tast of Rhenish Wine. The like may be done if upon the same sort of flowers NEWLY gathered you poure indifferent good {spirit of wine} & Immediately, distill them over; for a few drops of this liquor will serve for a very greate quantity of White-wine. Idem; The same may be done by fuming the vessel very well with sulphur, & then hanging in it a bag (proportioned to the bignesse of the vessel) of flowers (or, in case they be not at all to be had, of Leaves) of Clary. My sister Broghill.

Entry 40: Editorial notes:

40. Mr Remé told me he tooke the Spirit of Oake (whether distilld in a cucurbite or a Retort he remembers not) rectify'd from it's owne salt & made acid like vinegar; & this Sp: he powr'd on finely powder'd coralls, out of which it extracted a blood red tincture. Which he drawing off, had at the bottom a grayish Powder, which in {spirit of wine} by digestion gave a Blood-red tincture.

/original pagination, p. 8/

/BP 8, fol. 143v/

Entry 41: Editorial notes:
Later marginal endorsements:

41. Cochlearia hortensis only is to be used to ['make the' deleted] make the Antiscorbuticall Drinke. Mr Cl.

Entry 42: Editorial notes:

42. Sir K. Digby says the Duke of Florence's Menstruum to draw the tincture of {gold}, was Sal tartari fusum, & by Fusion made dissoluble in Spirit of wine. Mr Cl.

Entry 43: Editorial notes:
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43. Lapis ossifragus will endure a fire of Reverberium, & can scarce by any knowne way be wrought upon; but Sp. of Salt being powred on it, & decanted or abstracted, it may afterwards be sublim'd <per se> Idem.

Entry 44: Editorial notes:

44. Mr Smart to make his Ammoniacke Spirit in Gl.'s first Furnace, to a bushell of oaken saw-dust, puts a little more then a {pound} of ['good' deleted] sal armen. dissolved in a little water, wherewith he wets his Sawdust & so casts it on the coales.

Entry 45: Editorial notes:

45. The mettall the Concave Glasses are made off, is made of {antimony}, tinne & copper. Gratrix

Entry 46: Editorial notes:

46. Gratrix takes filings of iron, & dissolves them in Aq. Fortis; which he powres off all but a little which he leaves with the residence in the Bottom; to this residence he addes about an equall quantity (not weight) of chalke; & of this mixture makes a moist Cement or Past with whites of Egges, & with this past he mends Crackt Iron Furnaces, Kettles or other vessels, (filling up the chinkes with the past) so well that he hath afterwards, even boyl'd sope in them.

Entry 47: Editorial notes:

47. To take the copperish tast from Copper vessels, before they be us'd the first time draw off in them Lees of Wine. Gratrix.

Entry 48: Editorial notes:

48. Mr Cl. makes his great Spiritus Antiscorbuticus thus. He takes cochlearia hortensis before it begin to flower (as it doth in March or April) & poures on it as soon as it is gathered, very well rectify'd {spirit of wine}, which he immediately begins to draw off in Balneo: & this Sp. he powres againe upon fresh Cochlearea, & draws it off againe in Balneo as before; & this he doth so often (each time changing the herbs) till the Sp: grow firy by imprægnation with the volatile salt of the plant, & tast just as if you had it (freshly gather'd) in your Mouth. Of this Spirit he drops enough into a Glasse of (Rhenish or white) wine to give it a good tast of the herbe, & so drinkes it. NB. He avoids touching the herbe with any thing of Iron, least the Volatile Salt worke on it. Wherefore he breakes each life into 2 or 3 peeces with his hand. 2. These leaves infusd in Rh. wine for some 48 houres, till it be tincted with the /original pagination, p. 9/ /BP 8, fol. 144/ Volatile salt, make an excellent Antiscorbuticall Drinke, but it keepes not so long as the Spirit. 3. Becabunga in Baths, is excellent for ulcers, & tainted Bones, that proceed from the Scurvy.

Entry 49: Editorial notes:

49. Ad Contusiones Remedium excellentiss. est Emplastrum è Picis Burgundiacæ & ceræ albæ ana part. ii. thuris part. i. Quod semper felicissimo cum successu applico. Dr. G. Boat.

Entry 50: Editorial notes:

50. Palpitationis cordis, à quacunque parte, & in quacunque materia obortæ, convenientissima & ad miraculum propemodum conferens Potio. {Rx} Aquæ e floribus borraginis disigenter in vase vitreo distillatæ {ounce} iiii. syrupide succo Boraginis {ounce} i. Julepi rosoti & aquæ cinnamomi ana {drachm} ii. Margarit. præparat. {drachm} i. Lapidis Bezoar gr. vi. M. F. Potio. Idem.

Entry 51: Editorial notes:

51. {Rx} Mora rubi idæi impone cado, & affundo pro [lusbitu] [unclear, faded ink] aquam puram; relinque per biduuum vel triduum, deinde aquam rubram & suaveo lentem decanta. Huius aquæ {Rx} partes 2, 3, 4, x 6, (pro ut mulsum forte vel debile cupis,) mellis puri & à cerâ probe separati, part. unam: impone cado, & adjectâ fece cerevisiæ fermenta; quo facto ['impo' deleted] abstrahe a fecibus, & iterum impone Cado & serva in loco frigido. Eodem modo parant ex Cerasis & aliis Fructibus, Mulsa conservanda per aliquot annos. NB. 1. Mr. Cl. fermented his Rasbery-wine 7 [altered from '6'] or 8 dayes, & then bottled it up; but whilst <in> the vessell it fermented, the Bung was left open, 2. If he were now to make more, he says he would put the water & hony with some beaten tartar altogether upon the rasberyes, & not draw off any thing till the fermentation be ended. The Latine Processe is by him translated out of (the Dutch of) Olearius.

Entry 52: Editorial notes:

52. Mr Cl. says his Laudanum cures Coughs & Plurisies, & so his Sp: corni C. his Sal urinæ & also oculi cancrorum cure the Plurisie but whether Coughs or no he hath not try'd.

Entry 53: Editorial notes:

53. He powr'd Sp: of urine upon Tartar, & after they had done boyling, he falling sicke of the small poxe, after his recovery found they had shot into great (color'd) Christalls.

Entry 54: Editorial notes:

54. Experimentum Stirkii. Sal. arm. ab {antimony} sublimatus phiolæ aquæ immergendæ impositus, & paro aquæ irroratur {water} congelat cui imponitur.

Entry 55: Editorial notes:

55. Take fine Sugar & in a Bolt-head with a long necke & a narrow glasse inserted (as for Tinctura Succini) with a small hole open at the top; boyle it with pure {spirit of wine}. & then a chymicall oyl drunke up by it, will no more super-natare being mixt with other Liquors. Mr Cl.

Entry 56: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

56. Sir K. Digby takes Amber-greece, liquefyes it in oyle of sweet almonds, digests it with pure {spirit of wine}, which leaving the /original pagination, p. 10/ /BP 8, fol. 144v/ Grosse oyle, takes in the Amber; & brings it with it over the helme. D.C.

Entry 57: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

57. Mr Morian made [altered from 'in'] Butyrum ['um' altered from 'o'] {antimony} <but> made <it> with regulus or stella martis, & in this Butyrum wel rectifyd, he dissolv'd calx of {gold} & after digestion made it passe with the Butyrum over the retort, & cannot now spearate it againe Ex relatione Dr. C.

Entry 58: Editorial notes:

Jan 23°.

58. Dr St. tels me he makes his Salt upon salt either with Spanish salt, or (which he counts as good) with <common> Bay salt decrepitated in a convenient oven; which by decrepitation being rob'd of it's halituous Spirit, is apt to attract & fixe that (which would otherwise fly away in boyling) of the sea water, which must be put on & boyld away, & so ['put' deleted] fresh sea-water put on againe, so often till the Brine be strong enough of the salt, & then a convenient proportion of blood being at last of all boyled in it (any blood will serve, but that of hog's is fittest, & being well dry'd will keepe long) granulates all in the bottome.

Entry 59: Editorial notes:

59. He puts common {spirit of wine} & common Sp. Urinæ together in a {retort} & distilling them gently off, there comes first the offa alba (which he thereby gets without the trouble of tedious rectifications) & next a spirit that dissolves that salt in the Receiver; (& there remaines in the retort a flegme.

Entry 60: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

60. Of 10 parts of Urine, he boyles away 9, & separating the Duelech from the rest, he ferments that & draws out thence his Spirit & fixt salt.

Entry 61: Editorial notes:

61. He says that {spirit of wine} flatted (by the Esurinum of the Aire,) rectify'd upon an Alcali recovers it's strength & that Aqua pluvialis put to ana of good vinegar, becomes vinegar; & if vinegar be not sowre enough, they use to make it so by the addition of a good quantity of spring water.

Entry 62: Editorial notes:

Jan. 25°.

62. Mr Benlo's Arcanum vitæ longæ, is this, {Rx} Sanguinis hominis sani per venesectionem emissi, Medullæ ossium tauri, spermatis ceti ana {pound} i. moschi {ounce} i. Spiritus vini {pound} ii. Probe mixta digere per mensem philosophicum, dein destilla per retortam, ultimò igne vehementi urgendo; quod prodiit ter per Balneum rectifica, habebis spiritum mirabilem, cuius guttulæ duæ per integrum annum quolibet die assumptæ, hominem rejuvenscere faciunt.

/original pagination, p. 11/

/BP 8, fol. 145/

Entry 62a: Editorial notes:

Take Flints & beate them to impalpable powder to ['w' deleted] 4 parts of which take one of good Colophony, with which, well melted, thoroughly incorporate the powder, & made of both a stiffe paste, in which hide what you please, & then through it into cold water, & it will grow in hardnesse & all <other respects> like a stone. Mr Benlo ex commun. Dr. Cl.

Entry 63: Editorial notes:

63. To make a Cement that no wind shall breake nor water pierce nor fire dissolve. Take of tarris stone ground & searced, & shreds of old jugges or boules that come out of Germany, quicke stone lime of each of these an equall share, of wood ashes serced halfe so much as any of the rest, mingle this with small beere, urine, or butter-milke (but the last is best) to the thicknesse of a mortar. Mr Worsley.

Entry 64: Editorial notes:

Jan. 27°.

64. Captaine Atkinson makes his Cement for his Iron furnaces, out of tarris stone & quick-lime ana, good store of starch, some whites of Egges, & a little (& but a little) water. Mr Smart

Entry 65: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

Jan. 28°.

65. Take pure Sp. of tartar, imbibe with it it's owne salt, (draw it off, & a part will be fixt) put on fresh) till [')' deleted] the salt be satiated therewith, (of which the signe is, that being digested on it, the Spirit grows red, as {spirit of wine} would) mixe it with triplum terræ figulinæ, & in a strong Fire draw it off. The Acetum tartari must be necessarily mixt with the Sp. Tart. before <it> be put upon the salt. (to open the Body of it.)

Entry 66: Editorial notes:
Marginal notes integral to entry text

66. To multiply alcalia volatilia, take sal tartari volatile, & digest it upon an Alcali 8 or 10 dayes or longer, & then draw it off, & all will come over.

Entry 67: Editorial notes:

67. Take Sp. of Salt: rectify it till it leave no feces behind it, then prepare it cum silicibus. <rectifying it upon them pulveris'd, after a previous Digestion (of the Sp: on them) for about 48 houres.> [insertion in margin] Beate {gold} <refind with Antimony> into very thin Plates, heate them red hot, & extinguish them in this Menstruum, this doe 10 or 12 times or oftner; & the Menstruum will extract animam solis, & be tinged highly thereby, & leave the body of {gold} whitish. With this Tincture fix Merc. into a Ruby, good in Physicke <The same prepar'd Spirit; will (absque {gold}) fixe Mercury.> [insertion in margin]

Entry 68: Editorial notes:

68. ['8' altered from '7'] Draw Spirit of Salt in the Second Furnace, & towards the latter end give ignem intensiss. for an howre or two, to drive out what Spirits You can out of all the Cap. Mort. ['th' deleted] which then take out & put into retorts, imbibe it with the Spirit, & so proceed Secundum Helmontium. Mr Cl.

Entry 69: Editorial notes:

69. To wash receivers take about equall parts of wood ashes & quicke lime, boyle them a <very little> while in water, & immediatly use them scalding hot.

/original pagination, p. 12/

/BP 8, fol. 145v/

Entry 70: Editorial notes:

70. {Rx} {vitriol} ad albedinem calcinatum, distilla inde fortissimo igne probe observatis gradibus, phlegma, spiritum & Oleum. Hæc invicem mixta, superfunde {antimony}o pulverisato ad eminentiam 4 digidorum; digere per octiduum, deinde ex retortâ pelle menstruum, relicto {antimony}o ruberrimo in fundo; quod pulverisatum sublimare debes, sublimatum hocq aliquot dies in cellâ relinque, ac deinde si digito triveris, Mercurium in eo reperies. Dr Currer, ex communicatione Di Clodii.

Entry 71: Editorial notes:

71. Mulsum seu potius Vinum Mellitum Glauberi {Rx} Hordeum hyemale, & coque in Aqua fluviatili, id est, fac aquam hordei, in qua mellis quantum placet & Tartari crudi parum, ['&' deleted] coque simul; dein fermenta & si placet ipsi saporem qui arridet, (vel insequentibus speciebus) concilia, sic vino valde similis potus evadit, neque hîc tanta mellis copia requiritur, uti alias in confectione mulsi, cum hordeum incoctum at aquæ.

Entry 71a: Editorial notes:

{Rx} radic enulæ campanæ {pound} i. radic. irid. {pound} i Flor. sambuci & scarleæ ana {ounce} iiii. Cardamom Zedoariæ ana {ounce} i. Santali citrini {ounce} iii. (NB Si mulsum fortioris gustus desideras, Rad. acori admisce, sin vero suave omnino cupis, Cinnamom. & aliquid ligni Rhodii adde) Has species siccas minutim concisas ['sas' altered from 'des'] sacculoque inclusas, cado immitte filo adligatas, & relinque ibi ut confermentent. Mulso, donec scilicet Odorem & Saporem Mulsum ad ripuerit. Tum exime species tuas, quas si placet ad eundem usum serva.

Cum jam cessat Fermentatio & fundum petere incipit Materia (sive feces) tum sequentem materiam injice. To a Hog's-head (Cado Gallico) {Rx} Talci (gliciei mariæ) {pound} i: ac in crucibulo per integram horam probe candefac, et [altered from 'at'] ita candefactum injice in ollam aquâ frigidâ plenam, sic dehiscent folia vitri huius à se invicem. Aquâ frigefacta, Materiam illam præcipitatam probe manibus tere, ita ut fiat instar farinæ subtilissimæ; Jam sume hanc aquam & materiam quæ <colore> refert; & effunde in vinum à fermentatione cessare incipiens; iam agita probe (volvendo) & dein in loco frigido relinque; sic omnes decident feces, una cum Talco, & Mulsum citius clarescit soleto. Ex communicatione Di Cl. & Moriam

/original pagination, p. 13/

/BP 8, fol. 146/

Entry 72: Editorial notes:

72. Take the {oil} θες duly rectify'd, & digest it in a strong heat on pure dry sal tartari, till it have acquir'd a high red Tincture; with this the Vegetables corrected are Purgative & Diureticall, but very gently. Dr Stirke.

Entry 73: Editorial notes:

Februar. 1°.

73. Take Sp. Salis Armen. Secundum Glauberum, put halfe a spoonfull of it in a Glasse that will hold about 2 ounces, with a long necke that goes lessening till at the top it be no bigger then a very small Pease; this let the Patient apply for a few moments, & when it begins to be very trouble some, let her remove it for a while & apply it againe, & 7 or 8 times the first day; the second (if need be,) she may apply it a little longer; & so the third; use making it more easy. At length about the 4th day detaining it longer, ['it will in' deleted] (without any other heat all this while save that of hir hand) it will infallibly menstrua accersere, etiam in vetulis. So is it likewise to be used againgst Deafenesse. Mr Cl. & Mr Remêus.

Entry 74: Editorial notes:

74. Helmont's Salia Essentialia may be prepar'd in an Egge, whose bottom & some <little> part of the Necke must be bury'd in sand; that the heat (which need not be very great) may come above them as well as beneath them.

Entry 75: Editorial notes:

75. The Water that comes off in the volatizing of Sal tartari, is not a meere Phlegme, but oftentimes a sowre Liquor. D. Cl.

Entry 76: Editorial notes:

76. Take Cassia Fistula, extract the Pith, seeds & all, put to it a convenient quantity of Juice of Pippins, & a little Yest, ferment it, (which it will do suddenly & strongly) & then evoca fere ad Mellaginem, & nactus es solutivum, cuius Dosis à semi cochleari ad {ounce} i. Mr Cl.

Entry 77: Editorial notes:

77. Take the Stalkes of Tobacco, powder them, extract them with small beere; till the beere be very strong of them; & with this liquor ['sprinkle' deleted] wet Decay'd Tobacco (still drying it gently againe) so often till it have recover'd it's strength. Otherwise, take Decay'd cutt Tobacco, rub it well till it be cleane, powder some Elicampane roots, & make the powder into an Extract with [blank space in MS, 5-7 chars], & a graine or two of this Extract well rubb'd with an ounce of the Tobacco, will recover it. Idem.

Entry 78: Editorial notes:

78. To make {oil} of {vitriol} corrode {mercury}, Water must be put to it.

Entry 79: Editorial notes:

79. Mr Cl. supposes that about 6 or 7 parts of Sp. of Tartar, & as much Acetum tartari mixt with it, will serve for all the Operations necessary to volatize one Part of Salt of Tartar.

Entry 80: Editorial notes:

80. Beere yest is improper to ferment vinous Liquors with it giving them a beerish tast. Mr Cl. his vinous Ferment is made of Mustard Seed & Clary.

/original pagination, p. 14/

/BP 8, fol. 146v/

Entry 80a: Editorial notes:

Febr. 7°.

Medicamen Helmontii S, amico communicatum; {Rx} Spiritus urinæ optimè rectificati {pound} i. {spirit of wine} dephlegmatissimi {pound} ;. Moschi {scruple} i. Ambræ scrupulos duos: probè mixta impone alembico cæco & digere per mensem, quo temporis spacio elapso, quod clarum est effunde, & instar Thesauri ad curandam Hydropem, Tabem & asthma ['k' between 's' and 't' deleted] , uterinosque Morbos serva. Dosis à Guttis v ad {scruple} i.

Entry 80b: Editorial notes:

D. vero Cl. ita præparat.

{Rx} Salis urinæ, vel quod melius, coaguli ex sale urinæ & {spirit of wine}u facti & dein sublimati, {pound} i. sp. vini rectificatiss. {pound} i ;. impone Alembico & lenissimo igne sublima, quod sublimatum est cum novo {spirit of wine}u per mixtum resublima, huncque processum repete cum novo {spirit of wine}u aliquoties (quo sæpius eo melius) sic salem tuum insigniter auctum & absque fœtore, licet subtilissimum, reperies; Jam ad manum tibi sit {spirit of wine} in quo per duas hebdomadas, Ambra {drachm} ii & Moschi {drachm} i. digesta fuerunt {pound} ii. cum his permisce salem tuum & exinde ter sublima; qualibet vice reconjungendo salem cum fæcibus, & deinde serva.

Entry 81: Editorial notes:

Febr. 9°.

81. Take Silices & calcine them per se; & beat them into powder, on which pour good Sp. Salis, & let them stand together 6 or 8 houres to defœcate the spirit, which then decant, & poure it on <dry> Præcipitate, (Pulvis Johannis à Vigo) & it will boyle 5 or 6 dayes together, & the Mercury will fall to the bottome in formâ pulveris, which may be melted into a Metallum album:

[Imbibe salem tartari suo spiritu. Hamburg.]

Entry 82: Editorial notes:

82. To fetch out resinous & pitchy oyles out of small glasses (bodys & receivers;) poure in aqua fortis, let it stand a competent time: then powre it out againe & keepe it for the same use, & with a sticke you may fetch out the glutinous oyle.

Entry 83: Editorial notes:

83. Spiritus salis {tartar}i Moriani, ita paratur. {Rx} Tartari ad nigredinem calcinati {pound} i. ad funde {water} puræ {pound} iii. fac super {fire} carbonum incalescant, non tamen fortius, quam ut manum in aquâ continere possis; deinde insperge tartari crudi subtilissime pulverizati {pound} iii. sic ebulliet mixtura; finitâ illa ebullitione, & postquam omnis Tartarus injectus, simul adde salis armen. {pound} i. iam cucurbitæ [Ferreæ] infunde, & superposito {alembic}co celeri {fire}e urge, quod prodiit ter à capite mortuo cohoba;

Poteris quoque hunc Spiritum absque adjectione {sal ammoniac}ci parare. Item poteris sumere {tartar}i & {vitriol}li ana {pound} i ;. & loco solius tartari ipsis ubi. Di Clodius.

/original pagination, p. 15/

/BP 8, fol. 147/

Entry 84: Editorial notes:

84. Dr St. takes {mercury} & stella, (perhaps he addes {gold}) makes his Præcipitate, puts to it pure Sal tartari, drives over in a Retort the Mercuriall part of the {antimony} with the {mercury} amalgamated with it; & hath the {sulphur} left at the bottom with the sal Tartari, which will together run into an oyle per deliquium, on which pure {spirit of wine} being powr'd & digested, leaving the Sal Tart: extracts only the {sulphur}; powre of the Tincted Spirit, & powre on fresh, & so proceed; at last confound all these Extractions, abstrahe ad Mellaginem, & habebis in fundo oleum {antimony}ii miræ virtutis.

Entry 85: Editorial notes:

85. Take Sang. H. Secundinas, {hartshorn} &c. & put them into a long vial, with a small head & Receiver luted on; bury all under ground, ['&' deleted] or set the vessel in a gentle Digestion in arenâ for five Months, & the matter will first grow quite blacke, & then turne to a cleare Mucilago. Distill it in a lamp furnace, the Spirit will rise first, which rectify.

Entry 86: Editorial notes:

86. Mr Cl. tooke serum sanguinis <humani> & putting in a bottle somewhat slightly stop't, in a warme roome: at the End of about 3 weekes it smelt & tasted like vinegar.

Entry 87: Editorial notes:

87. Mr C. tooke Bay Salt a pound, which he <put to be> dissolv'd in 3 or 4 {pound} of water, & boyl'd it a while till the salt were totally dissolv'd, then in a pint of water he dissolv'd {pound} ; of Peter, & put about an ounce of Aqua fortis, to it; all these Liquors he mixed & digested about foure weekes, & then had above halfe his sea salt turn'd into good Peter & by an ulterior Digestion the whole would be likewise transmuted.

Entry 88: Editorial notes:

88. With Liquor Saturni præcipitate the fæces of stinking Water; then shake the Liquor with some Merc. currens, & it will attract the Lead out of the clarify'd Water. Mr. C.

Entry 89: Editorial notes:

89. Take Sal tartari <very moist but not enough to be a Lixivium> & imbibe it by degrees with a chymicall oyle, beating & working them very well together in a fit Mortar; then spread them thinly in a Platter, & leave them sub dio. And in few (3, 4, or most commonly 7 or 8) dayes) it will be a candy, which may be afterwards imbibed with new oyle (& handled as before) till it be satiated. NB. 1. Dr St. tooke a {pound} of oyle of Mint (Speake-mint) as much Salt of Mint & as much of the herbe it selfe & beate them into ['Pils' deleted] lozenges (broade & thin) which by degrees sub dio turned altogether into Candy. 2. These /original pagination, p. 16/ /BP 8, fol. 147v/ Candys by cohobations with pure {spirit of wine} will passe thorough the Retort, leaving only behind a resinous substance liquable in Water &c.

Entry 90: Editorial notes:

90. Take {spirit of wine} & Salt armoniacke finely powder'd drive them over in a Retort till the Spirit (by some Cohobations) be sufficiently imprægnated with the Salt, which makes it a very powerfull Menstuum [altered from 'Medicine'] in Tincturis Exthaliendis.

Rerum naturæ conemplatio, inquit Plinius (Lib. 1 in Proœm:) quamvis non faciat Medicum; aptiorem tamen Medicinæ reddit, atque perfectum.

Entry 91: Editorial notes:

91. To draw the Tincture of {antimony} cum sp. aceti, spread the Powder'd {antimony} very thinne on [altered from 'at'] the broad flat bottom of the Glasse, & it will save much time.

Entry 92: Editorial notes:

92. To acuate the Spirit of Vinegar to extract Speedily, the Tincture out of Vitrum {antimony}ii cohobate severall times the distill'd vinegar on it's owne {caput mortuum} till it have brought over with it most of the fixt Salt.

Entry 93: Editorial notes:

93. Secundinæ, sanguis humanus &c put per se into convenient glasses well stopt, &, kept in a Digesting furnace, will in 12 or 14 dayes contract the smel of Spirit of Urine. Mr Cl.

Entry 94: Editorial notes:

94. Mr Smart tooke quicke lime & potash & put them in a wooden dish in the Aire, (but protected from the raine & sun) & after a while he had saltpeter on the outside of his Vessel: & the like befell him in a wooden vessel wherein he had put Antimony & potash.

Entry 95: Editorial notes:

95. Captaine Atkinson's secret for Cataracts with which he brags he hath cur'd them that have been blind 7 yeares, is only fine Venice glasse reduc'd by grinding into an exquisite & impalbable powder & so blowne into the Eye.

Entry 96: Editorial notes:

96. Mr Remé says that last weeke an Apothecary shewed him some Peucedanum (in english [blank space in MS, 6-8 characters]) which had the top of the roote cut of, whereout wept a yellow liquor, which dry'd for some days in the Aire turn'd in color & inflammability just like to common Sulphur.

Entry 97: Editorial notes:

97. Dr Currer calcines Antim. only ad albedinem; then with a very strong fire (he tels me for 2 or 3 dayes) he drives over Phlegme Spirit & oyle into the same receiver. /original pagination, p. 17/ /BP 8, fol. 148/ This liquor he puts upon crude powder'd {antimony}, & with a strong Fire in a retort he drawes over this spirit (which will elevate much of the red {sulphur} of the {antimony}) ad omnimodam siccitatem. The caput mortis he takes out, & in a very low body with a strong Fire he sublimes what he can into the head, out of which ( ['asting' deleted] neglecting what remaines in the bottom of the Body) he takes it, & rubbs it to powder between his fingers; then sets it a while in a Cellar to mortify & sever the adhering Salts; then rubbing it again & straining it, it yeelds pure running Mercury. Ipse.

Entry 98: Editorial notes:

98. Mr Smart's Menstruum ad Calculum he makes thus. Beat Spanish Salt in a Mortar, Beat likewise some Pot-ashe small & put as much water to it as will serve to dissolve it <like Batter> Mixe so much of the potash to the Salt & stir them well together untill the Salt stinke & be altogether Black. [NB. About 8 or IX {pound} of Potash to a Bushell of Spanish salt] let it stand 4 or 5 dayes to putrify. Make it up into a Past with the bran or grossest flowre of wheat: NB 1. About twice as much <very course> course flower is to be used as Spanish salt. 2. The Dose is about halfe a spoonfull. Powre this upon red Flints or such as have {gold} volatile in them, & let it stand on them (beaten to powder & very well sifted) about 3 fingers over, let it stand in frigido (2 or 3 dayes or) till it have drawne a blood red tincture, which decant & give it about a spoonful or more. per se or in any convenient vehicle

Entry 99: Editorial notes:

99. Dissolve good vitriol in faire Water, præcipitate it with Sp. of Urine, decant it, & take the sulphur, dry it, draw off the spirit in a strong fire ad omn. siccitatem. Calcine the {caput mortuum}m, reimbibe it with the Spirit, which drawne off with a good fire is to be given from 8 or 10 drops in a convenient Vehicle in Feavers, the spleene gravell distempers of the stomacke &c. It worketh only by urine & aliquatenus by sweat. Dr. Cur.

Entry 100: Editorial notes:

100. Take regulus martis <made with sp. {iron} to 3 or 4 parts of {antimony}> , & calcine it with an equall part of Peter (from the top of the powder'd mixture,) let it continue in fusion in the crucible with a strong fire till it be turned into a red or Purple vitrum; (which may be in about ['¼' deleted] ½ of an howre) which will not dissolve in the aire. On this powre the Acetum of <Boxe (or oake or beech)> [ replacing 'Li' deleted] & it will in a short time in frigido draw a Tincture red ['d' altered from 'so'] as blood of which give about a spoonfull with <as much Sp. of wine.> It workes by sweat. But if You give a large Dose it workes by Vomit.

/BP 8, fol. 148v/